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Urban Forestry Issues<br />Blackhawk Technical College / Spring 2010<br />
R. Michael Maddox<br />Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension<br />Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens<br...
What are the types of stresses on trees?<br />How do we manage this stress?<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
Average Tree Age per Site<br />
What is stress?<br />Stress<br />Condition in which a tree is not in good health<br />Factors promoting plant health are o...
Types of stress<br />Acute stress<br />Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time<br />Examples: pestici...
Types of stress<br />Biotic stress<br />Disorder that occurs from a living organism<br />Examples: insect feeding, disease...
Types of stress<br />Primary (inciting) stress<br />Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health<br />Exa...
Soil and site problems<br />Physiological disorders<br />Physical and mechanical injuries<br />Insects and other pests<br ...
Soil and Site Problems<br />Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?<br />Symptoms typically appear on trunk and c...
Soil and Site Problems<br />Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it ha...
Physiological Disorders<br />Non-infectious disorders<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Insufficient wa...
Research Summary<br />
Physiological Disorders<br />Insufficient water<br />~1” of water per week<br />Girdling roots<br />Proper planting<br />N...
Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Typically acute stress<br />Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed<br />...
Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Fire injury<br />Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies<br />Animal feeding<br />U...
Architectural Problems<br />Improper pruning<br />Double leaders<br />Included bark<br />
Proper Pruning Cut<br />3 Point Cut<br />Undercut<br />Stub cut<br />Cut at branch collar<br />Best in dormant season<br />
“Flush Cut”<br />
“Stub Cut”<br />
Family A’s Tree -  <br />Not Pruned <br />When Young<br />Family B’s Tree -  <br />Pruned When <br />Young<br />	At Planti...
Insects<br />Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant<br />Different life stages may be harmful to plant<br />Most ...
Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC<br />Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood<br />Feeds on phloem tissue jus...
Insects<br />Develop IPM strategy for insect control<br />Resistant varieties<br />i.e. don’t plant ash trees?<br />Scouti...
Diseases<br />Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form<br />Most pathog...
Diseases<br />Develop IPM strategy for disease control<br />Resistant varieties<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventa...
Reducing Plant Stress<br />“Right Plant, Right Place”<br />Proper watering and nutrition<br />Proper maintenance (planting...
Managing urban forest diversity<br />Emerald Ash Borer<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
Tree Selection<br />For a healthy urban forest…<br />No more than 10% of any single tree species.<br />No more than 20% of...
City of Janesville, 2009<br />http://www.jstac.org/Inventory.html<br />
Emerald Ash Borer<br />http://www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov/index.jsp<br />
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Urban forestry issues

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annual presentation to the Green Industry Tech program at Blackhawk Technical College

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Transcript of "Urban forestry issues"

  1. 1. Urban Forestry Issues<br />Blackhawk Technical College / Spring 2010<br />
  2. 2. R. Michael Maddox<br />Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension<br />Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens<br />ISA Certified Arborist<br />http://fyi.uwex.edu/rockhort<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  3. 3. What are the types of stresses on trees?<br />How do we manage this stress?<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  4. 4. Average Tree Age per Site<br />
  5. 5. What is stress?<br />Stress<br />Condition in which a tree is not in good health<br />Factors promoting plant health are out of balance<br />Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.<br />
  6. 6. Types of stress<br />Acute stress<br />Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time<br />Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.<br />Chronic stress<br />Disorder occurring over a long period of time<br />Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.<br />
  7. 7. Types of stress<br />Biotic stress<br />Disorder that occurs from a living organism<br />Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage<br />Abiotic stress<br />Disorder occurring from a non-living source<br />Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.<br />
  8. 8. Types of stress<br />Primary (inciting) stress<br />Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health<br />Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.<br />Secondary stress<br />Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress<br />Disease or insect pest<br />
  9. 9. Soil and site problems<br />Physiological disorders<br />Physical and mechanical injuries<br />Insects and other pests<br />Diseases<br />General Examples of Stress<br />
  10. 10. Soil and Site Problems<br />Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?<br />Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Compacted soil<br />Salt usage<br />Soil pH<br />Soil water holding capacity<br />Grade changes and soil layering<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Soil and Site Problems<br />Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred<br />Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)<br />DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Physiological Disorders<br />Non-infectious disorders<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Insufficient water<br />Girdling roots<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Research Summary<br />
  26. 26. Physiological Disorders<br />Insufficient water<br />~1” of water per week<br />Girdling roots<br />Proper planting<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />Proper fertility regime<br />‘Right Tree, Right Place’<br />
  27. 27. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Typically acute stress<br />Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed<br />Fire injury<br />Animal feeding<br />Lightning<br />Lawn mower damage<br />Vandalism (or stupid stuff)<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
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  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Fire injury<br />Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies<br />Animal feeding<br />Use tree wrap and fencing to protect<br />May be associated with other stress <br />ie. Woodpeckers & borers<br />Lightning<br />Install lightning protection in trees on special trees<br />Vandalism (and stupid stuff) <br />Lawn mower damage<br />Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!<br />
  37. 37. Architectural Problems<br />Improper pruning<br />Double leaders<br />Included bark<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Proper Pruning Cut<br />3 Point Cut<br />Undercut<br />Stub cut<br />Cut at branch collar<br />Best in dormant season<br />
  41. 41. “Flush Cut”<br />
  42. 42. “Stub Cut”<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
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  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
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  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Family A’s Tree - <br />Not Pruned <br />When Young<br />Family B’s Tree - <br />Pruned When <br />Young<br /> At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later<br />
  56. 56. Insects<br />Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant<br />Different life stages may be harmful to plant<br />Most insect damage is result of feeding activity<br />Biotic and typically secondary stress<br />Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC<br />Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood<br />Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark<br />
  60. 60. Insects<br />Develop IPM strategy for insect control<br />Resistant varieties<br />i.e. don’t plant ash trees?<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.<br />Curative measures<br />
  61. 61. Diseases<br />Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form<br />Most pathogens are host specific<br />Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease<br />Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers<br />Cosmetic vs. fatal<br />Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary<br />
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  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Diseases<br />Develop IPM strategy for disease control<br />Resistant varieties<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.<br />Curative measures?<br />
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Reducing Plant Stress<br />“Right Plant, Right Place”<br />Proper watering and nutrition<br />Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)<br />IPM, scouting<br />Resources<br />Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597) <br />www.isa-arbor.com , www.treecareindustry.org<br />
  68. 68. Managing urban forest diversity<br />Emerald Ash Borer<br />Urban Forestry Issues<br />
  69. 69. Tree Selection<br />For a healthy urban forest…<br />No more than 10% of any single tree species.<br />No more than 20% of any tree genus.<br />No more than 30% of any tree family.<br />(Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)<br />
  70. 70. City of Janesville, 2009<br />http://www.jstac.org/Inventory.html<br />
  71. 71.
  72. 72. Emerald Ash Borer<br />http://www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov/index.jsp<br />

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