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By
Dr. Mangesh M. Kumare
Smt. Kusumtai Wankhede Institute of
Pharmacy, KATOL
Nutrition is defined as the science of taking in utilizing food and its
relationship to health
OR
It is the science of food and its relationship to health
• Nutrition play greater role to provide better health to…Family and community
• Under nourishment and malnutrition lead to so many disease like
tuberculosis, goiter, anemia, night blindness, infection of skin, GI and
respiratory
• Dietary factor also play role in non communicate disease like heart disease,
obesity ,hypertension, disorder of liver and gall bladder.
• Poverty, economic inability and literacy are the important causes of
malnutrition therefore, disease are more common in poor people rather
than economically educated people.
• WHO Included nutrition in his campaign in ‘health for all’ their eight element.
2
INTRODUCTION
Food
It is defined as any substance which when taken into the body can be
utilized to provide heat or energy, to maintain and compensate wear and
tear of tissue and to regulate body process.
Function of food
• It provide energy In the form of heat for mechanical work even the body
is at rest some energy is utilized on the respiratory, circulatory and other
body process
• It is essential for growth of the body and for repair of daily wear and
tear of tissue. Even after growth is stop. The body continuously change
throughout the life and tissue are also changed.
• It is essential for maintenance and regulation of tissue function and
body temperature.
• It provides power to the body to built resistance against infection and
diseases
• It is essential to satisfy hunger
3
CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD
• Man is omnivorous. He selects his food from animal and vegetable origin
because structure and function of his body are such that it easily digest and
metabolize their product.
• He may be vegetarian or non-vegetarian but his food generally consist of
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mineral salt, vitamin, water
Other article of food include,
• Fish, meat, egg, milk, condiment and spice, vegetable oils, fruits and
vegetable.
The above mention article used in two way
4
Substance/ product used as such
Fruits, dry fruits, radish, carrot etc
Substance/ product used by altering their
taste
by cooking and making them more
palatable by adding chilies, salt, oil, spices
etc.
5
CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS
 By origin:
 Foods of animal origin
 Foods of vegetable origin
 By chemical composition:
 Proteins
 Fats
 Carbohydrates
 Vitamins
 Minerals
6
CLASSIFICATION BY PREDOMINANT FUNCTION
Body building foods:
-meat, milk, poultry, fish, eggs, pulses etc
Energy giving foods:
-cereals, sugars, fats, oils etc.
Protective foods:
-vegetables, fruits, milk, etc
ACCORDING TO NURTITIVE VALUE
 Animal food
 Fats and oils
 Vegetables
 Fruits
 Cereals
 Pulses
 Nuts and oil seeds
 Sugar
 Condiments and spices
7
8
NUTRIENTS
 Organic and inorganic complexes contained in food are
called nutrients.
They are broadly divided in to:
Macronutrients:
• -proteins
• -fats
• -carbohydrates
Micronutrients:
• -vitamins
• -minerals
9
• Protein, carbohydrate and fat had
been recognized early in the 19th
century as energy-yielding foods and
much attention was paid to their
metabolism and contribution to
energy requirements.
10
PROTEINS
 Proteins are complex organic nitrogenous compounds.
• Composed of carbon (54%), hydrogen (7%), oxygen (22%),
nitrogen (16%), sulfur (1%) and occasionally phosphorous,
iron and other elements.
• Chemically proteins are polymers of amino acid that are linked
by peptide bond.
• There are about 20 different amino acids which are found in
human body of the 20 amino acids, the human body is capable
of producing 11 of them. The other 9 called, “Essential
Amino Acids” must be supplied by food sources.
Classification of amino acids
11
Biologically Complete Proteins Biologically Incomplete Proteins:
Contain all 9 essential amino acids.
They are found in animal sources.
They are found in plant sources.
Lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
12
Functions of Proteins
• Provides material for growth, repair and maintenance of tissues
• Maintain the osmotic pressure.
• Needed in synthesis of certain substance. eg enzymes,
hormones, coagulation factor, antibodies, hemoglobin etc.
• Provide energy in case of inadequate calorie in take, but this is
not their primary function
• Assist the immune system, i.e. antibody synthesis.
• Help to stabilize the pH of body fluids
• Only source of nitrogen in the body.
• Helps to maintain acid base balance
Sources
The proteins are obtained from two main sources
 Animal sources- milk, meat, eggs, fish, etc. these proteins
contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient amount.
among these egg proteins are the best because they have high
biological value and digestibility.
 Vegetable sources- eg. pulses, cereals, beans, nuts etc. they
are poor in essential amino acids. soybean is one of the
richest source of protein.
• Protein requirement is expressed in terms of body weight.
The ICMR has recommended a daily requirement of 1.0g
protein per kg body weight
13
14
Too Little Protein
 Without adequate protein
– Cells lining the GI tract are not sufficiently replaced as they
slough off
– Digestive function is inhibited
– Absorption of food is reduced
– Intestinal bacteria gets into the blood and causes septicemia
– Immune system is compromised due to malnutrition and cannot
fight infection
PEM
(Protein–energy malnutrition)
• Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) or protein–calorie
malnutrition refers to a form of malnutrition where there is
inadequate calorie or protein intake.
• PEM is fairly common worldwide in both children and adults and
accounts for 6 million deaths annually.
• It occurs manly in weanlings in the children in the first year life.
Two clinical form of PEM
1. Kwashiorkor
2. Marasmus
15
Kwashiorkor
Occur mostly in second year of life due to (age group of 1 to 4 years.)
 Child weaned: mother’s milk to starchy vegetables
 Insufficient protein consumption
It lead deficiency of protein with adequate energy intake
Symptoms range from
 Weight loss:
- Arms and legs
– Decrease of muscle mass •
 Swollen abdomen
- Ascites: increase of capillary permeability
- Enlarged liver: fatty liver
 Peripheral oedema: decrease of oncotic pressure
 Anemia: lethargy
 Hair and skin changes
– Prone to infection, rapid heart rate, excess fluid in lungs,
pneumonia, septicemia, and water and electrolyte imbalances
Figure 6.16
Management
• By giving adequate diet,
• By treating infections
• By promoting health education.
• Resuscitation by correcting rehydration and
hypoglycemia .
• Treatment by weaning foods and vitamins.
• Rehabilitation in nutrition centre.
Marasmus
 Occur in second six month of life in infants
 Results from a severe deficiency in kilocalories and
proteins due to
 Child is weaned early and fed with very dilute
cow’s milk
 Diarrhea.
 Not fed properly.
Symptoms range from
• Severe muscle wasting
• Severe growth retardation
• Marked wasting of skin & bones
• Diarrhea
• Modified hair structure
Figure 6.17
Management
• By giving adequate diet,
• By treating infections
• By promoting health education.
• Resuscitation by correcting rehydration and
hypoglycemia .
• Treatment by weaning foods and vitamins.
• Rehabilitation in nutrition centre.
Prevention
• By family planning to restrict the no. of children.
• By immunization of children.
• Encouraging breast feeding.
• Attending the maternity and child health clinics as also ICDS
centers.
Treatment for PEM
• Medical and nutritional treatment can dramatically reduce mortality rate
• Should be carefully and slowly implemented
– Step 1 – Address life-threatening factors
• Severe dehydration
• Fluid and nutrient imbalances
– Step 2 – Restore depleted tissue
• Gradually provide nutritionally dense kilocalories and high-quality
protein
– Step 3 – Transition to foods and introduce physical activity
22
FAT
Most of the body fat (99 per cent) in the adipose tissue is in the
form of triglycerides, in normal human subjects, adipose tissue
constitutes between 10 and 15 per cent of body weight. One
kilogram of adipose tissue corresponds to 7700 kcal of energy.
FATS
• Fats are compounds of fatty acids with glycerol
• It constitute carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which
the amount of oxygen is insufficient to combine
with hydrogen to form water.
• Solid at 20°c.
• If they are liquid, They are called oils.
• Called concentrated sources of energy due to their
high energy value.
• Important structural components of cell
membranes.
CLASSIFICATION
1. Simple lipids eg. triglycerides.
2. Compound lipid eg. phospholipids .
3. Derived lipids eg. cholesterol
 The human body can synthesize triglycerides and
cholesterol endogenously.
 Some can not be synthesized in the body are known as
essential fatty acids and can be obtain from diet. Eg.
Linoleic acid & linolenic acid
 In the body fat which can not be immediately used is
partly deposited in the adipose tissue under the skin and
rest unabsorbed is excreted along with faces .
 On hydrolysis fats yield fatty acids and glycerol
 Fatty acids may be classified as.
1. Saturated fatty acids eg. lauric acid, palmitic acid,
and stearic acid.
• Mainly found in animal fats. Exception- fish oils are
rich in poly and monounsaturated fatty acids.
2. Mono unsaturated fatty acids e.g. oleic acid.
3. Poly unsaturated fatty acids eg. linoleic acid,
linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid.
 Mainly found in vegetable oils. Exception-coconut
oil and palm oil are rich in saturated fatty acids.
Sources
1. Animal fats: The major sources of animal fats are ghee,
butter, milk, eggs and fat of meat and fish.
2. Vegetable fats: are obtained from the seeds eg. ground nut,
mustard, sunflower, etc.
Function;
• They provide energy and heat.
• Fat beneath the skin protect against cold.
• Fat serve as vehicle for fat soluble vitamin
• Fats in the body support kidney, intestine, heart etc.
• Vegetable oils act as good source of vitamin E.
• They improve palatability of food
• Derived lipids eg. Cholesterol is used in the biosynthesis of
steroid hormones
FATS AND DISEASES
1. Obesity; in normal human subjects adipose tissue
constitute between 10-15% of body weight. A diet rich in
fat may cause obesity and hyper-cholestrolaemia. In fatty
people adipose tissue may increase Upto 30%
2. Coronary heart disease; high fat intake has been identified
as a major risk factor for CHD.
3. Cancer; diets high in fat increase the risk of colon cancer
and breast cancer.
4. Phrynoderma; deficiency of EFAs in the diet may cause
Phrynoderma.
 Fat requirements; Indian council of medical research has
recommended a daily intake of fat not more than 20% of the
total energy intake
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are chemically composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
• Carbohydrates are cheapest and the main source of energy.
• 1 g of carbohydrates on oxidation yield 4 calories.
• It is important factor in the maintenance of body.
• Daily requirement of carbohydrates is 400-500 g.
• On an average the diet has 55-65% carbohydrates.
• Carbohydrates is converted into glucose and fructose in GIT by juice before
they absorbed into body.
• In the active muscles, the glucose is oxidized for the production of heat and
energy.
• ½ of energy required by the body met from carbohydrates.
• The glucose which can not used immediately is converted into glycogen
and store in the liver or muscle or converted into fat which store under the
skin.
SOURCES
1. Sugars: it is the simplest form of carbohydrates. e.g.
 Monosaccharide: glucose, fructose, galactose.
 Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose
2. Starch: 1. it is a polysaccharide and important constituent of our
diet.
2. It is found in cereals, roots and tubers.
3. Cellulose: 1. it is an indigestible component of carbohydrate with
no nutritive value but constitutes dietary fiber or roughage.
2. It is found in vegetables, fruits, grains.
4. Glycogen : 1. these are the only carbohydrates of animal
origin.
2. synthesized in the body from glucose and is deposited in
liver and muscle.
3. Human adult reserve about 500g of glycogen and exhausted
when man is fasting
FUNCTION
• They are the main source of energy.
• They are essential for synthesis of some non-
essential amino acid.
• They are essential for oxidation of fats.
• They serve as a fibres.
• They facilitate the bowel evacuation.
FIBER
• These are non-starch compound consisting of
cellulose and other complex carbohydrates.
• It is indigestible part of food which is partly digest
by micro-organism present in large intestine.
• Daily requirement is 20g.
• Two types
Insoluble fibre
Present in brown rice ,
Wheat bran
soluble fibre
Present in fruits, oats,
legumes
FUNCTIONS
• Absorbs water thus increases bulk of stool and helps to
increases bowel movement.
• Lowers blood cholesterol, special soluble fibre (oatmeal,
psyllium oat bran etc.)
• Decreases over-eating thus aids in the preventing obesity.
• Soluble fibres slows down the digestion of carbohydrates
which results in better glucose metabolism
VITAMIN
• Originally these were known as a vitamine
• But in 1920 prof. J. C. Drummond given the
name vitamin Because some substances does not contain nitrogen
• These are complex organic chemical substances which are very
essentially for normal growth and development of the body.
• Unlike carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, vitamins DO NOT provide energy
(calories).
• These enable the body to use other nutrients.
• These are required in minute quantity and act as a catalyst.
• Function in the Body:
– Help regulate the many chemical processes in the body.
– They provide protection against ill health, infection and disease.
– There are 13 different vitamins known to be required each day for good
health.
CLASSIFICATION
• Fat Soluble Vitamins
– Vitamins A, D, E, K
– Require fat for the stomach to allow them to be carried into the blood stream for use
(absorption).
– Can be stored in the body for later use.
• Water Soluble Vitamins
1. B-complex
• a) Vit B1(Thiamine)
• b) Vit B2(Riboflavin)
• c) Vit B3(Pantothenic acid)
• d) Vit B5(Niacin/Nicotinic acid)
• e) Vit B6(Pyridoxine)
• f) Vit B7(Biotin)
• g) Vit B12(Cynocobalamine)
• h) Vit M (Folic acid)
• 2.Vit C (ASCORBIC ACID)
– Require water for absorption.
– Easily absorbed and passed through the body as waste.
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMIN
1. VITAMIN A (growth promoting or beauty vitamin)
• Chemically known as retinol.
• It covers both a pre-formed vitamin, retinol, and a pro-vitamin,
beta carotene, some of which is converted to retinol in the
intestinal mucosa.
• Daily requirement for an adult is 5000 international unit (IU) and
in growing children and during puberty, pregnancy and lactation
from 6000-8000 IU.
• It stimulate the growth of the body and prevent the no. of
diseases. Thus it is known as protective food.
• Not synthesize in body but must be provided by food
SOURCESS AND FUNCTION
Food Sources:
1. Animal foods : liver, milk, cheese, eggs, butter and fish liver oil etc.
2. Plant foods : food rich in carotene are spinach , carrots , papaya , mango
, pumpkin , leafy vegetables, deep yellow and orange fruits and
vegetables,
Function in the Body:
– Helps keep skin and hair healthy.
– Necessary for the production for retinol pigment which are required
for the vision in dimlight.
– Plays a role in developing strong bones and teeth.
– Maintain integrity and normal functions of glandular (salivary
gland) and epithelial tissue (skin, cornea)
– Support growth especially skeletal growth.
– Protects against infection.
– It is an important antioxidant.
– Has sometime protective effect against anticancer.
DEFICIENCY OF VIT–A:
 Vitamin –A deficiency commonly affects the eyes but extra ocular effects
also can be seen.
Eye manifestations :
1. Night Blindness-it is the inability to see in the dimlight.
2. Conjunctiva xerosis-in this the secretion of the tears is decreased and
conjunctiva becomes dry, wrinkled and muddy.
3. Corneal xerosis-in this cornea becomes dry, dry, dull non wet-table
and opaque and sometimes corneal ulcers are seen.
4. Keratomalacia-in this the cornea at places becomes soft and even
bursts open. They may collapse and the vision is lost.
Extra ocular manifestations:
1. Anorexia (i.e. loss of appetite)
2. Retardation of growth.
3. Follicular hyperkeratosis
4. vulnerable to respiratory and intestinal infections.
Hypervitaminosis A,
treatment and prevention
• Hypervitaminosis A- excess intake for a longer period may
produce nausea, joint pain, insomnia, fatigue, irritability,
vomiting, anorexia, weight loss and dryness of the skin.
• Treatment- vitamin A deficiency should be treated by giving 2
lac IU of vitamin A orally on two successive days.
• Prevention- vitamin A can be store for 6-9 month so prevention
is done by giving a single massive dose of 2 lac IU of vitamin A
orally every 6 month to the children of 1-6 year of age and 1 lac
to children 6 months to 1 year age.
39
VITAMIN-D
• There are two biological precursors of to vitamin D known
as ergosterol and 7-dehydro-cholesterol which are
converted to vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), and vitamin D3
(cholecalciferol) respectively by ultraviolet rays present in
sunlight.
• Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol); it may be derived by
irradiation of egrosterol
• Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) ; it is naturally occurring
preformed vitamin D. which is found in animal fats and
fish liver oils. It is also derived by the exposure of skin to
sun light.
• In the body vitamin D 2 and D3 change to calcitriol which
is an active form of vitamin D.
Function
• It promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and
phosphorus.
• It stimulates normal mineralization of bone.
• It also affects collagen maturation.
• It increases the reabsorption of phosphate and
calcium.
• It promotes normal growth.
Sources;
 Sunlight; vitamin D is synthesized in the body by the action of
UV rays of sunlight on 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is present
in the skin.
 Foods; vitamin D occur only in foods of animal origin e.g. liver,
egg yolk, butter, cheese, fish liver oil.
Deficiency ; causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
, manly in women
Daily requirement ; in adult- 100 IU (2.5mg), in infants and
children 200 IU(5.00mg), during pregnancy- 400 IV (10.00mg)
Prevention; Include
 Educating parents to exposure their children to sunshine
 Periodic dosing of young children with vitamin D
 Vitamin D fortification of food, especially milk.
VITAMIN-E(tocopherol)
 It was discovered by Dr, Evans of U.S.A.
 It belongs to a group of compounds called tocopherol
 Alpha, beta, gamma and delta are known form of tocopherol among
these alpha is most active form.
 It is an anti-sterility vitamin.
 It is Fat soluble vitamin stable to heat and light but destroyed on
oxidation.
• Food Sources:
– Vitamin E is widely distributed in nature. Riches sources are
embryos of seeds green cabbage, wheat germ, vegetable, oils, egg,
yolk, butter etc.
– Food rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids also rich in vitamin E.
– Found in Whole-grain breads and cereals; dark green, leafy
vegetables; dry beans and peas; nuts and seeds; vegetable oils;
margarine; liver.
FUNCTION
 Plays an important role in the maintenance of structural and
functional features of smooth muscle, cardiac muscles and skeletal
muscles.
 Therapeutically used in prevention of abortion, certain menstrual
disorder and improvement of lactation.
 Acts as biological antioxidant. Prevent oxidation of lipid particularly
unsaturated fatty acid
 Necessary for reproduction and deficiency lead sterility.
 Necessary for muscle metabolism. It is required for the preservation
and storage of creatine in muscles.
 Prevent hemolysis by protecting unsaturated fatty acids of
erythrocyte membrane.
Requirement – 10 mg / day for adult
Deficiency- causes
Sterility in male rats.
Abortion in female rats.
Death of fetus in uterus.
Its role in man is yet undetermined.
VITAMIN-K (anti-haemorrhage)
• Heat stable vitamin.
• Derived from naphthaquinone derivatives. Occurs in two
form a) vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) and b) vitamin K2
• Food Sources:
– Found in Dark green and leafy vegetables (such as
spinach, lettuce, kale, collard greens), and cabbage and
some fruits. Cow’s milk is rich source of vitamin K and
naturally available in alfalfa plant.
Vitamin K2 is synthesized by intestinal bacteria,
and isolated from putrefied fish meal
Function
 Essential for normal coagulation of blood
 Necessary for formation of prothrombin and other blood
factors in liver.
Requirement – 0.03 mg/ kg/day for adults
Deficiency
 long term administration of antibiotic dosage for more
than a weak may temporarily suppress normal intestinal
flora and may cause a deficiency of vitamin K.
 in vitamin K deficiency the prothrombin content of the
blood is markedly decrease and the blood clotting time is
considerably increased
VITAMIN-C
• Food Sources:
– Citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi,
broccoli, tomatoes, and potatoes.
• Function in the Body:
– Helps heal wounds.
– Helps maintain healthy bones,
teeth, and blood vessels
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
• It includes B-complex and Vitamin C.
• Vitamin B was classified as Vitamin B complex because they tend to
occur together in foods in relatively high concentrations.
• Since the identity of each vitamin had been established so the term B-
complex is no longer appropriate.
Vitamin B group includes
1. Vit B1(Thiamine)
2. Vit B2(Riboflavin)
3. Vit B3(Pantothenic acid)
4. Vit B5(Niacin/Nicotinic acid)
5. Vit B6(Pyridoxine)
6. Vit B7(Biotin)
7. Vit B12(Cynocobalamine)
8. Vit M (Folic acid)
Vit C (ASCORBIC ACID)
THIAMINE OR VITAMIN B1 (antineuritic vitamin)
• It has been isolated in crystalline form from rice polishing and yeast.
• It is heat stable but destroyed in neutral or alkaline solution.
FUNCTION
1. It is Essential for the utilization of carbohydrates.
2. It is Essential for proper working of heart, nerves and muscles.
3. It Promotes growth.
SOURCES
• It occurs in all natural fruits in small amounts.
• Important source are wholegrain, cereals, yeast, pulses, meat, peas, milk and
nuts especially ground nuts.
 The disease is an endemic problem in Asia, due to the practice of “polishing”
rice after it has been husked.
 Husking rice to make white rice removes most of the thiamine-rich outer
casing, and polishing it removes the rest of the thiamine.
DEFICIENCY
• Partial deficiency of these vitamin leads to malnutrition and
production of intestinal stasis (Stoppage) resulting in the retention of
putrid food, residue in the bowels.
• The absence of vitamin B1, causes beriberi which is characterized by
polyneuritis, GIT upset. The symptoms of Beriberi includes retarded
growth, weakness, fatigue, headache, insomnia, dizziness and loss of
appetite.
REQUIREMENT
• 1-2 gm daily.
• The body contain thiamine is about 30 gm and if more than this is
given it is merely lost in the urine.
• Beriberi can be eliminated by educating people to eat well balance,
mixed diet containing thiamine rich foods. E.g. parboiled and under
milled rice and to stop all alcohol.
RIBOFLAVIN / Vitamin B2 (yellow enzyme)
• It occurs as a yellow crystalline powder.
• It destroy on the exposure to light and oxygen.
• It is associated as coenzyme in tissue oxidation and respiration.
FUNCTION
1) It acts as coenzyme in cellular oxidation.
2) It Promotes growth of skin, health of the skin, mouth and eyes.
SOURCE
• Richest natural sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, liver, kidney and green leafy vegetables.
Cereals and pulses are relatively poor sources but because of the bulk in which they are
consumed, they contribute much of vitamin B2 in Indian diets.
DEFICIENCY- Lead to
1) Skin disorders
2) Inflammation of tongue.
3) Cracking at corners of the mouth.
REQUIREMENT
 The recommended daily allowance is 0.6 gm/ 1000 C of energy intake.
 During pregnancy of additional intake of 0.3 gm.
 During lactation-an additional intake of 0.5 gm.
NIACIN (Vitamin B3)
• Niacin is the official name of nicotinic acid.
• Nicotinamide is biological active form of vitamin.
• It can be synthesized by human body from amino acid tryptophan.
FUNCTIONS
• It is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein.
• It is also essential for normal functioning of skin, intestine and nervous system.
SOURCES
• Food rich in niacin are liver, kidney, meat, poultry, fish and groundnut, peas, beans,
tomatoes. Milk and eggs although low in performed niacin, contain high amounts of
tryptophan and as such have a high niacin equivalent.
DIFICIENCY- Causes
1) Pellagra in man, symptoms are dermatitis, dark color tongue, and inability to digest and
assimilate food.
General effects are
2) Inadequate growth for children
3) Loss of weight and strength.
4) Anemia.
REQUIRMENT- 6.6 mg/1000 calories/day.
PYRIDOXINE (Vitamin B6)
• Three compounds belong to the group known as vitamin B6.
• These are pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine.
FUNCTION
• Its biologically active form is pyridoxal phosphate which participate in the catalysis of several
important reaction of the amino acid metabolism e.g. trans-amination, decarboxylation.
• It is also involved in metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
• It maintains proper working of muscles and nerves.
SOURCES
• It is widely distributed in foods e.g. milk, liver, milk, egg yolk, fish, wholegrain, cereals and
vegetables.
• Traces are present in all articles of food.
DEFICIENCY
• Deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare in man.
• Its deficiency is associated with peripheral and neuritis.
• Its deficiency in children causes convulsion.
REQUIRMENT
• Adults may need 2gm/ day .
• During pregnancy and lactation the requirement is 2.5g/ day.
FOLIC ACID
(pteroylglutamic acid, Vitamin M)
• It belongs to group of compound called pterins.
• The recommended name for these vitamins is folate.
• In food, it occur as free folate and bound folates.
• In man free folates is rapidly absorbed manly from the proximal part
of the intestine.
FUNCTION
• Its active form is tetra hydro folic acid which serves as the coenzyme
in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids.
• It also needed for the normal development of the blood cell in the
marrow.
SOURCES
• The good sources of folic acid are liver, meat, egg, milk, fruits, cereals,
leafy vegetable.
• Our cooking destroys much of folic acid.
DEFICIENCY- Folate deficiency result in
 Megaloblastic anemia
 Glossitis
 Cheilosis (cracks and swelling of leaps)
 Gastro intestinal disturbance. (diarrhea, distension, flatulence)
 Severe folate deficiency may cause infertility or sterility.
REQUIRMNT
• The body stores of the folate of about 5-10 g and therefore folate
deficiency Can develop quickly. Intake values of folic acid as
recommended by ICMR are given bellow
 Healthy adults 100 mcg/day.
 Pregnancy 300 mcg/ day.
 Lactation 150 mcg/day.
 Children 100 mcg/ day.
VITAMIN B12 (cyanocobalamin)
• It belongs to the family of cobalamines.
• It is a complex organic metallic cobalt compound obtained from liver
or from the growth products of certain micro-organism.
FUNCTION
• It is essential for the formation and maturation of red blood cells.
• It participates as a coenzyme in a number of biochemical reactions,
e.g. in folate metabolism.
• It also has a biochemical role in synthesis of fatty acids in myelin.
SOURCES
• Rich sources are liver, kidney, meat, fish, eggs and milk, yeast and
cheese.
• It is not found in vegetables.
• It is also synthesized by bacteria in colon.
• The vitamin is found in fungus.
• Streptomyces griseous, hence cyanocobalamin is obtained as a
byproduct of streptomycin.
DIFICIENCY
• Deficiency of Vitamin B12 may arise in subjects who are
strict vegetarians and eat no animal products.
Deficiency of Vitamin B12 leads
• Megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia)
• Demyelinating and neurological lesions in the spinal cord.
REQUIRMENT
Recommended by ICMR is given below
• Normal adult 1 mcg.
• Pregnancy 1.5 mcg.
• lactation 1.5 mcg.
• infant and children 0.2 mcg.
VITAMIN C (ant scorbutic vitamin)
• Chemically it is known as ascorbic acid. It is very sensitive to heat.
• In the body, it is reversibly oxidized to dehydro ascorbic acid.
FUNCTIONS
• It is needed for the biosynthesis of collagen, which accounts for 25% of total
body protein.
• It reduces ferric ion to ferrous form thus facilitates absorption of iron from
vegetable foods.
• It inhibits nitrosamine formation by the intestinal mucosa.
• It is claimed to provide protection against infections.
• It has been found to control glaucoma. It decreases intra-ocular pressure.
SOURCES
• The richest sources of vitamin C are cabbages, turnips, lemons, oranges,
amla and guava.
• Properly sprouted pulses, germinating grams, etc. are also rich sources.
• Traces present in fresh meat and milk.
DIFICIENCY- Results in
• Scurvy (the signs are swollen and bleeding into the skin or joints,
delayed wound healing, anemia and weakness)
• Mal formation of bone and teeth.
REQUIRMENT
• The recommended daily allowance of vitamin C for
 Adults is 60mg,
 During lactation it increases to 100-150 mg/ day.
 For children it is between 30-60 mg/ day (adolescents).
NOTE
• Daily need of vitamin C is increased in smokers, alcoholics and
during emotional stress, in patient suffering from fever and during
old age.
MINERALS
• In human body, there are atleast 50 different mineral element about
1/20th the body weight consist of inorganic salts e.g. chlorides,
sulphates and phosphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and
calcium.
• These inorganic salts (about 20-30g) are lost from the body via the
skin, kidneys, and the faeces so these are required to be replenished
daily through the food stuffs.
Minerals can be classified into three major groups.
• i) Major minerals: These include calcium, phosphorus, sodium
potassium and magnesium,
• ii) Trace elements – These are required in small amount (less than a
few milligrams per day) by the body. These elements are iron, iodine,
fluorine, zinc, copper, cobalt, chromium, manganese, molybdenum,
selenium, nickel, tin, silicon and vanadium;
• iii) Trace elements with no known function –They are mercury,
barium, boron and aluminum.
FUNCTIONS
 Mineral salt are essential for the maintenance of the body.
 They form part of every cell e.g. phosphorus, iron.
 They are the constituents of bone and teeth e.g. calcium and
phosphorous..
 They maintain electrolyte balance in body fluids e.g. sodium, potassium
and chloride.
 They maintain pH of the blood.
 They are essential components of respiratory pigments, enzymes and
enzyme system.
 They regulate the excitability of muscular and nervous tissues.
 They play an important role in water metabolism and regulation of blood
volume.
 Diet which is adequate in protein, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins
provides all minerals in sufficient quantity.
CALCIUM
• It is Major mineral element of the body.
• It constituent 1.5-2 % of body weight.
• Average adult body contain 1200 grams,
• In human adult 98% of body calcium found in bones.
• The blood contains 10 mg of calcium.
• The dynamic equilibrium between blood and bones is
maintained by parathyroid gland and cholecalciferol.
FUNCTION
• Calcium is involved in the formation of bones and teeth and
also for their maintenance.
• It is required for coagulation of blood,
• It is essential for regulation of neuromuscular excitation.
• It is essential for contractility of cardiac, smooth and skeletal
muscles.
• Capillary permeability is controlled by calcium.
• It plays role in transformation of light into electrical impulses
in the retina.
• This element activates some important enzyme reactions such
as ATP‐ ases, various lipases etc.
• It is involved in transmission of nerve impulses.
SOURCES
 Natural riches sources are milk and milk product like cheese, butter,
milk, curd.
 Fruits like sitaphal, and dates, and other riches sources are b
 Drinking water also provides up to 200mg of calcium per day.
DEFICIENCY
 Even under low calcium intake no disease due to calcium deficiency
observed because of presence of adequate cholecalciferol intake.
 The various deficiency symptoms are Poor bone formation, dental
caries, and dysfunction of muscles.
DAILY REQUIRMENT
 Men and women- minimum requirement is 1g/ day.
 In children is 0.6g/ day.
 In pregnancy is 1.0 g/day.
PHOSPHORUS
 After calcium it is second most important mineral for human
being.
 The bones and teeth contain 75% of total phosphorous of the body.
 The remaining 25% phosphorous lies in various part of the body.
FUNCTION
 It is associated with calcium and vitamin D in the hardening of
bones and teeth.
 it is essential for growth.
 It activates digestive system.
 It helps in the process of metabolism of sugar and fats.
 It is essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves.
 Phosphates are an essential part of systems of energy transport
inside the cells.
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMES
 Due to wide spread occurrence of phosphorous in food
there is no evidence of deficiency in human except those
person who consume large amount of antacids. Which
interfere with phosphorous absorption.
 The deficiency symptoms are
 weakening of teeth and bones
 Loss of weight
 Loss of appetite.
REQUIRMENT
 Minimum 1.5 g/day
IRON
 It is very important in human nutrition.
 Human adult contain 3-4 g of which about 60-70 % present in
the blood as a hemoglobin iron. And rest is present in
myoglobin (5-15%), in ferritin (10-15%), and in enzymes (2%)
FUNCTION
 Its primary function is to form haemoglobin.
 It is essential for formation and maturation of red cells.
 It is essential for cell respiration and for transport of oxygen.
 It is necessary for brain development and function, regulation
of body temperature, muscle activity and for maintenance of
immune system.
 It is the component of various enzyme system.
ABSORPTION
 It is mostly absorbed from duodenum and upper small intestine in the
ferrous state.
 Ascorbic acid enhance the absorption of iron while phytates and phosphates
reduce absorption.
SOURCES
 Animal sources- all animal foods e.g. meat, liver egg, fish excepting milk and
butter.
 Iron obtained from animal sources are better absorbed and promotes the
absorption of non haem-iron .
 Vegetable foods- e.g. cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, oil seed and fruits
contain non haem-iron.
 The bioavailability of non haem-iron is poor due to the presence of phytates,
phosphate and dietary fibre which interfere with iron absorption.
DEFICIENCY
 Anemia- the haemoglobin content of blood falls below normal i.e.
14.5g/100ml of blood.
 RBCs are decreased in size and become feeble in colour.
 Iron deficiency also leads impaired immunity and decrease resistance
to infection.
DAILY REQUIRMENT
 For infants– 1.0mg/ kg.
 For children and adolescent age upto 15 yr- 20-25 mg/ kg
 For adolescent age upto 16-18 yr- 35 mg/ kg.
 For adult male- 24 mg/ kg
 For adult female- 32 mg/ kg
 During pregnancy 40mg/ kg/ day
IODINE
 It is essential micronutrients.
 50mg present in human adult.
 It is present in every living cell of the body.
FUNCTION
 It is essential constitute of thyroid hormones and therefore essential
for normal life.
SOURCES
 Iodine rich sources are sea foods e.g. sea weeds, sea fish, and code
liver oil, and also occur in milk, meat, vegetable and cereals etc.
DEFICIENCY
Causes iodine deficiency disorders which include
 Goiter and hypothyroidism
 Retarded physical growth.
 Impaired mental function.
REQUIRMENT
 For adult- 150 microgram/day.
 Growing children, pregnancy and in adolescence- extra iodine
is needed.
FLUORINE
 It is highly reactive so it s never found in gaseous form.
 About 96% of fluorine found in teeth and bones.
FUNCTION
 It is essential for normal mineralization of bones.
 It is required for the formation of dental enamel.
SOURCES
 Drinking water, sea fish, cheese and tea.
DEFICIENCY/ EXCESS
1. Excess causes fluorosis (at low level causes discoloration of teeth
and high level ligaments can be calcified) of teeth and bones
2. Deficiency causes dental caries.
REQUIRMENT
 Recommended level of fluorides in drinking water in india is 0.5- 0.8
mg/ litre.
ZINC
 It is found in all tissues in traces.
FUNCTION
 It is necessary for the action of atleast 20 enzymes.
 It is required for synthesis of insulin by the pancreas.
 It is essential for the health of prostate gland.
 It is necessary for sperm formation.
SOURCES
 Animal food and see food provide good amount of zinc. Milk is rich
source and traces found in ordinary diet.
DEFICIENCY
 Retarded growth
 Sexual infantilism
 Multiple infections
 Skin lesions
 Disorder of taste
 Alopecia
 Anemia
REQUIRMENT
 For man- 15 mg / day
 For female- 12 mg/ day
 For pregnant women- 15mg/ day
 For lactating women- 19 mg/ day.
COPPER
 Normal adult contain 100 mg in the body.
 Liver is a main storage for copper.
 It is needed for biosynthesis of collagen and protective covering for nerves.
FUNCTION
 It is essential for proper functioning of verities of enzymes e.g. lysil oxidase,
cytochrome oxidase, ferroxidase.
 It facilitates the absorption of iron.
 It is necessary for incorporation of iron in the molecules of haemoglobin.
SOURCES
 It is widely distributed in plant, vegetables, milk, liver, brain tissue etc.
DIFICIENCY
 Occur Rare in man.
 Deficiency May appear because of longer use of chelating agents.
DAILY REQUIRMENT
 In adult 2mg/ day.
Balanced Diet
• A Balanced Diet is defined as the one which contains a variety of foods in such
quantities and proportions that the need of energy , amino acid, vitamins, minerals,
fats, carbohydrates is adequately met for maintaining health and well being.
• It also makes a small provision for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of
leanness.
• The component of balanced diet is differ according to age, sex, physical activity and
physiological states i.e. pregnancy, lactation etc.
• COMPOSITION OF BALANCE DIET: the dietary constituents of food are fats (90g),
protein (90g), vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate(450g), water in adequate amount etc.
• Composition for adult diets contain cereals-400gm, leafy vegetables 114gm, other
vegetables 85gm, pulses and nuts 85gm, root vegetables 85gm, fruits 85gm, milk and
milk products 264gm, flesh food 125gm, sugar and jaggery 57gm and oils and fats
57gm.
• Protein deficiency ,vitamin deficiency ,iron deficiency are most common in Indian diet
• Serum albumin concentration of 3.5g/dl is considered as a best measure of protein
nutrition.
Nutrition and health

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Nutrition and health

  • 1. By Dr. Mangesh M. Kumare Smt. Kusumtai Wankhede Institute of Pharmacy, KATOL
  • 2. Nutrition is defined as the science of taking in utilizing food and its relationship to health OR It is the science of food and its relationship to health • Nutrition play greater role to provide better health to…Family and community • Under nourishment and malnutrition lead to so many disease like tuberculosis, goiter, anemia, night blindness, infection of skin, GI and respiratory • Dietary factor also play role in non communicate disease like heart disease, obesity ,hypertension, disorder of liver and gall bladder. • Poverty, economic inability and literacy are the important causes of malnutrition therefore, disease are more common in poor people rather than economically educated people. • WHO Included nutrition in his campaign in ‘health for all’ their eight element. 2 INTRODUCTION
  • 3. Food It is defined as any substance which when taken into the body can be utilized to provide heat or energy, to maintain and compensate wear and tear of tissue and to regulate body process. Function of food • It provide energy In the form of heat for mechanical work even the body is at rest some energy is utilized on the respiratory, circulatory and other body process • It is essential for growth of the body and for repair of daily wear and tear of tissue. Even after growth is stop. The body continuously change throughout the life and tissue are also changed. • It is essential for maintenance and regulation of tissue function and body temperature. • It provides power to the body to built resistance against infection and diseases • It is essential to satisfy hunger 3
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD • Man is omnivorous. He selects his food from animal and vegetable origin because structure and function of his body are such that it easily digest and metabolize their product. • He may be vegetarian or non-vegetarian but his food generally consist of Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mineral salt, vitamin, water Other article of food include, • Fish, meat, egg, milk, condiment and spice, vegetable oils, fruits and vegetable. The above mention article used in two way 4 Substance/ product used as such Fruits, dry fruits, radish, carrot etc Substance/ product used by altering their taste by cooking and making them more palatable by adding chilies, salt, oil, spices etc.
  • 5. 5 CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS  By origin:  Foods of animal origin  Foods of vegetable origin  By chemical composition:  Proteins  Fats  Carbohydrates  Vitamins  Minerals
  • 6. 6 CLASSIFICATION BY PREDOMINANT FUNCTION Body building foods: -meat, milk, poultry, fish, eggs, pulses etc Energy giving foods: -cereals, sugars, fats, oils etc. Protective foods: -vegetables, fruits, milk, etc
  • 7. ACCORDING TO NURTITIVE VALUE  Animal food  Fats and oils  Vegetables  Fruits  Cereals  Pulses  Nuts and oil seeds  Sugar  Condiments and spices 7
  • 8. 8 NUTRIENTS  Organic and inorganic complexes contained in food are called nutrients. They are broadly divided in to: Macronutrients: • -proteins • -fats • -carbohydrates Micronutrients: • -vitamins • -minerals
  • 9. 9 • Protein, carbohydrate and fat had been recognized early in the 19th century as energy-yielding foods and much attention was paid to their metabolism and contribution to energy requirements.
  • 10. 10 PROTEINS  Proteins are complex organic nitrogenous compounds. • Composed of carbon (54%), hydrogen (7%), oxygen (22%), nitrogen (16%), sulfur (1%) and occasionally phosphorous, iron and other elements. • Chemically proteins are polymers of amino acid that are linked by peptide bond. • There are about 20 different amino acids which are found in human body of the 20 amino acids, the human body is capable of producing 11 of them. The other 9 called, “Essential Amino Acids” must be supplied by food sources.
  • 11. Classification of amino acids 11 Biologically Complete Proteins Biologically Incomplete Proteins: Contain all 9 essential amino acids. They are found in animal sources. They are found in plant sources. Lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
  • 12. 12 Functions of Proteins • Provides material for growth, repair and maintenance of tissues • Maintain the osmotic pressure. • Needed in synthesis of certain substance. eg enzymes, hormones, coagulation factor, antibodies, hemoglobin etc. • Provide energy in case of inadequate calorie in take, but this is not their primary function • Assist the immune system, i.e. antibody synthesis. • Help to stabilize the pH of body fluids • Only source of nitrogen in the body. • Helps to maintain acid base balance
  • 13. Sources The proteins are obtained from two main sources  Animal sources- milk, meat, eggs, fish, etc. these proteins contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient amount. among these egg proteins are the best because they have high biological value and digestibility.  Vegetable sources- eg. pulses, cereals, beans, nuts etc. they are poor in essential amino acids. soybean is one of the richest source of protein. • Protein requirement is expressed in terms of body weight. The ICMR has recommended a daily requirement of 1.0g protein per kg body weight 13
  • 14. 14 Too Little Protein  Without adequate protein – Cells lining the GI tract are not sufficiently replaced as they slough off – Digestive function is inhibited – Absorption of food is reduced – Intestinal bacteria gets into the blood and causes septicemia – Immune system is compromised due to malnutrition and cannot fight infection
  • 15. PEM (Protein–energy malnutrition) • Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) or protein–calorie malnutrition refers to a form of malnutrition where there is inadequate calorie or protein intake. • PEM is fairly common worldwide in both children and adults and accounts for 6 million deaths annually. • It occurs manly in weanlings in the children in the first year life. Two clinical form of PEM 1. Kwashiorkor 2. Marasmus 15
  • 16. Kwashiorkor Occur mostly in second year of life due to (age group of 1 to 4 years.)  Child weaned: mother’s milk to starchy vegetables  Insufficient protein consumption It lead deficiency of protein with adequate energy intake Symptoms range from  Weight loss: - Arms and legs – Decrease of muscle mass •  Swollen abdomen - Ascites: increase of capillary permeability - Enlarged liver: fatty liver  Peripheral oedema: decrease of oncotic pressure  Anemia: lethargy  Hair and skin changes – Prone to infection, rapid heart rate, excess fluid in lungs, pneumonia, septicemia, and water and electrolyte imbalances Figure 6.16
  • 17. Management • By giving adequate diet, • By treating infections • By promoting health education. • Resuscitation by correcting rehydration and hypoglycemia . • Treatment by weaning foods and vitamins. • Rehabilitation in nutrition centre.
  • 18. Marasmus  Occur in second six month of life in infants  Results from a severe deficiency in kilocalories and proteins due to  Child is weaned early and fed with very dilute cow’s milk  Diarrhea.  Not fed properly. Symptoms range from • Severe muscle wasting • Severe growth retardation • Marked wasting of skin & bones • Diarrhea • Modified hair structure Figure 6.17
  • 19. Management • By giving adequate diet, • By treating infections • By promoting health education. • Resuscitation by correcting rehydration and hypoglycemia . • Treatment by weaning foods and vitamins. • Rehabilitation in nutrition centre.
  • 20. Prevention • By family planning to restrict the no. of children. • By immunization of children. • Encouraging breast feeding. • Attending the maternity and child health clinics as also ICDS centers.
  • 21. Treatment for PEM • Medical and nutritional treatment can dramatically reduce mortality rate • Should be carefully and slowly implemented – Step 1 – Address life-threatening factors • Severe dehydration • Fluid and nutrient imbalances – Step 2 – Restore depleted tissue • Gradually provide nutritionally dense kilocalories and high-quality protein – Step 3 – Transition to foods and introduce physical activity
  • 22. 22 FAT Most of the body fat (99 per cent) in the adipose tissue is in the form of triglycerides, in normal human subjects, adipose tissue constitutes between 10 and 15 per cent of body weight. One kilogram of adipose tissue corresponds to 7700 kcal of energy.
  • 23. FATS • Fats are compounds of fatty acids with glycerol • It constitute carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which the amount of oxygen is insufficient to combine with hydrogen to form water. • Solid at 20°c. • If they are liquid, They are called oils. • Called concentrated sources of energy due to their high energy value. • Important structural components of cell membranes.
  • 24. CLASSIFICATION 1. Simple lipids eg. triglycerides. 2. Compound lipid eg. phospholipids . 3. Derived lipids eg. cholesterol  The human body can synthesize triglycerides and cholesterol endogenously.  Some can not be synthesized in the body are known as essential fatty acids and can be obtain from diet. Eg. Linoleic acid & linolenic acid  In the body fat which can not be immediately used is partly deposited in the adipose tissue under the skin and rest unabsorbed is excreted along with faces .  On hydrolysis fats yield fatty acids and glycerol
  • 25.  Fatty acids may be classified as. 1. Saturated fatty acids eg. lauric acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. • Mainly found in animal fats. Exception- fish oils are rich in poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. 2. Mono unsaturated fatty acids e.g. oleic acid. 3. Poly unsaturated fatty acids eg. linoleic acid, linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid.  Mainly found in vegetable oils. Exception-coconut oil and palm oil are rich in saturated fatty acids.
  • 26. Sources 1. Animal fats: The major sources of animal fats are ghee, butter, milk, eggs and fat of meat and fish. 2. Vegetable fats: are obtained from the seeds eg. ground nut, mustard, sunflower, etc. Function; • They provide energy and heat. • Fat beneath the skin protect against cold. • Fat serve as vehicle for fat soluble vitamin • Fats in the body support kidney, intestine, heart etc. • Vegetable oils act as good source of vitamin E. • They improve palatability of food • Derived lipids eg. Cholesterol is used in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones
  • 27. FATS AND DISEASES 1. Obesity; in normal human subjects adipose tissue constitute between 10-15% of body weight. A diet rich in fat may cause obesity and hyper-cholestrolaemia. In fatty people adipose tissue may increase Upto 30% 2. Coronary heart disease; high fat intake has been identified as a major risk factor for CHD. 3. Cancer; diets high in fat increase the risk of colon cancer and breast cancer. 4. Phrynoderma; deficiency of EFAs in the diet may cause Phrynoderma.  Fat requirements; Indian council of medical research has recommended a daily intake of fat not more than 20% of the total energy intake
  • 28. CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are chemically composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • Carbohydrates are cheapest and the main source of energy. • 1 g of carbohydrates on oxidation yield 4 calories. • It is important factor in the maintenance of body. • Daily requirement of carbohydrates is 400-500 g. • On an average the diet has 55-65% carbohydrates. • Carbohydrates is converted into glucose and fructose in GIT by juice before they absorbed into body. • In the active muscles, the glucose is oxidized for the production of heat and energy. • ½ of energy required by the body met from carbohydrates. • The glucose which can not used immediately is converted into glycogen and store in the liver or muscle or converted into fat which store under the skin.
  • 29. SOURCES 1. Sugars: it is the simplest form of carbohydrates. e.g.  Monosaccharide: glucose, fructose, galactose.  Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose 2. Starch: 1. it is a polysaccharide and important constituent of our diet. 2. It is found in cereals, roots and tubers. 3. Cellulose: 1. it is an indigestible component of carbohydrate with no nutritive value but constitutes dietary fiber or roughage. 2. It is found in vegetables, fruits, grains. 4. Glycogen : 1. these are the only carbohydrates of animal origin. 2. synthesized in the body from glucose and is deposited in liver and muscle. 3. Human adult reserve about 500g of glycogen and exhausted when man is fasting
  • 30. FUNCTION • They are the main source of energy. • They are essential for synthesis of some non- essential amino acid. • They are essential for oxidation of fats. • They serve as a fibres. • They facilitate the bowel evacuation.
  • 31. FIBER • These are non-starch compound consisting of cellulose and other complex carbohydrates. • It is indigestible part of food which is partly digest by micro-organism present in large intestine. • Daily requirement is 20g. • Two types Insoluble fibre Present in brown rice , Wheat bran soluble fibre Present in fruits, oats, legumes
  • 32. FUNCTIONS • Absorbs water thus increases bulk of stool and helps to increases bowel movement. • Lowers blood cholesterol, special soluble fibre (oatmeal, psyllium oat bran etc.) • Decreases over-eating thus aids in the preventing obesity. • Soluble fibres slows down the digestion of carbohydrates which results in better glucose metabolism
  • 33. VITAMIN • Originally these were known as a vitamine • But in 1920 prof. J. C. Drummond given the name vitamin Because some substances does not contain nitrogen • These are complex organic chemical substances which are very essentially for normal growth and development of the body. • Unlike carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, vitamins DO NOT provide energy (calories). • These enable the body to use other nutrients. • These are required in minute quantity and act as a catalyst. • Function in the Body: – Help regulate the many chemical processes in the body. – They provide protection against ill health, infection and disease. – There are 13 different vitamins known to be required each day for good health.
  • 34. CLASSIFICATION • Fat Soluble Vitamins – Vitamins A, D, E, K – Require fat for the stomach to allow them to be carried into the blood stream for use (absorption). – Can be stored in the body for later use. • Water Soluble Vitamins 1. B-complex • a) Vit B1(Thiamine) • b) Vit B2(Riboflavin) • c) Vit B3(Pantothenic acid) • d) Vit B5(Niacin/Nicotinic acid) • e) Vit B6(Pyridoxine) • f) Vit B7(Biotin) • g) Vit B12(Cynocobalamine) • h) Vit M (Folic acid) • 2.Vit C (ASCORBIC ACID) – Require water for absorption. – Easily absorbed and passed through the body as waste.
  • 35. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMIN 1. VITAMIN A (growth promoting or beauty vitamin) • Chemically known as retinol. • It covers both a pre-formed vitamin, retinol, and a pro-vitamin, beta carotene, some of which is converted to retinol in the intestinal mucosa. • Daily requirement for an adult is 5000 international unit (IU) and in growing children and during puberty, pregnancy and lactation from 6000-8000 IU. • It stimulate the growth of the body and prevent the no. of diseases. Thus it is known as protective food. • Not synthesize in body but must be provided by food
  • 36. SOURCESS AND FUNCTION Food Sources: 1. Animal foods : liver, milk, cheese, eggs, butter and fish liver oil etc. 2. Plant foods : food rich in carotene are spinach , carrots , papaya , mango , pumpkin , leafy vegetables, deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, Function in the Body: – Helps keep skin and hair healthy. – Necessary for the production for retinol pigment which are required for the vision in dimlight. – Plays a role in developing strong bones and teeth. – Maintain integrity and normal functions of glandular (salivary gland) and epithelial tissue (skin, cornea) – Support growth especially skeletal growth. – Protects against infection. – It is an important antioxidant. – Has sometime protective effect against anticancer.
  • 37. DEFICIENCY OF VIT–A:  Vitamin –A deficiency commonly affects the eyes but extra ocular effects also can be seen. Eye manifestations : 1. Night Blindness-it is the inability to see in the dimlight. 2. Conjunctiva xerosis-in this the secretion of the tears is decreased and conjunctiva becomes dry, wrinkled and muddy. 3. Corneal xerosis-in this cornea becomes dry, dry, dull non wet-table and opaque and sometimes corneal ulcers are seen. 4. Keratomalacia-in this the cornea at places becomes soft and even bursts open. They may collapse and the vision is lost. Extra ocular manifestations: 1. Anorexia (i.e. loss of appetite) 2. Retardation of growth. 3. Follicular hyperkeratosis 4. vulnerable to respiratory and intestinal infections.
  • 38. Hypervitaminosis A, treatment and prevention • Hypervitaminosis A- excess intake for a longer period may produce nausea, joint pain, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss and dryness of the skin. • Treatment- vitamin A deficiency should be treated by giving 2 lac IU of vitamin A orally on two successive days. • Prevention- vitamin A can be store for 6-9 month so prevention is done by giving a single massive dose of 2 lac IU of vitamin A orally every 6 month to the children of 1-6 year of age and 1 lac to children 6 months to 1 year age.
  • 39. 39 VITAMIN-D • There are two biological precursors of to vitamin D known as ergosterol and 7-dehydro-cholesterol which are converted to vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) respectively by ultraviolet rays present in sunlight. • Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol); it may be derived by irradiation of egrosterol • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) ; it is naturally occurring preformed vitamin D. which is found in animal fats and fish liver oils. It is also derived by the exposure of skin to sun light. • In the body vitamin D 2 and D3 change to calcitriol which is an active form of vitamin D.
  • 40. Function • It promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus. • It stimulates normal mineralization of bone. • It also affects collagen maturation. • It increases the reabsorption of phosphate and calcium. • It promotes normal growth.
  • 41. Sources;  Sunlight; vitamin D is synthesized in the body by the action of UV rays of sunlight on 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is present in the skin.  Foods; vitamin D occur only in foods of animal origin e.g. liver, egg yolk, butter, cheese, fish liver oil. Deficiency ; causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults , manly in women Daily requirement ; in adult- 100 IU (2.5mg), in infants and children 200 IU(5.00mg), during pregnancy- 400 IV (10.00mg) Prevention; Include  Educating parents to exposure their children to sunshine  Periodic dosing of young children with vitamin D  Vitamin D fortification of food, especially milk.
  • 42. VITAMIN-E(tocopherol)  It was discovered by Dr, Evans of U.S.A.  It belongs to a group of compounds called tocopherol  Alpha, beta, gamma and delta are known form of tocopherol among these alpha is most active form.  It is an anti-sterility vitamin.  It is Fat soluble vitamin stable to heat and light but destroyed on oxidation. • Food Sources: – Vitamin E is widely distributed in nature. Riches sources are embryos of seeds green cabbage, wheat germ, vegetable, oils, egg, yolk, butter etc. – Food rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids also rich in vitamin E. – Found in Whole-grain breads and cereals; dark green, leafy vegetables; dry beans and peas; nuts and seeds; vegetable oils; margarine; liver.
  • 43. FUNCTION  Plays an important role in the maintenance of structural and functional features of smooth muscle, cardiac muscles and skeletal muscles.  Therapeutically used in prevention of abortion, certain menstrual disorder and improvement of lactation.  Acts as biological antioxidant. Prevent oxidation of lipid particularly unsaturated fatty acid  Necessary for reproduction and deficiency lead sterility.  Necessary for muscle metabolism. It is required for the preservation and storage of creatine in muscles.  Prevent hemolysis by protecting unsaturated fatty acids of erythrocyte membrane.
  • 44. Requirement – 10 mg / day for adult Deficiency- causes Sterility in male rats. Abortion in female rats. Death of fetus in uterus. Its role in man is yet undetermined.
  • 45. VITAMIN-K (anti-haemorrhage) • Heat stable vitamin. • Derived from naphthaquinone derivatives. Occurs in two form a) vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) and b) vitamin K2 • Food Sources: – Found in Dark green and leafy vegetables (such as spinach, lettuce, kale, collard greens), and cabbage and some fruits. Cow’s milk is rich source of vitamin K and naturally available in alfalfa plant. Vitamin K2 is synthesized by intestinal bacteria, and isolated from putrefied fish meal
  • 46. Function  Essential for normal coagulation of blood  Necessary for formation of prothrombin and other blood factors in liver. Requirement – 0.03 mg/ kg/day for adults Deficiency  long term administration of antibiotic dosage for more than a weak may temporarily suppress normal intestinal flora and may cause a deficiency of vitamin K.  in vitamin K deficiency the prothrombin content of the blood is markedly decrease and the blood clotting time is considerably increased
  • 47. VITAMIN-C • Food Sources: – Citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes, and potatoes. • Function in the Body: – Helps heal wounds. – Helps maintain healthy bones, teeth, and blood vessels
  • 48. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS • It includes B-complex and Vitamin C. • Vitamin B was classified as Vitamin B complex because they tend to occur together in foods in relatively high concentrations. • Since the identity of each vitamin had been established so the term B- complex is no longer appropriate. Vitamin B group includes 1. Vit B1(Thiamine) 2. Vit B2(Riboflavin) 3. Vit B3(Pantothenic acid) 4. Vit B5(Niacin/Nicotinic acid) 5. Vit B6(Pyridoxine) 6. Vit B7(Biotin) 7. Vit B12(Cynocobalamine) 8. Vit M (Folic acid) Vit C (ASCORBIC ACID)
  • 49. THIAMINE OR VITAMIN B1 (antineuritic vitamin) • It has been isolated in crystalline form from rice polishing and yeast. • It is heat stable but destroyed in neutral or alkaline solution. FUNCTION 1. It is Essential for the utilization of carbohydrates. 2. It is Essential for proper working of heart, nerves and muscles. 3. It Promotes growth. SOURCES • It occurs in all natural fruits in small amounts. • Important source are wholegrain, cereals, yeast, pulses, meat, peas, milk and nuts especially ground nuts.  The disease is an endemic problem in Asia, due to the practice of “polishing” rice after it has been husked.  Husking rice to make white rice removes most of the thiamine-rich outer casing, and polishing it removes the rest of the thiamine.
  • 50. DEFICIENCY • Partial deficiency of these vitamin leads to malnutrition and production of intestinal stasis (Stoppage) resulting in the retention of putrid food, residue in the bowels. • The absence of vitamin B1, causes beriberi which is characterized by polyneuritis, GIT upset. The symptoms of Beriberi includes retarded growth, weakness, fatigue, headache, insomnia, dizziness and loss of appetite. REQUIREMENT • 1-2 gm daily. • The body contain thiamine is about 30 gm and if more than this is given it is merely lost in the urine. • Beriberi can be eliminated by educating people to eat well balance, mixed diet containing thiamine rich foods. E.g. parboiled and under milled rice and to stop all alcohol.
  • 51. RIBOFLAVIN / Vitamin B2 (yellow enzyme) • It occurs as a yellow crystalline powder. • It destroy on the exposure to light and oxygen. • It is associated as coenzyme in tissue oxidation and respiration. FUNCTION 1) It acts as coenzyme in cellular oxidation. 2) It Promotes growth of skin, health of the skin, mouth and eyes. SOURCE • Richest natural sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, liver, kidney and green leafy vegetables. Cereals and pulses are relatively poor sources but because of the bulk in which they are consumed, they contribute much of vitamin B2 in Indian diets. DEFICIENCY- Lead to 1) Skin disorders 2) Inflammation of tongue. 3) Cracking at corners of the mouth. REQUIREMENT  The recommended daily allowance is 0.6 gm/ 1000 C of energy intake.  During pregnancy of additional intake of 0.3 gm.  During lactation-an additional intake of 0.5 gm.
  • 52. NIACIN (Vitamin B3) • Niacin is the official name of nicotinic acid. • Nicotinamide is biological active form of vitamin. • It can be synthesized by human body from amino acid tryptophan. FUNCTIONS • It is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein. • It is also essential for normal functioning of skin, intestine and nervous system. SOURCES • Food rich in niacin are liver, kidney, meat, poultry, fish and groundnut, peas, beans, tomatoes. Milk and eggs although low in performed niacin, contain high amounts of tryptophan and as such have a high niacin equivalent. DIFICIENCY- Causes 1) Pellagra in man, symptoms are dermatitis, dark color tongue, and inability to digest and assimilate food. General effects are 2) Inadequate growth for children 3) Loss of weight and strength. 4) Anemia. REQUIRMENT- 6.6 mg/1000 calories/day.
  • 53. PYRIDOXINE (Vitamin B6) • Three compounds belong to the group known as vitamin B6. • These are pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. FUNCTION • Its biologically active form is pyridoxal phosphate which participate in the catalysis of several important reaction of the amino acid metabolism e.g. trans-amination, decarboxylation. • It is also involved in metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. • It maintains proper working of muscles and nerves. SOURCES • It is widely distributed in foods e.g. milk, liver, milk, egg yolk, fish, wholegrain, cereals and vegetables. • Traces are present in all articles of food. DEFICIENCY • Deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare in man. • Its deficiency is associated with peripheral and neuritis. • Its deficiency in children causes convulsion. REQUIRMENT • Adults may need 2gm/ day . • During pregnancy and lactation the requirement is 2.5g/ day.
  • 54. FOLIC ACID (pteroylglutamic acid, Vitamin M) • It belongs to group of compound called pterins. • The recommended name for these vitamins is folate. • In food, it occur as free folate and bound folates. • In man free folates is rapidly absorbed manly from the proximal part of the intestine. FUNCTION • Its active form is tetra hydro folic acid which serves as the coenzyme in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. • It also needed for the normal development of the blood cell in the marrow. SOURCES • The good sources of folic acid are liver, meat, egg, milk, fruits, cereals, leafy vegetable. • Our cooking destroys much of folic acid.
  • 55. DEFICIENCY- Folate deficiency result in  Megaloblastic anemia  Glossitis  Cheilosis (cracks and swelling of leaps)  Gastro intestinal disturbance. (diarrhea, distension, flatulence)  Severe folate deficiency may cause infertility or sterility. REQUIRMNT • The body stores of the folate of about 5-10 g and therefore folate deficiency Can develop quickly. Intake values of folic acid as recommended by ICMR are given bellow  Healthy adults 100 mcg/day.  Pregnancy 300 mcg/ day.  Lactation 150 mcg/day.  Children 100 mcg/ day.
  • 56. VITAMIN B12 (cyanocobalamin) • It belongs to the family of cobalamines. • It is a complex organic metallic cobalt compound obtained from liver or from the growth products of certain micro-organism. FUNCTION • It is essential for the formation and maturation of red blood cells. • It participates as a coenzyme in a number of biochemical reactions, e.g. in folate metabolism. • It also has a biochemical role in synthesis of fatty acids in myelin. SOURCES • Rich sources are liver, kidney, meat, fish, eggs and milk, yeast and cheese. • It is not found in vegetables. • It is also synthesized by bacteria in colon. • The vitamin is found in fungus. • Streptomyces griseous, hence cyanocobalamin is obtained as a byproduct of streptomycin.
  • 57. DIFICIENCY • Deficiency of Vitamin B12 may arise in subjects who are strict vegetarians and eat no animal products. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 leads • Megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia) • Demyelinating and neurological lesions in the spinal cord. REQUIRMENT Recommended by ICMR is given below • Normal adult 1 mcg. • Pregnancy 1.5 mcg. • lactation 1.5 mcg. • infant and children 0.2 mcg.
  • 58. VITAMIN C (ant scorbutic vitamin) • Chemically it is known as ascorbic acid. It is very sensitive to heat. • In the body, it is reversibly oxidized to dehydro ascorbic acid. FUNCTIONS • It is needed for the biosynthesis of collagen, which accounts for 25% of total body protein. • It reduces ferric ion to ferrous form thus facilitates absorption of iron from vegetable foods. • It inhibits nitrosamine formation by the intestinal mucosa. • It is claimed to provide protection against infections. • It has been found to control glaucoma. It decreases intra-ocular pressure. SOURCES • The richest sources of vitamin C are cabbages, turnips, lemons, oranges, amla and guava. • Properly sprouted pulses, germinating grams, etc. are also rich sources. • Traces present in fresh meat and milk.
  • 59. DIFICIENCY- Results in • Scurvy (the signs are swollen and bleeding into the skin or joints, delayed wound healing, anemia and weakness) • Mal formation of bone and teeth. REQUIRMENT • The recommended daily allowance of vitamin C for  Adults is 60mg,  During lactation it increases to 100-150 mg/ day.  For children it is between 30-60 mg/ day (adolescents). NOTE • Daily need of vitamin C is increased in smokers, alcoholics and during emotional stress, in patient suffering from fever and during old age.
  • 60. MINERALS • In human body, there are atleast 50 different mineral element about 1/20th the body weight consist of inorganic salts e.g. chlorides, sulphates and phosphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. • These inorganic salts (about 20-30g) are lost from the body via the skin, kidneys, and the faeces so these are required to be replenished daily through the food stuffs. Minerals can be classified into three major groups. • i) Major minerals: These include calcium, phosphorus, sodium potassium and magnesium, • ii) Trace elements – These are required in small amount (less than a few milligrams per day) by the body. These elements are iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, copper, cobalt, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, nickel, tin, silicon and vanadium; • iii) Trace elements with no known function –They are mercury, barium, boron and aluminum.
  • 61. FUNCTIONS  Mineral salt are essential for the maintenance of the body.  They form part of every cell e.g. phosphorus, iron.  They are the constituents of bone and teeth e.g. calcium and phosphorous..  They maintain electrolyte balance in body fluids e.g. sodium, potassium and chloride.  They maintain pH of the blood.  They are essential components of respiratory pigments, enzymes and enzyme system.  They regulate the excitability of muscular and nervous tissues.  They play an important role in water metabolism and regulation of blood volume.  Diet which is adequate in protein, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins provides all minerals in sufficient quantity.
  • 62. CALCIUM • It is Major mineral element of the body. • It constituent 1.5-2 % of body weight. • Average adult body contain 1200 grams, • In human adult 98% of body calcium found in bones. • The blood contains 10 mg of calcium. • The dynamic equilibrium between blood and bones is maintained by parathyroid gland and cholecalciferol.
  • 63. FUNCTION • Calcium is involved in the formation of bones and teeth and also for their maintenance. • It is required for coagulation of blood, • It is essential for regulation of neuromuscular excitation. • It is essential for contractility of cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles. • Capillary permeability is controlled by calcium. • It plays role in transformation of light into electrical impulses in the retina. • This element activates some important enzyme reactions such as ATP‐ ases, various lipases etc. • It is involved in transmission of nerve impulses.
  • 64. SOURCES  Natural riches sources are milk and milk product like cheese, butter, milk, curd.  Fruits like sitaphal, and dates, and other riches sources are b  Drinking water also provides up to 200mg of calcium per day. DEFICIENCY  Even under low calcium intake no disease due to calcium deficiency observed because of presence of adequate cholecalciferol intake.  The various deficiency symptoms are Poor bone formation, dental caries, and dysfunction of muscles. DAILY REQUIRMENT  Men and women- minimum requirement is 1g/ day.  In children is 0.6g/ day.  In pregnancy is 1.0 g/day.
  • 65. PHOSPHORUS  After calcium it is second most important mineral for human being.  The bones and teeth contain 75% of total phosphorous of the body.  The remaining 25% phosphorous lies in various part of the body. FUNCTION  It is associated with calcium and vitamin D in the hardening of bones and teeth.  it is essential for growth.  It activates digestive system.  It helps in the process of metabolism of sugar and fats.  It is essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves.  Phosphates are an essential part of systems of energy transport inside the cells.
  • 66. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMES  Due to wide spread occurrence of phosphorous in food there is no evidence of deficiency in human except those person who consume large amount of antacids. Which interfere with phosphorous absorption.  The deficiency symptoms are  weakening of teeth and bones  Loss of weight  Loss of appetite. REQUIRMENT  Minimum 1.5 g/day
  • 67. IRON  It is very important in human nutrition.  Human adult contain 3-4 g of which about 60-70 % present in the blood as a hemoglobin iron. And rest is present in myoglobin (5-15%), in ferritin (10-15%), and in enzymes (2%) FUNCTION  Its primary function is to form haemoglobin.  It is essential for formation and maturation of red cells.  It is essential for cell respiration and for transport of oxygen.  It is necessary for brain development and function, regulation of body temperature, muscle activity and for maintenance of immune system.  It is the component of various enzyme system.
  • 68. ABSORPTION  It is mostly absorbed from duodenum and upper small intestine in the ferrous state.  Ascorbic acid enhance the absorption of iron while phytates and phosphates reduce absorption. SOURCES  Animal sources- all animal foods e.g. meat, liver egg, fish excepting milk and butter.  Iron obtained from animal sources are better absorbed and promotes the absorption of non haem-iron .  Vegetable foods- e.g. cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, oil seed and fruits contain non haem-iron.  The bioavailability of non haem-iron is poor due to the presence of phytates, phosphate and dietary fibre which interfere with iron absorption.
  • 69. DEFICIENCY  Anemia- the haemoglobin content of blood falls below normal i.e. 14.5g/100ml of blood.  RBCs are decreased in size and become feeble in colour.  Iron deficiency also leads impaired immunity and decrease resistance to infection. DAILY REQUIRMENT  For infants– 1.0mg/ kg.  For children and adolescent age upto 15 yr- 20-25 mg/ kg  For adolescent age upto 16-18 yr- 35 mg/ kg.  For adult male- 24 mg/ kg  For adult female- 32 mg/ kg  During pregnancy 40mg/ kg/ day
  • 70. IODINE  It is essential micronutrients.  50mg present in human adult.  It is present in every living cell of the body. FUNCTION  It is essential constitute of thyroid hormones and therefore essential for normal life. SOURCES  Iodine rich sources are sea foods e.g. sea weeds, sea fish, and code liver oil, and also occur in milk, meat, vegetable and cereals etc.
  • 71. DEFICIENCY Causes iodine deficiency disorders which include  Goiter and hypothyroidism  Retarded physical growth.  Impaired mental function. REQUIRMENT  For adult- 150 microgram/day.  Growing children, pregnancy and in adolescence- extra iodine is needed.
  • 72. FLUORINE  It is highly reactive so it s never found in gaseous form.  About 96% of fluorine found in teeth and bones. FUNCTION  It is essential for normal mineralization of bones.  It is required for the formation of dental enamel. SOURCES  Drinking water, sea fish, cheese and tea. DEFICIENCY/ EXCESS 1. Excess causes fluorosis (at low level causes discoloration of teeth and high level ligaments can be calcified) of teeth and bones 2. Deficiency causes dental caries. REQUIRMENT  Recommended level of fluorides in drinking water in india is 0.5- 0.8 mg/ litre.
  • 73. ZINC  It is found in all tissues in traces. FUNCTION  It is necessary for the action of atleast 20 enzymes.  It is required for synthesis of insulin by the pancreas.  It is essential for the health of prostate gland.  It is necessary for sperm formation. SOURCES  Animal food and see food provide good amount of zinc. Milk is rich source and traces found in ordinary diet.
  • 74. DEFICIENCY  Retarded growth  Sexual infantilism  Multiple infections  Skin lesions  Disorder of taste  Alopecia  Anemia REQUIRMENT  For man- 15 mg / day  For female- 12 mg/ day  For pregnant women- 15mg/ day  For lactating women- 19 mg/ day.
  • 75. COPPER  Normal adult contain 100 mg in the body.  Liver is a main storage for copper.  It is needed for biosynthesis of collagen and protective covering for nerves. FUNCTION  It is essential for proper functioning of verities of enzymes e.g. lysil oxidase, cytochrome oxidase, ferroxidase.  It facilitates the absorption of iron.  It is necessary for incorporation of iron in the molecules of haemoglobin. SOURCES  It is widely distributed in plant, vegetables, milk, liver, brain tissue etc. DIFICIENCY  Occur Rare in man.  Deficiency May appear because of longer use of chelating agents. DAILY REQUIRMENT  In adult 2mg/ day.
  • 76. Balanced Diet • A Balanced Diet is defined as the one which contains a variety of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need of energy , amino acid, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates is adequately met for maintaining health and well being. • It also makes a small provision for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness. • The component of balanced diet is differ according to age, sex, physical activity and physiological states i.e. pregnancy, lactation etc. • COMPOSITION OF BALANCE DIET: the dietary constituents of food are fats (90g), protein (90g), vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate(450g), water in adequate amount etc. • Composition for adult diets contain cereals-400gm, leafy vegetables 114gm, other vegetables 85gm, pulses and nuts 85gm, root vegetables 85gm, fruits 85gm, milk and milk products 264gm, flesh food 125gm, sugar and jaggery 57gm and oils and fats 57gm. • Protein deficiency ,vitamin deficiency ,iron deficiency are most common in Indian diet • Serum albumin concentration of 3.5g/dl is considered as a best measure of protein nutrition.