Rhs year 2 week 17 presentation

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Rhs year 2 week 17 presentation

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 2 Week 17 – Introduction to Plant Health
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>1. Understand the importance of using safe, healthy and environmentally sustainable practices for the maintenance of plant health. </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 State what is meant by biological, chemical, physical (or cultural) and integrated methods of pest and disease control. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe ONE example of each type of control named in 1.1. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the benefits and limitations of using each of the types of control named in 1.1. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 State the importance of natural balances in plant protection and describe how garden practices can disturb this balance. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Describe methods which can be used to restore and maintain these natural balances to minimise the need for pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Describe how the selection of plants can help to avoid plant health problems, including the choice of resistant cultivars and growing plants appropriate to a situation and soil. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plant health and the garden environment <ul><li>Gardens are ecosystems – a complex web of producers (plants), consumers and decomposers in a ‘natural’ habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding this can help to prevent, and to deal with, problems with plant health. </li></ul><ul><li>Not taking this fact into account can lead to pest and disease problems and wasted effort in trying to control them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human impact on garden ecosystems <ul><li>Ecosystems that are undisturbed reach a balance between predators and prey, nutrient use and recycling etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We harvest crops, remove plant material, spray chemicals etc and can damage this balance </li></ul><ul><li>We can also enhance the diversity of plants and creatures by adding habitats (e.g. ponds), planting nectar rich flowering plants, leaving caterpillar food plants such as nettles etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why does this matter? <ul><li>Spraying contact insecticides to control aphid leads to ladybirds being killed. Aphid numbers recover more quickly than the ladybird numbers so a cycle of infestation, damage and spraying is set up which could be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural mechanisms between predators and prey mean that predator numbers rise to follow prey numbers. Spraying is often done when aphid infestation is severe – which means that the ladybird population is killed at its peak. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Know your friends! <ul><li>Did you recognise this as a ladybird larvae? </li></ul>
  7. 7. ‘Right plant, right place’. <ul><li>In a natural ecosystem plants are in the right place because they will not grow successfully and reproduce unless this happens. </li></ul><ul><li>We are creating an ecosystem. Planting plants in a site, soil or other conditions which do not suit them results in weak plants that are susceptible to disease and pest damage. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Resistant Cultivars <ul><li>Where a particular genus or species has specific susceptibility to pests or disease there are often cultivars that have been bred/selected for resistance to that problem. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, ‘Sarpo’ varieties of potato, bred in Hungary, have resistance to blight and (depending on variety) to other pests such as eelworm. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of control for plant problems <ul><li>Biological control – using natural predators to control plant pests </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical control – using chemicals that are toxic to plant pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural control – managing the environment to minimise plant problems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Pest Management – all of the above, aimed at reducing the need for chemical controls to the minimum possible </li></ul>
  10. 10. Benefits and Limitations of Biological Controls Control itself may become a pest Some degree of pest damage is likely No damage to the environment e.g. spray drift Many only effective under glass No crop residue or harvest interval Not available for all pests Can be used on pesticide resistant pests Limitation Benefit
  11. 11. Benefits and Limitations of Chemical Controls Risk to beneficial insects and the environment and operator Insect resistance – particularly under glass Likely to be successful There may be no licensed control available for a particular pest Can be applied to a pre-arranged schedule Crop residues and harvest intervals for food crops Easy to treat large areas Limitation Benefit
  12. 12. Benefits and Limitations of Cultural Controls May still be some damage No crop residues or harvest interval Difficult to control all pests No damage to the environment Labour intensive All plants can benefit May not be suitable for large areas Sustainable – can be repeated year after year Limitations Benefits
  13. 13. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Understand the importance of using safe, healthy and environmentally sustainable practices for the maintenance of plant health. </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 State what is meant by biological, chemical, physical (or cultural) and integrated methods of pest and disease control. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe ONE example of each type of control named in 1.1. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the benefits and limitations of using each of the types of control named in 1.1. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 State the importance of natural balances in plant protection and describe how garden practices can disturb this balance. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Describe methods which can be used to restore and maintain these natural balances to minimise the need for pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Describe how the selection of plants can help to avoid plant health problems, including the choice of resistant cultivars and growing plants appropriate to a situation and soil. </li></ul>

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