CHAPTER 6 FORM 4: 6.1, 6.2, 6.3.

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NUTRITION, chapter 6, form 4,6.1, 6.2, 6.3.for spm.

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CHAPTER 6 FORM 4: 6.1, 6.2, 6.3.

  1. 1. BY: NUR AMIRAH QISTINA BT MUHAMAD MAZLAN
  2. 2. 6.1 TYPES OF NUTRITION NUTRITION The entire process by which organism obtain energy and nutrition from food. Function: for growth , maintenance and repair of damage tissue. Types: Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition. NUTRIENT The substances that are required for the nourishment of an organisms.
  3. 3. AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION AUTOTROPHS(autos : self ; trophos : feed) oUse simple inorganic substances and either light energy(photosynthesis) or chemical energy(chemosynthesis) to synthesise food. PHOTOAUTOTROPHS : Carry out photosynthesis. Produce organic molecules from CO2 and H2O. CHEMOAUTOTROPH S: Carry out chemosynthesis. Synthesise organic compound without the help of light. Obtain energy by oxidising inorganic substances.
  4. 4. HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION HETEROTROPHS (heteros :other) •May practise holozoic nutrition ,saprophytism or parasitism. HOLOZOIC NUTRITION • Humans and nearly all animals. • The organism feed by ingesting solid organic matter which is subsequently digested and absorbed into their bodies. • Carnivorous plant : obtain nutrients by capturing and ingesting small insects. SAPROPHYTISM PARASITISM • Saphophytes. • Feed on dead and decaying matter. • Include bacteria and fungi which digest the food externally before the nutrients are absorbed. • A close association between 2 organisms , parasite and host. • The parasite obtains nutrients by living on or in the body of the host. • The parasite absorbs readily digested food from its host. • Example of parasite : fleas and lice.
  5. 5. 6.2 BALANCED DIET THE NECESSITY OF A BALANCE DIET Living organisms obtain nutrients from their diets. The foods that constitute a balanced diet should contain the major nutrients which include:  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Lipids  Vitamins  Minerals  Roughage or dietary fibre  Water These nutrients must be taken in the correct proportion • To meet the daily energy requirement of an individual • To provide the necessity nutrients for growth and tissue repair • For maintaining health
  6. 6. DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT Energy Can only be obtained from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Proteins are used to provide energy when carbohydrates and fats are not available. Needed to perform physical activities, to sustain vital functions and for maintaining body temperature. Generated by the oxidation of molecules obtained from food during cellular respiration.
  7. 7. FACTORS THAT EFFECTING THE DAILY ENERGY SEX ADULT MALES REQUIRE MORE ENERGY THAN ADULT FEMALE.MEN GENERALLY ARE PHYSICALLY MORE ACTIVE AND HAVE LESS BODY FAT. BODY SIZE/weight An individual of bigger size require more energy than another of smaller size.
  8. 8. VITAMINS The group of a complex non-protein organic compounds which are needed in relatively small quantities by living organism. Provide no energy but are essential for maintenance of good health and efficient metabolism. Can be divided into:  water-soluble vitamins : B and C : cannot be stored in the body : have to be constantly supplied in the daily diet  Fat-soluble vitamins : A,D,E and K : can be stored in the body fat
  9. 9. VITAMINS SOURCES FUNCTIONS A EGG, MILK,CARROT, PAPAYA •For growth and promote healthy skin •For good night vision B EGG, YEAST, LIVER, NUTS, TOMATO •Promotes the effective functioning of the nervous system •Controls the supply of carbohydrates to the muscle and nerve cells C GREEN VEGETABLES, TOMATO, LIME •Increases immunity against diseases •Promotes healthy skin D EGG, MILK, COD LIVER OIL •Helps in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestines E K VEGETABLE OIL, EGG, LIVER, MILK,PALM OIL •Maintains a healthy reproductive system SUNFLOWER SEEDS, MAIZE •Necessary for the clotting of blood
  10. 10. MINERALS Simple inorganic nutrients which must be obtained through the diet, either from food or dissolved in drinking water. Provide no energy but are vital for the maintenance of good health. Macrominerals/major minerals are required in relatively large quantities. Microminerals are required in trace amounts of less than 20mg per day.
  11. 11. MINERALS SOURCES FUNCTIONS CALCIUM MILK, ANCHOVIES, CHEES, EGG oFormation of strong bones and teeth oHelps in clotting in blood SODIUM COMMON SALT oNecessary constituent of blood plasma MILK, LIVER, MEAT, EGG oBuilds haemoglobin of red blood cells IODINE SEAFOOD oNecessary for the functioning of the thyroid gland PHOSPHORU S POTASSIUM MILK, FISH, EGG oFormation of strong bones and teeth MILK, EGG oFor muscles contraction oHelps to maintain the balance of blood and tissue IRON
  12. 12. ROUGHAGE/DIETARY FIBRE Refer to the parts of plants that cannot be digested. The sources of roughage are vegetables, fruits, nuts and wholemeal grains. Functions of roughage Helps to stimulate peristalsis and the muscle movement of the small and big intestines Helps to lower blood cholesterol Prevent obesity, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases Deficiency of roughage in our diet causes constipation and other disorders of the large intestine.
  13. 13. WATER Water is very essential to the survival of human as all metabolic reactions take place in solution. Water makes up about 70% off the total body weight. Controlling the body temperature Removing excretory products Controlling the concentration of blood As a lubricant As a medium for biochemical reactions in the body FUNCTIONS OF WATER Transporting foods during digestion Failure to replace the lost water results in dehydration. A series loss of water can be fatal.
  14. 14. SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE BALANCED DIET ATHELETES CARBOHYDRATES: provide extra energy PROTEINS :build up muscles REDUCE INTAKE OF FATS VEGETARIANS EAT A VARIETY OF VEGETABLES, FRUITS, CEREALS AND BEANS TAKE A VITAMIN B12 SUPPLIMENT AS IT ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL SOURCES PREGNANT WOMEN PROTEINS: the building of the foetal tissue CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS: build the bones IRON: for the foetus to make red blood cells CUT DOWN ON SUGAR AND FATS
  15. 15. INFANTS PROTEINS: build soft tissue CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS: build bones and teeth CARBOHYDRATES: provide energy for growth BREAST MILK IS THE BEST FOOD CHILDREN NEED ENERGY-RICH FOOD PROTEINS, IRON, CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS : for their rapid growth TEENAGERS GIRLS: IRON: making red blood cells to replace those lost during their menstrual periods CUT DOWN AN OIL-RICH A DIET OF CEREALS, LEAN MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
  16. 16. 6.3 MALNUTRITION Results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking , in excess, or in the wrong proportions. Malnutrition leads to health problems and diseases.
  17. 17. THE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION DEFICIENC Y IN PROTEINS • Kwashiorkor : Stunted growth , muscles that waste away, diarrhoea ,oedema which causes the belly to swell, loss of appetite and apathy. • Marasmus : lacks of energy-providing too .The child become very thin and looks old for his age. DEFICIENC Y IN MINERALS • Rickets : CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS. The child’s bones are soft and can bend out of shape. • Osteoporosis : CALCIUM,VITAMIN D & PHOSPHORUS. The elderly ’s bones become porous and break easily. DEFICIENC Y IN VITAMINS • Rickets : VITAMIN D. • Scurvy : VITAMIN C .Symptoms: bleeding and swollen gums. • Sterility : VITAMIN E. • Night blindness : VITAMIN A
  18. 18. • Obesity : An obese person is at higher risk of developing high blood pressure and heart problems. • Atherosclerosis : A person leads to high blood pressure, puts a strain on the heart and increase the risk of stroke. EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF LIPIDS EXCESSIVE • Obesity INTAKE OF • Diabetes mellitus : A higher risk of CARBOHYDRATE stroke, heart diseases and kidney failure. S Raise EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF • Gout : acid inthe level of uric the blood. PROTEINS • The liver and kidney will be EXCESSIVE damaged : VITAMIN A,D,E & K INTAKE OF • an upset stomach : VITAMIN C VITAMINS EXCESSIV • High blood pressure : COMMON SALT : E INTAKE • Damage the liver and kidneys &IRON • Bone formation in soft tissues promotes OF formation of kidney stones : CALCIUM MINERALS
  19. 19. WAYS TO REDUCE THE CHANCE OF CONTRACTING CERTAIN HEALTH PROBLEMS DUE TO ONE’S DIET i. CUTTING DOWN ON THE INTAKE OF SATURATED FATS,RED MEAT AND ORGANS. ii. CUTTING DOWN ON THE INTAKE OF SALT. iii. TAKING ENOUGH DIETARY FIBRE, WHICH CAN HELP LOWER BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVEL. iv. HAVING ENOUGH SLEEP DAILY. v. MANAGING STRESS WELL. vi. EXERCISING REGULARLY.

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