Mc donaldization of society(final)


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McDonaldization and Fordism

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Mc donaldization of society(final)

  1. 1. The McDonaldization of society From Fordism to Post-Fordism By: Mohamed Mousa
  2. 2. Index  Fordism • •  Introduction What is Fordism McDonaldization • • How • The Result •  Definition McDonaldization Concepts Post-Fordism • Criticism of post-Fordism
  3. 3. Fordism        Introduction Henry ford is the founder of Fordism concept as he worked as trainee in different Michigan machine shops and in later years as a qualified engineer for the Edison Illuminating company where he received the first hand knowledge of how industries were being run. During that time the automotive industry were using Taylor principles. This was based on Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work , which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.
  4. 4. Fordism   Introduction Ford developed revolutionary method of production and marketing that made the automobile accessible to the American working class; he created the ford motor company where he introduced the Model T, which was simple and light, yet sturdy enough to drive on the country's primitive roads. Henry Ford's success and revolutionary techniques of production were termed Fordism
  5. 5. Fordism  What is Fordism Fordism is "the manufacturing system designed to spew out standardized, low-cost goods and afford its workers decent enough wages to buy them It has also been described as "a model of economic expansion and technological progress based on mass production: of standardized products in huge volumes using special purpose machinery and unskilled labour". Due to Fordism success in developing automotive industry the principle could be applied to any kind of manufacturing processes. Major success stemmed from three major principles:  The Standardization of the product  The use of Special-purpose tools and/or equipment via the assembly line  The Elimination of skilled labour in direct production, while at the same time paying the worker higher wages. These principles coupled with a technological revolution during Henry Ford's time allowed for his revolutionary form of labour to flourish.
  6. 6. Fordism  What is Fordism His most original take was with his breakdown of complex tasks into simpler ones with the help of specialized tools .This allowed the assembly line to change its components whenever the vehicle in production evolved enough to warrant a change. The major advantage of such a change was that:  it cut down on the man power necessary for the factory to operate  it deskilled the labour itself,  cutting down on costs of production
  7. 7. Fordism  What is Fordism Worth mentioning that Ford cars (Model-T), became a symbol of effective mass production. The mass production of this automobile lowered its unit price, making it affordable for the average consumer. Furthermore, Ford significantly increased its workers' wages, giving them the means to become customers. These factors led to massive consumption. Henry Ford revolutionized a system, which consisted of synchronization, accuracy, and specialization within a company. These innovative ideas led to Fordism, and as mentioned, this concept helped increase economic prosperity in the United States in the 1940s to 1960s
  8. 8. McDonaldization of Society
  9. 9. McDonaldization of Society  McDonaldization was originally coined by George Ritzer, Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland and author of the book The McDonaldization of Society - An Investigation into the Changing Character of Contemporary Social Life.
  10. 10.   The process by which a society takes on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. Max Weber used the model of the bureaucracy to represent the direction of this changing society, Ritzer sees the fast-food restaurant as a more representative contemporary paradigm.
  11. 11. How?     The process of McDonaldization takes a task and breaks it down into smaller tasks. This is repeated until all tasks have been broken down to the smallest possible level. The resulting tasks are then rationalized to find the single most efficient method for completing each task. All other methods are then deemed inefficient and discarded. 
  12. 12. The Result     The result is an efficient, logical sequence of methods that can be completed the same way every time to produce the desired outcome. The outcome is predictable. All aspects of the process are easily controlled. Additionally, quantity (or calculability) becomes the measurement of good performance.
  14. 14. EFFICIENCY
  15. 15. EFFICIENCY      The optimal method for accomplishing a task; in this context, Ritzer has a very specific meaning of "efficiency“: it is simply the fastest method to get from point A to point B. In the example of McDonald's customers, it is the fastest way to get from being hungry to being full. Efficiency in McDonaldization means that every aspect of the organization is geared toward the minimization of time. Individuality is not allowed: instead of choosing your own methods of efficiency, you are forced to accept the efficiency of the surrounding institutions. Look at this example: Ritzer uses the examples of salad bars: in essence, with a salad bar, you buy an empty plate, go to the bar and create the salad yourself. This is very efficient for the restaurant, but makes more work for the consumer. In other words you have to pay for the privilege of making your own salad.
  17. 17. PREDICTABILITY    Standardized and uniform services is Predictability which means that no matter where a person goes, they will receive the same service and receive the same product every time when interacting with the McDonaldized organization. This also applies to the workers in those organizations. Their task are highly repetitive, highly routine, and predictable. A Big Mac is a Big Mac is a Big Mac.
  18. 18. PREDICTABILITY    Some people like this predictability, and would argue that it is a good thing, you don't have to worry about eating a bad burger. Burgers from one McDonald's to the next will taste the same. Workers, don't have to worry about thinking for themselves, they will have time to concentrate on other things, while they go through the motions of performing their jobs. But, is this predictability better? When you travel to a different area, do you want the experience to be the same? If you are in France, touring the city of Paris, do you really want to eat at McDonald's? Doesn't that detract from the whole experience of a different culture? It is true, many employees don't want to have to think while they are working, but isn't a job that is challenging better?
  20. 20. CALCULABILITY      Objective should be quantifiable (i.e., sales) rather than subjective (i.e., taste). McDonaldization developed the notion that quantity equals quality, and that a large amount of product delivered to the customer in a short amount of time is the same as a high quality product. This allows people to quantify how much they're getting versus how much they’re paying. Organizations want consumers to believe that they are getting a large amount of product for not a lot of money. Workers in these organizations are judged by how fast they are instead of the quality of work they do.
  21. 21. CONTROL
  22. 22. CONTROL  The final aspect of McDonaldization is control.  Control over both employees and customers because, " [people are] the great source of uncertainty, unpredictability and inefficiency in any rationalizing system...”  Control is achieved by a standardized and uniformed employees or the replacement of human by non-human technologies.  The substitution of more predictable non-human labor for human labor, either through automation or the deskilling of the work force.
  23. 23. Music Time Dennis DeYoung I like big things The size of them impresses me Just give me plenty Forget about the quality And I like fast food The burgers always taste the same No snotty waiters or Escargot.
  24. 24. By now, you might be thinking that this all sounds pretty good. After all, being more efficient is a good thing. Controlled, consistent and measurable outcomes also sound good. SO, WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?
  25. 25. Look At this   It turns out that overrationalizing a process in this manner has an unexpected side effect. It's called irrationality. In a sociological context that simply means that a rationalized system may result in events or outcomes that were neither anticipated or desired, and in fact, may not be so good. Take the example of McDonald's chain restaurants. Where is irrationality? the of the    The premise of fast food often turns out to be just the opposite; long waits in lines. Fast food is not necessarily good food; in fact, McDonald's food is extremely unhealthy and the taste is average and bland. The system of efficiently producing and distributing their food has some other consequences, namely millions of tons of trash each year (disposability) and a food cultivation system of questionable ethics.
  26. 26. Post-Fordism    Post-Fordism is the name given to the dominant system of economic production, consumption and associated socio-economic phenomena, in most industrialized countries since the late 20th century. It is contrasted with Fordism. Post-Fordism brought on new ways of looking at consumption and production. The saturation of key markets brought on a turn against mass consumption and a pursuit of higher living standards.
  27. 27. This shift brought a change in how the market was viewed from a production standpoint. Before  Rather than being viewed as a mass market to be served by mass production, the consumers began to be viewed as different groups pursuing different goals who could be better served with small batches of specialized goods After   Mass markets became less important while markets for luxury, custom, or positional good became more significant. Production became less homogeneous and standardized and more diverse and differentiated as organizations and economies of scale were replaced with organizations and economies of scope.
  28. 28. Post-Fordism is characterized by the following attributes        Small-batch production. Economies of scope. Specialized products and jobs. New information technologies. Emphasis on types of consumers in contrast to previous emphasis on social class. The rise of the service and the white-collar worker. The feminization of the work force.
  29. 29. Criticism of Post-Fordism    The main criticism of post-Fordism asserts that post-Fordism mistakes the nature of the Fordism revolution and that Fordism was not in crisis, but was simply evolving and will continue to evolve. Other critics believe that post-Fordism does exist, but coexists with Fordism: For example the automobile industry has combined Fordism and post-Fordism strategies using both mass production and flexible specialization. Ford introduced flexibility into mass production, so that Fordism could continue to evolve. Other criticisms argue that flexible specialization is not happening on any great scale, and smaller firms have always existed alongside mass production.
  30. 30. Thank You.