Individuals develop an understanding of the motivations
behind their own behavior
Influences of perception:
Physiology – different in sensory abilities
Age – change attitude on time
Culture – different believes
Social role – different role we take on during time
Education – education level
Customer perception is typically affected by advertising, reviews, public
relations, social media, personal experiences and other channels
Purchase & consumption decisions
Zipping - occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a
Zapping - involves switching channels when a commercial appears.
Muting - is turning the sound off during commercial breaks.
21 % of U.S visit each aisle in the stores.
Pop-up (click through)
Ex: car buyers using the web visited up to seven sites and
spent almost five hours online.
Attention occurs when the stimulus activates
one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the
resulting sensations go to the brain for
N.B: Attention requires consumers to allocate limited mental
resources toward the processing of incoming stimuli.
"Very good and very effective advertising"
that no one reads is neither good nor effective.
Attention is determined by these three
Stimulus factors are physical
of the stimulus itself.
Stimulus characteristics such as ad size
and colour are under the marketer's
control and can attract attention
Contrast and Expectations
Colour and Movement
Individual factors are characteristics that
distinguish one individual from another.
Generally speaking, consumer motivation and
ability are the major individual factors
Motivation is a drive state
created by consumer interests
and needs. Interests are a
reflection of overall lifestyle
as well as a result of goals
Ability refers to the capacity
of individuals to attend to
and process information.
Ability is related to
knowledge and familiarity
with the product, brand, or
. In contrast, the click-through rate is
very low on the first exposure when
brand familiarity is low, but increases
dramatically on the fifth exposure.
Situational factors include stimuli in the
environment other than the focal stimulus.
Clutter and program involvement are two
density of stimuli in the environment
too many point-of-purchase displays decreases the
how interested viewers are in the
program or editorial content
surrounding the ads
Does involvement with the program or
editorial content influence attention to
far we have been discussing a fairly highinvolvement attention process in which the
consumer focuses attention on some aspect
of the environment as a result of stimulus,
individual, or situational factors.
However, stimuli may be attended to without
"it is the right brain's picture-taking ability that permits the
rapid screening of the environment—to select what it is the
left brain should focus on."
message presented so fast or so softly or so
masked by other messages that one is not
aware of seeing or hearing it
Information received is assigned to meaning
Aspects of perception process:
Cognitive / Affective