Deciduous Trees Sew Fdl Compressed


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  • Deciduous Trees Sew Fdl Compressed

    1. 1. Deciduous trees<br />Advanced Master Gardener Training 2009<br />
    2. 2. Mike Maddox<br />Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension<br />Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens<br />ISA Certified Arborist<br /> tree <br />Deciduous trees<br />
    3. 3. Overview<br />What is “stress”?<br />General overview<br />Acute vs chronic<br />Primary vs secondary<br />Biotic vsabiotic<br />Major stresses<br />Soil and site problems<br />Physiological disorders<br />Physical / mechanical injury<br />Architectural problems<br />Insects<br />Diseases<br />Specific problems<br />Acer<br />Betula<br />Fraxinus<br />Malus<br />Prunus<br />Quercus<br />Tilia<br />Ulmus<br />Society of Municipal Arborists- Tree of the Year<br />
    4. 4. Average Tree Age per Site<br />
    5. 5. What is stress?<br />Stress<br />Condition in which a tree is not in good health<br />Factors promoting plant health are out of balance<br />Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.<br />
    6. 6. Types of stress<br />Acute stress<br />Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time<br />Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.<br />Chronic stress<br />Disorder occurring over a long period of time<br />Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.<br />
    7. 7. Types of stress<br />Biotic stress<br />Disorder that occurs from a living organism<br />Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage<br />Abiotic stress<br />Disorder occurring from a non-living source<br />Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.<br />
    8. 8. Types of stress<br />Primary (inciting) stress<br />Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health<br />Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.<br />Secondary stress<br />Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress<br />Disease or insect pest<br />
    9. 9. Soil and site problems<br />Physiological disorders<br />Physical and mechanical injuries<br />Insects and other pests<br />Diseases<br />General Examples of Stress<br />
    10. 10. Soil and Site Problems<br />Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?<br />Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Compacted soil<br />Salt usage<br />Soil pH<br />Soil water holding capacity<br />Grade changes and soil layering<br />
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    17. 17. Soil and Site Problems<br />Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred<br />Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)<br />DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Physiological Disorders<br />Non-infectious disorders<br />Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress<br />Insufficient water<br />Girdling roots<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />
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    24. 24.
    25. 25. Research Summary<br />
    26. 26. Physiological Disorders<br />Insufficient water<br />~1” of water per week<br />Girdling roots<br />Proper planting<br />Nutrient imbalance<br />Proper fertility regime<br />‘Right Tree, Right Place’<br />
    27. 27. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Typically acute stress<br />Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed<br />Fire injury<br />Animal feeding<br />Lightning<br />Lawn mower damage<br />Vandalism (or stupid stuff)<br />
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    36. 36. Physical and Mechanical Injury<br />Fire injury<br />Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies<br />Animal feeding<br />Use tree wrap and fencing to protect<br />May be associated with other stress <br />ie. Woodpeckers & borers<br />Lightning<br />Install lightning protection in trees on special trees<br />Vandalism (and stupid stuff) <br />Lawn mower damage<br />Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!<br />
    37. 37. Architectural Problems<br />Improper pruning<br />Double leaders<br />Included bark<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39.
    40. 40. Proper Pruning Cut<br />3 Point Cut<br />Undercut<br />Stub cut<br />Cut at branch collar<br />Best in dormant season<br />
    41. 41. “Flush Cut”<br />
    42. 42. “Stub Cut”<br />
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    54. 54.
    55. 55.
    56. 56. Family A’s Tree - <br />Not Pruned <br />When Young<br />Family B’s Tree - <br />Pruned When <br />Young<br /> At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later<br />
    57. 57. Insects<br />Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant<br />Different life stages may be harmful to plant<br />Most insect damage is result of feeding activity<br />Biotic and typically secondary stress<br />Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects<br />
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60. Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC<br />Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood<br />Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark<br />
    61. 61. Insects<br />Develop IPM strategy for insect control<br />Resistant varieties<br />i.e. don’t plant ash trees?<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.<br />Curative measures<br />
    62. 62. Diseases<br />Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form<br />Most pathogens are host specific<br />Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease<br />Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers<br />Cosmetic vs. fatal<br />Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary<br />
    63. 63.
    64. 64.
    65. 65.
    66. 66. Diseases<br />Develop IPM strategy for disease control<br />Resistant varieties<br />Scouting and monitoring<br />Preventative measures<br />Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.<br />Curative measures?<br />
    67. 67.
    68. 68. Reducing Plant Stress<br />“Right Plant, Right Place”<br />Proper watering and nutrition<br />Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)<br />IPM, scouting<br />Resources<br />Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597) <br /> ,<br />
    69. 69. Acer<br />Betula<br />Fraxinus<br />Malus<br />Prunus<br />Species Specific Issues<br />Quercus<br />Tilia<br />Ulmus<br />Gleditsia<br />
    70. 70. Tree Selection<br />For a healthy urban forest…<br />No more than 10% of any single tree species.<br />No more than 20% of any tree genus.<br />No more than 30% of any tree family.<br />(Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)<br />
    71. 71.
    72. 72. Acer sp. (Maple)<br />Family Aceraceae<br />About 110-120 species of trees & shrubs<br />Acer (maple)<br />Dipteronia- occurs only in China<br />Mostly N. Hemisphere<br />Leaves<br />opposite, simple and palmatelyveined or palmately or pinnately compound.<br />Fruit<br />samara<br />
    73. 73. Acer sp. (Maple)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Cottony maple scale*<br />Erinium gall mite<br />Fall cankerworm**<br />Leafhopper*<br />Lecanium scale<br />Maple bladder gall mite**<br />Maple petiole disorder<br />Obliquebandedleafroller<br />Oystershell scale<br />Spring cankerworm**<br />Tussock moth<br />Yellowkneckedcateripillar<br />Diseases<br />Anthracnose*<br />Bacterial wetwood*<br />Basal canker<br />Leaf scorch<br />Septoria leaf spot*<br />Tar spot*<br />Verticillium wilt**<br />
    74. 74. Acer sp. (Maple)<br />Sugar (A. saccharum)- upland species, poor urban tolerance<br />Norway maple (A. platanoides)- - OVERPLANTED, shade, invasive<br />Silver maple (A. saccharinum)- - weak wood, messy, weedy<br />Box elder (A. negundo)- weak wood, messy, weedy<br />Amur maple (A. ginnala)- invasive<br />Red maple (A. rubrum)- soil pH issues<br />Japanese (A. palmatum)- cold hardiness<br />Freeman maple (hybrid)- adaptable, overplanted?<br />Autumn Blaze- 2003 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists <br />
    75. 75.
    76. 76. Betula sp. (Birch)<br />Family Betulaceae<br />6 genera of about 120-170 species<br />Betula (birches)<br />Alnus (alder)<br />Corylus (hazelnut)<br />Carpinus (musclewood)<br />Cool temperate environments of N. Hemisphere<br />Often associated with lakes and streams<br />
    77. 77. Betula sp. (Birch)<br />Shrubs or trees<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, simple<br />Inflorescence<br />Catkin<br />Fruit<br />Samara<br />
    78. 78. Betula sp. (Birch)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Leafminer*<br />Birch leaf skeletonizer*<br />Bronze birch borer*<br />Dusky birch sawfly*<br />Fall webworm**<br />Gypsy moth**<br />Leafhopper<br />Lecanium scale<br />Yellownecked caterpillar<br />Tussock moth<br />Diseases<br />Canker**<br />Leaf rust*<br />Leaf spot<br />
    79. 79. Betula sp. (Birch)<br />Paper (B. papyrifera)- heat hardiness, moisture<br />River (B. nigra)- adaptable, Japanese beetle, overplanted?<br />Betulanigra Heritage™ 2002 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists <br />
    80. 80.
    81. 81. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)<br />Family Oleaceae (Olive family)<br />24-30 genera, herbs, shrubs, woody vines, trees<br />Fraxinus (ash)<br />Chionanthus (fringetree)<br />Forsythia (forsythia)<br />Ligustrum (privet)<br />Syringa (lilac)<br />
    82. 82. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)<br />Mostly temperate regions of N. Hemisphere<br />Leaves<br />opposite, odd-pinnately compound, leaflets serrate to entire<br />Fruit<br />Samara<br />
    83. 83. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Ash flower gall mite<br />Ash borer/lilac borer<br />Emerald Ash Borer<br />Fall webworm**<br />Plantbugs**<br />Oystershell scale<br />Diseases<br />Anthracnose**<br />Leafspots*<br />Cankers*<br />Verticillium wilt**<br />
    84. 84. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)<br />Green (F. pennsylvanica)- very adaptable, “green trash”, leaf loss, susceptible to many problems, OVERPLANTED<br />White (F. americana)- more ornamental than green, cleaner, overplanted<br />Blue (F. quadrangulata)- square stems, not as adaptable as others<br />
    85. 85. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)<br />Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)<br />Attacks ALL Fraxinus!<br />
    86. 86.
    87. 87.
    88. 88. Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />Family Rosaceae (Rose) <br />97-100 genera, 3000 species<br />World-wide distribution<br />Very diverse: herbs to small trees<br /><ul><li>Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum)
    89. 89. Spireae
    90. 90. Potentilla
    91. 91. Cratageus (hawthorn)
    92. 92. Sorbus (Mtn. Ash)
    93. 93. Rosa (rose)
    94. 94. Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)
    95. 95. Fragaria (strawberry)
    96. 96. Pyrus (pear)</li></li></ul><li>Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />According to Michael Dirr…<br />400 to 600 types<br />Tend to freely hybridize<br />
    97. 97. Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, simple<br />Flowers<br />Single flower with 5 petals, born in umbels or racemes<br />Fruit<br />Pome<br />
    98. 98. Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />Red/pink buds<br />White flowers<br />Leaves green<br />Fall color yellow/orange<br />Fruits red or yellow (turning orange)<br />Pink/magenta flowers<br />Leaves tinged red <br />Fall color burgundy<br />Fruits always red<br />White Bloom<br />Rosy Bloom<br />
    99. 99. Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Eastern tent caterpillar**<br />Fall cankerworm<br />Fall webworm<br />Gypsy moth<br />Japanese beetle<br />Scale<br />Shothole borer<br />Spider mites<br />Diseases<br />Fireblight<br />Rust<br />Scab<br />Powdery mildew<br />
    100. 100. Malus sp. (Crabapples)<br />Native varieties often lack disease/insect resistance (M. ioensis)<br />Breeding for disease resistance, flower color, fruit size & persistence<br />Suckers and watersprouts<br />
    101. 101.
    102. 102. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)<br />Also Rosaceae family<br />According to Dirr…<br />Over 400 species of Prunus many difficult to distinguish<br />Many insect and disease problems<br />Do not look upon as long-term garden investments<br />
    103. 103. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, simple, serrated<br />Flowers<br />Five-petalled, showy<br />Fruit<br />1 seeded drupe of various shapes, stone fruit often enclosed<br />
    104. 104. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Eastern tent caterpillar**<br />European red mite*<br />Fall cankerworm**<br />Fall webworm**<br />Gypsy moth**<br />Japanese beetle**<br />Lecanium scale<br />More Insects<br />Lesser peachtree borer*<br />Obliquebandedleafroller<br />Oystershell scale*<br />Peachtree borer<br />Pear slug sawfly*<br />San Jose scale*<br />Spring cankerworm**<br />Spider mite*<br />Yellownecked caterpillar<br />
    105. 105. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)<br />Diseases<br />Bacterial leafspot & canker<br />Black knot<br />Powdery mildew<br />
    106. 106. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)<br />Purple leaf sand cherry (P. x cistena)- OVERPLANTED, JB, BK<br />American red plum (P. americana)- roadside waste land, BK<br />Black cherry (P. serotina) – native, wildlife, best left to natural areas, BK<br />IMO they all stink.<br />
    107. 107.
    108. 108.
    109. 109. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />Family Fagaceae (Beech)<br />7 genera, 800-1000 species<br />Temperate and tropical N. Hemisphere<br />Castanea(chestnut)<br />Fagus (beech)<br />
    110. 110. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, simple, usually pinnately veined<br />Fruit<br />Nut<br />
    111. 111. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Fall cankerworm**<br />Fall webworm**<br />Galls*<br />Lacebug<br />Lecanium scale<br />Oakleaf miner<br />More Insects<br />Oak leaf skeletonizer<br />Spider mites<br />Spring cankerworm<br />Twig pruner<br />Two-lined chestnut borer<br />Yellownecked caterpillar<br />
    112. 112. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />Diseases<br />Anthracnose*<br />Leaf spots**<br />Oak wilt**<br />Root and butt rot<br />Misc.<br />Alkaline soil induced chlorosis<br />
    113. 113. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />Rounded leaves<br />1 year to bear acorn<br />Physiologically resistant to oak wilt<br />Pointed leaves<br />2 years to bear acorns<br />Very susceptible to oak wilt<br />White Oak Group <br />Red Oak Group<br />
    114. 114. Quercus sp. (Oak)<br />White (Q. alba)- difficult to produce and transplant, slow growing; subject to decline with urbanization<br />Swamp white (Q. bicolor)- moist bottomland species, chlorotic<br />1998 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists<br />Bur (Q. macrocarpa) highly variable leaf description, “more tolerant of urban conditions than most oaks” (M. Dirr)<br />Red (Q. rubra)- can be adaptable to urban areas, high pH intolerant<br />Pin (Q. palustrisor Q. ellipsoidalis)- prefers moist soils, high pH intolerant, can be questionable for northern climates.<br />
    115. 115.
    116. 116. Tiliasp. (Linden)<br />Family Tiliaceae (Linden)<br />50 genera, 450 species of trees, shrubs, herbs world-wide<br />Of family members in N. America, only Tilia is arborescent<br />
    117. 117. Tiliasp. (Linden)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, simple<br />Fruit<br />Capsule (berry-like)<br />
    118. 118. Tiliasp. (Linden)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Fall cankerworm**<br />Fall webworm<br />Gypsy moth**<br />Introduced basswood thrips*<br />Insects (more)<br />Japanese beetle**<br />Lecanium scale<br />Linden borer*<br />San Jose scale<br />Spring cankerworm**<br />Tussock moth<br />Yellownecked caterpillar<br />
    119. 119. Tiliasp. (Linden)<br />American (T. americana) – native species, soil adaptable but not tolerant to pollution; European selections more ornamental and adaptable, “best left in the woods”, included bark<br />Redmond (T. americanax T. xeuchlora) - <br />Little leaf (T. cordata) - easy to transplant, urban tolerant, numerous cultivars, included bark<br />
    120. 120.
    121. 121. Ulmussp. (Elm)<br />Family Ulmaceae (Elm)<br />18 genera, 150 trees and shrubs, world wide<br />Celtis (hackberry)<br />Dirr…<br />“Why are elms treated like royalty when they are so fallible?”<br />
    122. 122. Ulmussp. (Elm)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, pinnately veined, often inequilateral at base<br />Fruit<br />Samara (elm), drupe (hackberry)<br />
    123. 123. Ulmussp. (Elm)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Elm leaf beetle<br />Elm sawfly<br />Fall cankerworm<br />Fall webworm<br />Gypsy moth**<br />Leafhopper<br />Insects (more)<br />Lecanium scale<br />Spider mites<br />Spiny elm caterpillar<br />Spring cankerworm<br />Wooly apple aphid<br />Yellownecked caterpillar<br />
    124. 124. Ulmussp. (Elm)<br />Diseases<br />Bacterial wetwood (slime flux)<br />Dutch elm disease*<br />Verticillium wilt*<br />Canker*<br />Leaf blister*<br />Leaf spots*<br />
    125. 125. Ulmussp. (Elm)<br />American (U. americana)- very adaptable, overused, DED<br />Chinese or lacebark (U. parviflora)- durable and ornamental, DED resistant, underused?<br />Siberian (U. pumila)- adaptable but little ornamental value, DED resistant, “a tree that does not deserve to be planted anywhere!” Dirr<br />Asiatic hybrids- DED resistant, form?<br />AccoladeTM (‘Morton’) U. japonica x U. wilsoniana<br />‘Patriot’, ‘Urban’ x selection of U. wilsoniana<br />MANY others – need to question adult form.<br />
    126. 126. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)<br />Family Fabaceae (legume)<br />Third largest family of flowering plants with 690-800 genera, 14,000 to 20,000 species of herbs, shrubs, trees, woody vines, world-wide.<br />Cercis (red bud)<br />Gymnocladus (Kycoffeetree)<br />Robinia (locust)<br />Cladrastis (yellowwood)<br />
    127. 127. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)<br />Leaves<br />Alternate, 1- to 2-pinnately compound<br />Fruit<br />Elongated, compressed, indehiscent legume (pod)<br />
    128. 128. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)<br />Insects<br />Aphids**<br />Cottony maple scale<br />Honeylocust spider mite*<br />Honeylocustplantbug*<br />Honeylocust pod gall midge<br />Leafhoppers<br />Lecanium scale<br />Diseases<br />Canker**<br />
    129. 129. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)<br />Thornless honeysuckle (G. triacanthosvarinermis)- TOUGH urban tree, tends Y-branch, OVERPLANTED<br />
    130. 130. Society of Municipal ArboristsTree of the Year Program<br />Tree Recommendations<br />
    131. 131. 2010-Tree of the Year<br />Redbud<br />Cerciscanadensis<br />
    132. 132. 2009-Tree of the Year<br />Chinkapin oak<br />Quercusmuhlenbergii<br />
    133. 133. 2008-Tree of the Year<br />Black Tupelo<br />Nyssa sylvatica<br />
    134. 134. 2007-Tree of the Year<br />Baldcypress<br />Taxodiumdistichum<br />
    135. 135. 2006-Tree of the Year<br />Kentucky Coffeetree<br />Gymnocladusdioicus<br />
    136. 136. 2005-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Chanticleer&apos; Pear<br />Pyruscalleryana&apos;Chanticleer&apos;<br />
    137. 137. 2004-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Autumn Blaze&apos; Maple<br />Acer x freemanii<br />
    138. 138. 2003-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Allee&apos; Lacebark Elm<br />Ulmusparvifolia‘Emer II’ <br />
    139. 139. 2002-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Heritage&apos; River Birch<br />Betulanigra‘Heritage’<br />
    140. 140. 2001-Tree of the Year<br />Bur Oak<br />Quercusmacrocarpa<br />
    141. 141. 2000-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Redmond&apos; Linden<br />
    142. 142. 1999-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Skyline&apos; Honeylocust<br />
    143. 143. 1998-Tree of the Year<br />Swamp White Oak<br />Quercus bicolor<br />
    144. 144. 1997-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Ivory Silk&apos; Lilac<br />Syringareticulata<br />
    145. 145. 1996-Tree of the Year<br />&apos;Princeton Sentry&apos; Ginkgo<br />
    146. 146. Thank you.<br />Questions?<br />