Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Urban forestry issues
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Urban forestry issues

1,503

Published on

annual presentation to the Green Industry Tech program at Blackhawk Technical College

annual presentation to the Green Industry Tech program at Blackhawk Technical College

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,503
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Urban Forestry Issues<br />Blackhawk Technical College / Spring 2010<br />
  • 2. R. Michael Maddox<br />Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension<br />Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens<br />ISA Certified Arborist<br />http://fyi.uwex.edu/rockhort<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  • 3. What are the types of stresses on trees?<br />How do we manage this stress?<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  • 4. Average Tree Age per Site<br />
  • 5. What is stress?<br />Stress<br />Condition in which a tree is not in good health<br />Factors promoting plant health are out of balance<br />Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.<br />
  • 6. Types of stress<br />Acute stress<br />Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time<br />Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.<br />Chronic stress<br />Disorder occurring over a long period of time<br />Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.<br />
  • 7. Types of stress<br />Biotic stress<br />Disorder that occurs from a living organism<br />Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage<br />Abiotic stress<br />Disorder occurring from a non-living source<br />Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.<br />
  • 8. Types of stress<br />Primary (inciting) stress<br />Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health<br />Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.<br />Secondary stress<br />Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress<br />Disease or insect pest<br />
  • 9. Soil and site problems<br />Physiological disorders<br />Physical and mechanical injuries<br />Insects and other pests<br />Diseases<br />General Examples of Stress<br />
  • 10. Soil and Site Problems<br />Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?<br />Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Compacted soil<br />Salt usage<br />Soil pH<br />Soil water holding capacity<br />Grade changes and soil layering<br />
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Soil and Site Problems<br />Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred<br />Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)<br />DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius<br />
  • 18.
  • 19. Physiological Disorders<br />Non-infectious disorders<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Insufficient water<br />Girdling roots<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Research Summary<br />
  • 26. Physiological Disorders<br />Insufficient water<br />~1” of water per week<br />Girdling roots<br />Proper planting<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />Proper fertility regime<br />‘Right Tree, Right Place’<br />
  • 27. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Typically acute stress<br />Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed<br />Fire injury<br />Animal feeding<br />Lightning<br />Lawn mower damage<br />Vandalism (or stupid stuff)<br />
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Fire injury<br />Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies<br />Animal feeding<br />Use tree wrap and fencing to protect<br />May be associated with other stress <br />ie. Woodpeckers & borers<br />Lightning<br />Install lightning protection in trees on special trees<br />Vandalism (and stupid stuff) <br />Lawn mower damage<br />Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!<br />
  • 37. Architectural Problems<br />Improper pruning<br />Double leaders<br />Included bark<br />
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Proper Pruning Cut<br />3 Point Cut<br />Undercut<br />Stub cut<br />Cut at branch collar<br />Best in dormant season<br />
  • 41. “Flush Cut”<br />
  • 42. “Stub Cut”<br />
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. Family A’s Tree - <br />Not Pruned <br />When Young<br />Family B’s Tree - <br />Pruned When <br />Young<br /> At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later<br />
  • 56. Insects<br />Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant<br />Different life stages may be harmful to plant<br />Most insect damage is result of feeding activity<br />Biotic and typically secondary stress<br />Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects<br />
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC<br />Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood<br />Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark<br />
  • 60. Insects<br />Develop IPM strategy for insect control<br />Resistant varieties<br />i.e. don’t plant ash trees?<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.<br />Curative measures<br />
  • 61. Diseases<br />Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form<br />Most pathogens are host specific<br />Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease<br />Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers<br />Cosmetic vs. fatal<br />Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary<br />
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Diseases<br />Develop IPM strategy for disease control<br />Resistant varieties<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.<br />Curative measures?<br />
  • 66.
  • 67. Reducing Plant Stress<br />“Right Plant, Right Place”<br />Proper watering and nutrition<br />Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)<br />IPM, scouting<br />Resources<br />Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597) <br />www.isa-arbor.com , www.treecareindustry.org<br />
  • 68. Managing urban forest diversity<br />Emerald Ash Borer<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  • 69. Tree Selection<br />For a healthy urban forest…<br />No more than 10% of any single tree species.<br />No more than 20% of any tree genus.<br />No more than 30% of any tree family.<br />(Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)<br />
  • 70. City of Janesville, 2009<br />http://www.jstac.org/Inventory.html<br />
  • 71.
  • 72. Emerald Ash Borer<br />http://www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov/index.jsp<br />

×