Rhs level 2 year 1 week 17 2014

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Rhs level 2 year 1 week 17 2014

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 17 – Review of PGR and botanical names; Environmental issues in gardening
  2. 2. Learning objectives 1. State the role of Plant Growth Regulators in plant growth and development. 2. Name the principle plant growth regulators 3. Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects 4. State the importance of botanical/horticultural nomenclature. 5. Define the meaning of ‘family’, ‘genus’, ‘species, ‘subspecies’, ‘variety’ and ‘cultivar’. 6. Explain and apply the conventions for writing botanical names, including use of italics and standard script, cultivar and hybrid indicators etc. 1. Environmental issues in gardening. Identify and explain the environmental protection issues in relation to the following: 1.1 Growing media 1.2 pest and disease control 1.3 non-native plants 1.4 water usage and water disposal 1.5 soil cultivation
  3. 3. Plant Growth regulators - review  Control plant physiological processes – principally cell division and differentiation and tissue development (progress to maturity and senescence)  Their effects depend on their concentration, combination and the location of the cells or plant tissues in question (roots or shoots etc).
  4. 4. Plant Growth Regulators review 2      Auxin – elongation of cells and fruit formation Cytokinins - promotes cell division (mitosis), delays the senescence of leaves. Gibberellins - cell division and elongation of stems. Promote flowering and also bolting in ‘long day’ plants and seed germination. Ethylene - ripening of fruit and senescence of leaves and flowers. Induces abscission of leaves in deciduous plants (the process of leaf fall). Abscisic acid maintains dormancy in seeds and possibly in buds. It also is responsible for causing the closing of stomata – produced in response to ethylene(?).
  5. 5. Botanical names – naming structure     Genus - A group of species that bear close resemblance to each other. Species - A group of individuals that are very closely related structurally and functionally. Individuals in a single species interbreed freely and breed true to type. Variety – a naturally occurring distinct sub- population within a species that will either come true from seed or can be reproduced vegetatively (for example by cuttings). Cultivar – a man made variety.
  6. 6. Botanical naming conventions     Genus and species in italics (underlined when handwritten). Genus name starts with a capital letter, species name starts lower case. Variety names are in italics Cultivar names are in inverted single commas and in normal script. Not underlined when handwritten. Hybrids – indicated by an X. Placed between the genus and species names in inter-specific crosses and before the genus name in inter-generic crosses.
  7. 7. Environmental issues – growing media      Peat is a problem – why? Useful in many ways – light, moisture retentive, low in nutrients, open structured and clean to use and handle However, cutting peat means destroying irreplaceable natural habitats and their plants, birds, animals and insects. What are the alternatives? Coir, composted bark, composted green waste, bio-solids. Do they work? Yes, provided cultivation techniques are adapted, particularly watering and feeding.
  8. 8. Methods of pest and disease control risks to the environment    One man’s pest is another creature’s dinner – destroying garden pests can have an effect on food webs in the garden Resistance and withdrawal of products mean that the choice of chemical controls is becoming very limited. For some pests (e.g. greenhouse whitefly) there is no effective chemical control available to amateur gardeners. Some chemical controls pose a threat to the operator and to beneficial insects.
  9. 9. Methods of pest and disease control – alternatives to chemical controls  Correct care of plants and the environment – well grown plants that are not under stress are less likely to succumb to pests and diseases.  Toleration of some damage  Barriers, traps, biological controls and ‘organic’ plant based sprays  Integrated Pest Management – use of chemicals only as a spot treatment in response to a problem, coupled with biological and cultural controls
  10. 10. Non-native plants – environmental issues      Most UK plants are strictly speaking non-native – the Ice Age left very few true natives. Some non-native plants however are invasive and uncontrolled by natural processes in this country e.g. Fallopia japonica Such plants can cause physical damage to buildings and block watercourses; crowd out native species and provide little or no habitat for native insects, birds and animals Do not buy ‘problem plants’, do not dispose of them in green waste (burn them); do not give them away or dump them. If you want to attract more insects and birds to your garden choose ‘native’ plants.
  11. 11. Water management and conservation     Save rain water for use in the garden Water effectively. No point wetting the soil to depths below the root zone, or watering anywhere other than at the roots. No point watering mature lawns. Give the plants what they need – pay attention to rain fall and do not water if it is unnecessary. Choose plants that need little additional water. Mulch – used to conserve moisture in the soil, prevents evaporation.
  12. 12. Learning outcomes State the role of Plant Growth Regulators in plant growth and development. 2. Name the principle plant growth regulators 3. Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects 4. State the importance of botanical/horticultural nomenclature. 5. Define the meaning of ‘family’, ‘genus’, ‘species, ‘subspecies’, ‘variety’ and ‘cultivar’. 6. Explain and apply the conventions for writing botanical names, including use of italics and standard script, cultivar and hybrid indicators etc. 1. Environmental issues in gardening. Identify and explain the environmental protection issues in relation to the following: 1.1 Growing media 1.2 pest and disease control 1.3 non-native plants 1.4 water usage and water disposal 1.5 soil cultivation

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