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Biomechatronics: Simulated Fingers and Hands
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Biomechatronics: Simulated Fingers and Hands

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A Biomedical Engineering powerpoint based on a branch of Biomechatronics, Simulated Fingers and Hands.

A Biomedical Engineering powerpoint based on a branch of Biomechatronics, Simulated Fingers and Hands.

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  • 1. Image Sources: http://bme240.eng.uci.edu/students/10s/slam5/Pictures/Pressure%202.jpg http://cdn-static.zdnet.com/i/story/60/20/001213/wrobo02.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-2jwXtRGp-7o/UOWuHFjigdI/AAAAAAAAAOc/ITFsCK9uCZI/s1600/isella_robot_arm1.jpg http://i0.wp.com/www.baltimorefishbowl.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/johns_hopkins_APL_prosthetic_arm.jpeg?resize=500%2C357
  • 2. Biomechatronics  An applied interdisciplinary science that integrates mechanical elements, electronics and parts of biological organisms  Includes aspects of biology, mechanics and electronics  Incorporates robotics and neuroscience  Aims to develop devices that interact with human muscle, skeleton and nervous system  Simulated fingers Biomechtronics and hands are a branch of
  • 3. History  First recorded illustration of prosthetic replacement appears in the RigVeda, a religious text written in Sanskrit, compiled between 3,500 and 1,800 B.C. in India.[1]  In 1504, the Iron Hand of knight Götz von Berlichingen was constructed by an armourer and with the help of gearwheels the fingers could be revolved and fixed at a certain position.[2]  In 1909, D. W. Dorrance invented a split hook that was anchored to the opposite shoulder and could be opened with a strap across the back and closed by rubber bands.[3] Fig: The Iron Hand of Götz von Berlichingen  In 1915, Sauerbruch's hand was devised by a German surgeon Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch in collaboration with Aurel Stodola Slovak physicist, turbine engineer and professor of mechanics which was controlled and powered directly from surgically prepared muscles of the residual limb.[4] Fig: Sauerbruch‟s hand Image Sources: http://www.maximumpc.com/files/u134761/gotz.jpg http://www.deutsches-museum.de/fileadmin/Content/TRASH/sauerbruchhand_weiss.jpg
  • 4. Importance of Simulated Fingers & Hands  Helps regain human motor control that was lost or impaired by trauma, disease or birth defects.  Minimises the disabilities.  Allows disabled people to become more independent. disadvantages of Image Sources: http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/gadgetlab/2009/11/arms_2a.jpg http://www.touchbionics.com/media/56932/i-limb_digits_food_prep.jpg
  • 5. Types of Simulated Fingers & Hands  Mind-controlled: movement of the prosthetic is driven solely by the electrical impulses of the brain  Myoelectric: detects electrical changes in the muscles of the stump and converts them into movements  Body-powered/Cable-controlled: controlled by cables connecting the prosthetic limbs elsewhere on the body  Hybrid: combines two types of control in the same prosthesis Image Source: http://images.gizmag.com/inline/thought_controlled_permanent_prosthetic_arm-2.jpg
  • 6. Mechanism Simple Body-powered Prosthetic Arm  Extending the arm or flexing the shoulder pulls a cable attached to a harness on the user‟s back.  As the cable tightens, it opens a split hook at the end of the arm and reversing the move closes the hook.  This prosthetic arm also provides a sensory feedbackforce which gets felt by the Mind-controlled Prosthetic Arm Image and information sources: http://rehabeasy.blogspot.co.uk/2008/10/bionic-arm-mechanism.html http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/03/ff_prosthetics/all/?pid=3424&viewall=true
  • 7.  Materials used in Simulated Hands & In the past iron, steel, copper and wood were the major materials used. Fingers At the present, following materials used serve specific purposes:  Titanium: lightweight, provides longer life and durability  Aluminium: lightweight and durable  Thermoplastics sockets: lightweight and give prosthesis recipients extended comfort at the site the prosthesis is fitted  Carbon fibre: forms lightweight pylon and gives amputees
  • 8. Recent iInnovations limb  A company called „i-limb‟ has a product called the „i-digits‟ which provide personalized electronic digits for people who have loss up to five fingers.  However, the patient must pass a selection criteria to be considered.  Each prosthetic is unique to fit the hand of the patient.  It is battery powered.  The interface material is silicone to avoid damage done to the skin and tissue.  The „i-digit‟ is controlled using myoelectrodes or force-sensing resistors (FSR's).[11] The electrodes can sense muscle contraction. This contraction is filtered and processed to tell the fingers to open or close.[11]  The prosthetic can be covered with a silicon material to match the colour and appearance of the patient's skin. Image source: http://www.touchbionics.com/media/2197/i-limb-digits_coverings_match2.jpg
  • 9. Recent XInnovations Finger  Developed by „Didrick Material‟.  Unlike the „i-digit‟ it is not electronic and does not require a power source.[9]  Made from surgical steel and is lightweight  Are able to bend naturally with the movements from residual fingers.[9]  It is body powered meaning that the movements of the prosthetic fingers are determined by the movements of the residual finger  This makes it user friendly and does not require any training  Each „x finger‟ is independent which allows for more articulation control, claimed to be able to grip golf clubs and play musical instruments.[10]  A silicone cover can be applied to match the appearance of the user‟s skin  Costs are estimated to be $1000 per digit.[10] Image Sources: http://www.wired.com/images/article/full/2007/07/xfinger_full.jpg http://www.asme.org/getmedia/6129d14e-06ff-4e39-84fd-031af5689cf1/everyday_prosthetic_fingers-Bioengineering-hero.jpg.aspx?width=680
  • 10.  Aid vs. Enhancement: Issue “Bionic hand for 'elective amputation' patient”[5] -Neil Bowdler, BBC News  If people with minor damages to their hands undergo amputation and replace their hands with simulated hands for better function today, then will people with healthy hands undergo amputation if technologically advanced simulated hands with extraordinary features are developed in the future? Will it devalue natural hands and life? Cost  Transradial, below the elbow, prostheses cost between £4,000 and £5,500.[6]  Transhumeral, below the shoulder, prostheses cost between £6,500 and £10,000.[6]  Body-powered prostheses cost approximately £4,500 and Myoelectric prostheses cost approximately £10,000.[7]  Repair costs are approximately £500 annually and the prostheses need replacing every 4 to 5 years.[8] Image Source: http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/52822000/jpg/_52822586_jex_10 49675_de27-1.jpg
  • 11. References  [1]VANDERWERKER,  [2]Prosthetic  [3]Made  [4]Whonamedit?:  [5]BOWDLER,  [6]SWEENEY,  [7]BAGLEY,  [8]MARTIN,  [9]‘X  [10]‘Mechanical  [11]Touch E.E., 2013. A Brief Review of the History of Amputations and Prostheses. ICIB 1976 Vol. 15, Num. 5, p.15-16. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.acpoc.org/library/1976_05_015.asp Arm through the Ages. 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013 from http://www.medicatradefair.com/cipp/md_medica/custom/pub/content,oid,23173/lang,2/ticket,g_u_e_s_t/~/Prosthetic_Arms_through_the_Ages.html How: Artificial Limb. 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Artificial-Limb.html Sauerbruch’s hand. 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/3966.html N., 2011. Bionic hand for „elective amputation‟ patient. BBC News Science & Environment. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13273348 E., 2005. Cost of prosthetics stirs debate. The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2005/07/05/cost_of_prosthetics_stirs_debate/ A., JAMES, M., SELF, B.P., COLEMAN R. & DENARO B., 2013. DETERMINING USAGE OF A JUVENILE MYOELECTRIC PROSTHETIC ARM. ACPOC News 2002 Vol. 8, Num. 4, p.17-18, 20, 22, 24, 25. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.acpoc.org/library/2002_04_017.asp C.W., 2011. Upper Limb Prostheses. WorkSafeBC Evidence-Based Practice Group, p. 6. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.worksafebc.com/health_care_providers/Assets/PDF/UpperLimbProstheses2011.pdf Fingers prosthetic designed to replace lost digits’- cnet retrieved 21/04/13 at http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-200716971/x-fingers-prosthetic-designed-to-replace-lost-digits/ Fingers Give Strength, Speed to Amputees’- Wired retrieved 21/04/13 at http://www.wired.com/gadgets/miscellaneous/news/2007/07/xfinger Bionics, retrieved 21/04/13 at http://www.touchbionics.com/products/active-prostheses/i-limb-digits/technical-information/