6.1 TYPES OF NUTRITION
The entire process by which organism
obtain energy and nutrition from food.
Function: for growth , maintenance and
repair of damage tissue.
Types: Autotrophic nutrition and
The substances that are required for the
nourishment of an organisms.
AUTOTROPHS(autos : self ; trophos : feed)
oUse simple inorganic substances and either light
energy(photosynthesis) or chemical
energy(chemosynthesis) to synthesise food.
molecules from CO2
compound without the
help of light.
Obtain energy by
HETEROTROPHS (heteros :other)
•May practise holozoic nutrition ,saprophytism or
• Humans and nearly
• The organism feed
by ingesting solid
absorbed into their
• Carnivorous plant :
obtain nutrients by
• Feed on dead and
• Include bacteria and
fungi which digest
the food externally
before the nutrients
• A close association
organisms , parasite
• The parasite obtains
nutrients by living
on or in the body of
• The parasite absorbs
food from its host.
• Example of parasite
: fleas and lice.
6.2 BALANCED DIET
THE NECESSITY OF A BALANCE DIET
Living organisms obtain nutrients from their diets.
The foods that constitute a balanced diet should contain the
major nutrients which include:
Roughage or dietary fibre
These nutrients must be taken in the correct proportion
• To meet the daily energy requirement of an individual
• To provide the necessity nutrients for growth and tissue
• For maintaining health
DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT
Can only be obtained
from carbohydrates, fats
and proteins. Proteins are
used to provide energy
when carbohydrates and
fats are not available.
Needed to perform
physical activities, to
sustain vital functions
and for maintaining
Generated by the
oxidation of molecules
obtained from food
FACTORS THAT EFFECTING THE DAILY
ADULT MALES REQUIRE
MORE ENERGY THAN
PHYSICALLY MORE ACTIVE
AND HAVE LESS BODY FAT.
An individual of bigger size
require more energy than
another of smaller size.
The group of a complex non-protein
organic compounds which are needed in
relatively small quantities by living
Provide no energy but are essential for maintenance of
good health and efficient metabolism.
Can be divided into:
water-soluble vitamins : B and C
: cannot be stored in the
: have to be constantly
supplied in the daily diet
Fat-soluble vitamins : A,D,E and K
: can be stored in the body fat
•For growth and
promote healthy skin
•For good night vision
EGG, YEAST, LIVER,
•Promotes the effective
functioning of the
•Controls the supply of
carbohydrates to the
muscle and nerve cells
•Promotes healthy skin
EGG, MILK, COD LIVER
•Helps in the absorption
of calcium and
phosphorus in the small
VEGETABLE OIL, EGG,
LIVER, MILK,PALM OIL
•Maintains a healthy
•Necessary for the
clotting of blood
Simple inorganic nutrients which must be obtained
through the diet, either from food or dissolved in
Provide no energy but are vital for the maintenance of
Macrominerals/major minerals are required in
relatively large quantities.
Microminerals are required in trace amounts of less
than 20mg per day.
oFormation of strong
bones and teeth
oHelps in clotting in
constituent of blood
MILK, LIVER, MEAT,
of red blood cells
oNecessary for the
functioning of the
MILK, FISH, EGG
oFormation of strong
bones and teeth
oHelps to maintain the
balance of blood and
Refer to the parts of plants that cannot be digested.
The sources of roughage are vegetables, fruits, nuts
and wholemeal grains.
the small and
Helps to lower
Deficiency of roughage in our diet causes constipation
and other disorders of the large intestine.
Water is very essential to the survival of human as
all metabolic reactions take place in solution.
Water makes up about 70% off the total body weight.
As a lubricant
As a medium for
reactions in the
Failure to replace the lost water results in
dehydration. A series loss of water can be fatal.
SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE BALANCED DIET
provide extra energy
EAT A VARIETY
TAKE A VITAMIN
AS IT ONLY
building of the foetal
build the bones
IRON: for the foetus
to make red blood
CUT DOWN ON SUGAR
build soft tissue
build bones and
provide energy for
BREAST MILK IS
THE BEST FOOD
for their rapid
red blood cells
CUT DOWN AN
A DIET OF
Results from taking an unbalanced diet in
which certain nutrients are lacking , in
excess, or in the wrong proportions.
Malnutrition leads to health problems and
THE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION
• Kwashiorkor : Stunted growth , muscles that waste
away, diarrhoea ,oedema which causes the belly to
swell, loss of appetite and apathy.
• Marasmus : lacks of energy-providing too .The child
become very thin and looks old for his age.
• Rickets : CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS. The child’s
bones are soft and can bend out of shape.
• Osteoporosis : CALCIUM,VITAMIN D &
PHOSPHORUS. The elderly ’s bones become
porous and break easily.
• Rickets : VITAMIN D.
• Scurvy : VITAMIN C .Symptoms: bleeding and
• Sterility : VITAMIN E.
• Night blindness : VITAMIN A
• Obesity : An obese person is at higher risk
of developing high blood pressure and
• Atherosclerosis : A person leads to high
blood pressure, puts a strain on the heart
and increase the risk of stroke.
• Diabetes mellitus : A higher risk of
CARBOHYDRATE stroke, heart diseases and kidney
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF • Gout : acid inthe level
• The liver and kidney will be
damaged : VITAMIN A,D,E & K
• an upset stomach : VITAMIN C
EXCESSIV • High blood pressure : COMMON SALT
E INTAKE • Damage the liver and kidneys &IRON
• Bone formation in soft tissues promotes
formation of kidney stones : CALCIUM
WAYS TO REDUCE THE CHANCE OF
CONTRACTING CERTAIN HEALTH PROBLEMS
DUE TO ONE’S DIET
i. CUTTING DOWN ON THE INTAKE OF
SATURATED FATS,RED MEAT AND
ii. CUTTING DOWN ON THE INTAKE OF
iii. TAKING ENOUGH DIETARY FIBRE,
WHICH CAN HELP LOWER BLOOD
iv. HAVING ENOUGH SLEEP DAILY.
v. MANAGING STRESS WELL.
vi. EXERCISING REGULARLY.