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Urban forestry issues


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annual presentation to the Green Industry Tech program at Blackhawk Technical College

annual presentation to the Green Industry Tech program at Blackhawk Technical College

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  • 1. Urban Forestry Issues
    Blackhawk Technical College / Spring 2010
  • 2. R. Michael Maddox
    Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension
    Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens
    ISA Certified Arborist
    Urban Forestry Issues
  • 3. What are the types of stresses on trees?
    How do we manage this stress?
    Urban Forestry Issues
  • 4. Average Tree Age per Site
  • 5. What is stress?
    Condition in which a tree is not in good health
    Factors promoting plant health are out of balance
    Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.
  • 6. Types of stress
    Acute stress
    Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time
    Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.
    Chronic stress
    Disorder occurring over a long period of time
    Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.
  • 7. Types of stress
    Biotic stress
    Disorder that occurs from a living organism
    Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage
    Abiotic stress
    Disorder occurring from a non-living source
    Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.
  • 8. Types of stress
    Primary (inciting) stress
    Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health
    Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.
    Secondary stress
    Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress
    Disease or insect pest
  • 9. Soil and site problems
    Physiological disorders
    Physical and mechanical injuries
    Insects and other pests
    General Examples of Stress
  • 10. Soil and Site Problems
    Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?
    Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy
    Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
    Compacted soil
    Salt usage
    Soil pH
    Soil water holding capacity
    Grade changes and soil layering
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  • 17. Soil and Site Problems
    Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred
    Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)
    DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius
  • 18.
  • 19. Physiological Disorders
    Non-infectious disorders
    Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
    Insufficient water
    Girdling roots
    Nutrient imbalance
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  • 25. Research Summary
  • 26. Physiological Disorders
    Insufficient water
    ~1” of water per week
    Girdling roots
    Proper planting
    Nutrient imbalance
    Proper fertility regime
    ‘Right Tree, Right Place’
  • 27. Physical and Mechanical Injury
    Typically acute stress
    Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed
    Fire injury
    Animal feeding
    Lawn mower damage
    Vandalism (or stupid stuff)
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  • 36. Physical and Mechanical Injury
    Fire injury
    Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies
    Animal feeding
    Use tree wrap and fencing to protect
    May be associated with other stress
    ie. Woodpeckers & borers
    Install lightning protection in trees on special trees
    Vandalism (and stupid stuff)
    Lawn mower damage
    Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!
  • 37. Architectural Problems
    Improper pruning
    Double leaders
    Included bark
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Proper Pruning Cut
    3 Point Cut
    Stub cut
    Cut at branch collar
    Best in dormant season
  • 41. “Flush Cut”
  • 42. “Stub Cut”
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  • 55. Family A’s Tree -
    Not Pruned
    When Young
    Family B’s Tree -
    Pruned When
    At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later
  • 56. Insects
    Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant
    Different life stages may be harmful to plant
    Most insect damage is result of feeding activity
    Biotic and typically secondary stress
    Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC
    Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood
    Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark
  • 60. Insects
    Develop IPM strategy for insect control
    Resistant varieties
    i.e. don’t plant ash trees?
    Scouting and monitoring
    Preventative measures
    Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.
    Curative measures
  • 61. Diseases
    Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form
    Most pathogens are host specific
    Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease
    Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers
    Cosmetic vs. fatal
    Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary
  • 62.
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  • 65. Diseases
    Develop IPM strategy for disease control
    Resistant varieties
    Scouting and monitoring
    Preventative measures
    Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.
    Curative measures?
  • 66.
  • 67. Reducing Plant Stress
    “Right Plant, Right Place”
    Proper watering and nutrition
    Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)
    IPM, scouting
    Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597) ,
  • 68. Managing urban forest diversity
    Emerald Ash Borer
    Urban Forestry Issues
  • 69. Tree Selection
    For a healthy urban forest…
    No more than 10% of any single tree species.
    No more than 20% of any tree genus.
    No more than 30% of any tree family.
    (Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)
  • 70. City of Janesville, 2009
  • 71.
  • 72. Emerald Ash Borer