Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Like this document? Why not share!

- A RSA- DWT Based Visual Cryptograph... by Mohit Goel 1785 views
- Open Data: Movement or a Joke? by Dave Caraway 110 views
- Co2 'drove end to last ice age' by TorresDiane 60 views
- Screen Producing Presentation by inflatablenerd 83 views
- A Novel Visual Cryptographic Stegan... by Mohit Goel 1888 views
- Findelmundo by Juan Rivas EDETerrA 203 views

1,653 views

1,583 views

1,583 views

Published on

data security

- 1. Proceedings of the “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information and Computing Technologies” (NCETICT-2012), 30th March, 2012. A Novel Steganographic Technique Based on LSB-DCT Approach Mohit Kumar Goel Neelu JainDepartment of Electronics & Electrical Comm. Engineering Department of Electronics & Electrical Comm. Engineering PEC University of Technology PEC University of Technology Chandigarh, India Chandigarh, India mohitgoel4u@gmail.com neelujain@pec.ac.inAbstract—Steganography is the art of concealing data within A. Spatial domain steganographyother digital media like an image or an audio signal for providinghigher security. The security includes both imperceptibility and Spatial domain techniques embed messages in the intensityundetectability. But most of the steganographic methods don’t of the pixels directly [6][7][8]. Least Significant Bit (LSB) ispay enough attention to the undetectability. In this paper, we the first most widely used spatial domain steganographypropose a novel DCT-based steganographic method for hiding technique. It embeds the bits of a message in the LSB of thethe data. Each bit of data is embedded by altering the least image pixels [9][10]. But the problem with this technique issignificant bit of low frequency DCT coefficients of cover image that if the image is compressed then the embedded data mayblocks. The experimental results show that this algorithm has be lost. Thus, there is a fear for loss of data that may havebetter PSNR value and high capacity in comparison to other sensitive information [11]. LSB has been improved by using atechniques such as LSB, modulus arithmetic, SSB4-DCT. It alsomaintains satisfactory security as secret message cannot be Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and a secret keyextracted without knowing the decoding algorithm. in order to have private access to the embedded information [12]. The embedding process starts with deriving a seed for a Keywords: Steganography; Discrete Cosine Transform; Zigzag PRNG from the user password and generating a random walkscanning; Data hiding. through the cover image that makes the steganalysis hard. I. INTRODUCTION Another recent improvement based on random distribution of the message was introduced by M. Bani Younes and A. Jantan With the development of science, digital media can be [13]. In this method they utilize an encryption key to hidetransmitted conveniently over the internet. The security of the information about horizontal and vertical blocks where thedata is essential issue for the internet. Encryption is introduced secret message bits are randomly concealed. SSB-4for the data security. Encryption scrambles the secret message steganography approach introduced by Rodrigues, Rios andso that it cannot be understood. But, it makes the message Puech is about changing the 4th bit of a pixel in the originalsuspicious enough to attract eavesdropper‘s attention. The image according to the bit message. Then modify the othercommonly used encryption schemes include DES (Data bits (1st, 2nd, 3rd and/or 5th) to minimize the difference betweenEncryption Standard) [1], AES (Advanced Encryption the changed pixel value and the original one [14]. The 4th digitStandard) [2] and RSA [3]. After encryption watermarking is is a significant bit and if the image is compressed theintroduced. In watermarking technique the owner property is embedded information is not destroyed [15]. Tu C. and Tran Tprotected by some hidden watermarks. A new scheme, called D. argued that the difference must be equal or less than four―steganography‖ [4], is proposed to conceal the secret (i.e., ±4) [16]. The 4th bit was chosen because it satisfies thatmessages within some image, music or audio file so that it is changing of ±4 units in the channel color value isnot visible to others. Steganography differs from cryptography imperceptible to human eyes, and it is the most significant bitin the sense that where cryptography focuses on concealing which provides the minimum change in the pixel values.the contents of a message, steganography focuses on Modulus arithmetic steganography proposed by Sayuthi Jaafarconcealing the existence of a message [5]. The word and Azizah A Manaf has calculated last four bits of each pixelsteganography in Greek means ―covered writing‖ (Greek by mod-16 operation. Then these bits are replaced with datawords ―stegos‖ meaning ―cover‖ and ―grafia‖ meaning bits [8]. In this the amount of the data that can be embedded is―writing‖). Steganography is the art and science of hiding more but stego image has less PSNR value than LSB andinformation in a cover document such as digital images in a SSB-4 techniques.way that conceals the existence of hidden data. The mainobjective of steganography is to communicate securely in such B. Frequency domain steganographya way that the true message is not visible to the intruder. In frequency domain, images are first transformed and thenImage steganography schemes can be divided into two the message is embedded in the image [17][18][19]. When thecategories: Spatial Domain and Frequency Domain. data is embedded in frequency domain, the hidden data residesISBN: 978 – 81 – 922119 – 4–7 1
- 2. Proceedings of the “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information and Computing Technologies” (NCETICT-2012), 30th March, 2012.in more robust areas, spread across the entire image, and A. Discrete Cosine Transformprovides better resistance against statistical attacks. There are The image of size M×N is divided into 8×8 blocks and twomany techniques used to transform image from spatial domain dimensional (2-D) DCT is performed on each block. The DCTto frequency domain. The most common frequency domain is calculated as follow:method usually used in image processing is the 2D discretecosine transform [20][21]. In this technique the image is 1 7 7 (2 x 1)u (2 y 1) F ( u, v ) C (u)C (v ) f ( x, y ) cos cos 16 (1)divided into 8×8 blocks and DCT transformation on each 4 x 0 y 0 16 block is performed. DCT arranged the pixel of image for x=0,..., 7 and y=0,..,7according to their frequency value. The data bits areembedded in the low frequency coefficients of DCT. SSB-4 & 1 / 2 for k 0 where C (k ) DCT steganography proposed by Nedal M. S. Kafri and Hani 1 otherwiseY Suleiman uses DCT approach with SSB-4 technique [21].But in this stego image PSNR value is not so high. To improve In DCT block lower frequency cofficents are at upper leftit, a novel LSB & DCT based steganographic method for is positions and high frequency coefficients are lower rightproposed in this paper, which can not only preserve good positions. Low frequency coefficients are of larger value thanimage quality, but also resist some typical statistical attacks. high frequency coeffcients. An example of a 8×8 block of DCT cofficient is shown in fig. 2. II. PROPOSED STEGANOGRAPHY METHOD 162 40 20 72 30 2 1 1 The challenge in this work was to find a way to 30 108 10 32 27 5 8 2camouflage a secret message in an image without perceptible 94 60 12 43 31 6 3 7degrading the image quality and to provide better resistance 38 83 5 22 3 5 1 3against steganalysis process. Therefore, a combination of Ffrequency domain by means of DCT and LSB technique of 31 17 5 1 4 6 1 6 spatial domain steganography has been used to hide data. Two 0 1 2 0 2 2 8 2dimensional DCT converts the image block from spatial 4 2 2 6 8 1 7 2domain to frequency domain and then data bits are embedded 1 1 7 6 2 0 5 0by altering LSB of DCT coefficients. Figure. 2 DCT coefficient B. Quantization The 8 x 8 block of DCT coefficients is compressed by quantization. A useful feature in this process is the image compression and quality is obtainable through selection of specific quantization table. The standard quantization matrix [27] is shown in fig. 3. 16 11 10 16 24 40 51 61 12 12 14 19 26 58 60 55 14 13 16 24 40 57 69 56 14 17 22 29 51 87 80 62 Q 18 22 37 56 68 109 103 77 24 35 55 64 81 104 113 92 49 64 78 87 103 121 120 101 72 92 95 98 112 100 103 99 Figure. 3 Quantization Matrix Quantization is achieved by dividing each element in the DCT coefficient block by the corresponding value in the quantization matrix, and the result is rounded to the nearest integer. As eye is not able to discern the change in high frequency components so these can be compressed to larger extent. Lower right side components of quantization matrix are of high value so that after quantization high frequency components become zero. The quantized DCT coefficients Figure. 1 Block diagram of LSB-DCT steganography matrix P is computed by (2) and shown in fig. 4. 2
- 3. Proceedings of the “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information and Computing Technologies” (NCETICT-2012), 30th March, 2012. F ( u, v ) Step 3: Perform quantization on each block. P ( u, v ) ( 2) Q ( u, v ) Step 4: Perform zigzag scan to convert 8×8 block into one 10 4 2 5 1 0 0 0 dimensional array. 3 9 1 2 1 0 0 0 Step 5: Replace the LSB of DCT coefficients with data bits. 7 5 1 2 1 0 0 0 Step 6: Convert 1-D zigzag array back to 8×8 block. Step 7: Perform Inverse DCT on each block. 3 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 P 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Step 8: Combine all the blocks to form stego image. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F. Extraction of secret message 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The stego-image is received in spatial domain. Now stego 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 image is divided into 8×8 blocks and DCT is performed on Figure. 4 Quantized DCT Block each block. Then scan the DCT block in zigzag way andC. Zigzag Scanning extract the embedded data. Extraction algorithm is given as follows: Although the DCT coefficients have been decorrelated byDCT transform to some extent, DCT coefficients in the same Input: Stego image.block are still not independent, which is called as intra-block Output: Secret message.correlation [16]. While neglecting the impact of block edge,the general trend in magnitude of the block coefficients in Step 1: Divide the stego image into 8×8 blocks.each block is non-increasing along zigzag scan order. After Step 2: Perform 2-D DCT on each block.block DCT coefficients are arranged by zigzag scan pattern, Step 3: Perform quantization on each block.dependencies among neighboring coefficients in both Step 4: Perform zigzag scan to convert 8×8 block into onehorizontal and vertical directions can be conveniently dimensional array.investigated [23]. For example, the sequence pairs (5,6) and Step 5: Check the DCT coefficient.(14,15) describe the correlations along horizontal direction, a) If DCT coefficient is even then data bit is 0 or,while the sequence pairs (2,3) and (10,20) describe b) If DCT coefficient is odd then data bit is 1.correlations along vertical direction. Zigzag scan converts 8×8 Step 6: Concatenate the bits to obtain secret message andblock into 64 elements one dimensional array. display it on screen. 0 1 5 6 14 15 III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 2 4 7 13 16 Since the visual detection of stego images is depending on 3 8 12 17 the nature of the image [24] so, varieties of image categories 9 11 18 are utilized in the experiments. The experimental image data 10 19 set consists of 75 JPEG images, which were taken by digital camera. We focused on short messages with length of 1400 20 bits because they are the most challenging to detect [24]. Comparative analysis of LSB, Modulus arithmetic (mod-16), Figure. 5 Zigzag scan order SSB4-DCT and LSB-DCT method has been done on basis ofD. Data embedding Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). To calculate PSNR, first MSE is calculated as follow: Data bits are concealed by altering the LSB of elements of 1 m1 n 1zigzag array. MSE I (i, j) K (i, j) mn i 0 j 0 2 (3) a) If data bit is ‗0‘, then make the DCT coefficient even or, Where MSE is the Mean Squared Error of Original image b) If the data bit is ‗1‘, then make the DCT coefficient odd. (I) and stego image (K). Thereafter PSNR value is calculatedE. Dequantization and inverse DCT as follow: MAX i 2 MAX i After embedding data zigzag array is again converted into PSNR 10. log10 MSE 20. log10 ( 4) MSE 8×8 block. These blocks are dequantized and inverse DCT isperformed. The entire 8×8 blocks are combined to form the Where, MAXi is the maximum pixel value of the image. Instego image which is then sent to receiver. Complete other words MAXi = 2b − 1, where b is the bit depth of theembedding algorithm is given as follow: original image (e.g., MAXi = 255 in the case of 8 bits depthInput: An M×N size cover image and data to be concealed. grayscale images). PSNR computes the peak signal to noise ratio, in decibels, between two images. This ratio is used as aOutput: Stego image. quality measurement between two images. The comparativeStep 1: Divide the cover image into 8×8 blocks. analysis of PSNR value of different steganography technique,Step 2: Perform 2-D DCT on each block. is given in table 1, shows that LSB-DCT steganography has better image quality of stego image than other techniques. 3
- 4. Proceedings of the “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information and Computing Technologies”(NCETICT-2012), 30th March, 2012. (a) Original Tree.jpg (b) Stego Tree.jpg (c) Original Human.jpg (d) Stego Human.jpg (e) Original Temple.jpg (f) Stego Temple.jpg (g) Original Flower.jpg (h) Stego Flower.jpg Figure. 6 Original Images and Stego Images using LSB-DCT steganography 4
- 5. Proceedings of the “National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information and Computing Technologies” (NCETICT-2012), 30th March, 2012. Table 1. Comparative analysis of PSNR values of different [9] W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and A. Lu, ―Techniques for Data steganography techniques Hiding‖, I.B.M. Systems Journal, 35(3-4): pp. 313-336, 1996. [10] N. Nikolaidis, and I. Pitas, ―Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial PSNR Value Domain‖, Signal Processing, 66(3), pp. 385-403, 1998 Image Modulus BIT-4 LSB - [11] T. Morkel, J. Eloff, and M. Olivier, ―An overview of image LSB (mod-16) &DCT DCT steganography‖, In Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Information Tree.jpg 50.10 48.23 52.37 54.43 Security South Africa Conference (ISSA2005), (Sandton, South Africa, Jun/Jul. 2005). Human.jpg 52.54 50.53 54.37 56.46 [12] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, ― Steganalysis of JPEG Images: Breaking the F5 Algorithm‖, Publisher: Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Lecture Notes in Temple.jpg 50.43 48.77 51.56 54.68 Computer Science, Vol. 2578, pp 310-323, 2003. 54.57 [13] M. A. Bani Younes, A. Jantan, ―A New Steganography Approach for Flower.jpg 53.46 50.46 57.51 Image Encryption Exchange by Using the Least Significant Bit Insertion‖, IJCSNS, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 8 No. 6, June 2008. IV. CONCLUSION [14] J. Rodrigues, J. Rios, and W. Puech ―SSB-4 System of Steganography using bit 4‖, In International Workshop on Image Analysis for In this paper a mixed approach that applies the spatial Multimedia WIAMIS, May, 2005 .domain with the frequency domain steganography techniques [15] J. Fridrich, and M. Goljan, ―Practical steganalysis: state-of the-art‖, In Proceeding of SPIE Photonics West, Electronic Imaging 2002, volumehas been proposed. The average PSNR value of 75 images 4675, pp. 1-13, 2002.using LSB-DCT is above 55. The obtained experimental [16] Tu C. and Tran T D. ―Context based entropy coding of block transformresults indicate that, the proposed method is a good and coefficients for image compression‖, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Vol.11, No.11, November, 2002.acceptable steganogaphy scheme. Furthermore, by embedding [17] Wenqiong Yu, ―Blind Detection for JPEG Steganography‖, Internationalinformation in the least significant bits of the DCT domain, Conference on Networking and Information Technology, pp. 128-132,the hidden message resides in more robust areas, spread across July 2010.the entire stego image, and provides better resistance against [18] Chung, K.L., Shen, C.H. and Chang, ―A novel SVD- and VQ-based image hiding scheme‖.Pattern Recognition Letters, 22, pp. 1051 – 1058,statistical attacks than other techniques. The future work may 2001.focus on the improvement and further development in this [19] Iwata M., Miyake K., and Shiozaki, ―Digital Steganography Utilizingtechnique. Features of JPEG Images‖, IEICE Transfusion Fundamentals, E87-A, 4, pp. 929 – 936, 2004. V. REFERENCES [20] M. Kharrazi, H. Sencar, and N. Memon, ―Performance study of common image steganography and steganalysis techniques,‖ Communications of the SPIE and IS&T, 15, No.4, pp. 1017-9909, Oct-Dec., 2006.[1] DES Encryption Standard (DES), National Bureau of Standard (U.S.). [21] Nedal M.S. Kafari, Hani Y. Suleiman, ―Bit-4 of Frequency Domain Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 46, National DCT Steganography Technique‖, FIRST NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 1997. NETWORKED D IGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, PP. 286-291, 2009.[2] Daemen J., and Rijmen, V. ―Rijndael: The Advanced Encryption [22] Dr. Ekta Walia, Payal Jain, Navdeep, ―An Analysis of LSB & DCT Standard‖, Dr. Dobb‘s Journal, March 2001. based Steganography‖, Global Journal of Computer Science and[3] R. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, ―A method for obtaining digital Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 4-8, April, 2010. signatures and public-key cryptosystems‖. Communication of the ACM, [23] Zhiping Zhou and Maomao Hui, ―Steganalysis for Markov Feature of pp. 120-126, 1978. Difference Array in DCT Domain‖, Proceedings of Sixth International[4] Pfitzmann, B. ―Information hiding terminology‖, Proc. First Workshop Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, pp. 581 - of Information Hiding Proceedings, Cambridge, U.K., Lecture Notes in 584 , Aug. 2009. Computer Science, Vol.1174, pp. 347-350, 1996. [24] L. Davidson, and P. Goutam, ―Locating secret message in images‖, In[5] H & Wang, S, ―Cyber warfare: Steganography vs. Steganalysis‖, ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and Communications of the ACM, 47, pp.10-12, October 2004 data mining, (Seattle, Washington, Aug.22-25. ACM 1-58113-888-1,[6] Chan, C.K. and Cheng. L.M. ―Hiding data in image by simple LSB 2004. substitution. Pattern Recognition‖, 37, pp. 469 – 474, 2004. [25] Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E., Digital Image Processing using[7] Chang,C.C and Tseng, H.W. ―A Steganographic method for digital MATLAB, Pearson Education, India,2006. images using side match‖. Pattern Recognition Letters, 25, pp. 1431 – [26] Jayaraman, S., Esakkirajan, S. and Veerakumar, T. Digital Image 1437, 2004. Processing, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, India, 2009.[8] Sayuthi Jaafar, Azizah A Manaf, Akram M Zeki, ―Steganography [27] www.vision.arc.nasa.gov/dctune/ Technique using Modulus Arithmetic‖, 9th International Symposium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, pp. 1 – 4, April 2007. 5

No public clipboards found for this slide

Be the first to comment