Typical Stellar Evolution
                     LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5

           • Red Giant Branch
           • Horizo...
HR Diagram




       http://outreach.atnf.csiro.au/education/senior/astrophysics/stellarevolution_hrintro.html
Thursday, ...
Low Mass Evolution




        http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/W07/Death/Page1.html

Thursday, April ...
Low and High Mass Evolution

                                                                    The stellar wind
        ...
Low M Evolution: 1 vs. 5 M

                                                              Notice how much
                ...
Low Mass Evolution




                      http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/movies/suntrackson.mpg


Thursday, A...
Main Sequence Turn-Off Point




       H-R diagrams of two clusters, the open cluster M67 (a young cluster), and the glob...
HR Diagram and Mass




                     http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/astr122/Notes/Chapter17.html
Thursday, Ap...
Typical Stellar Evolution
                     LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5
      • Red Giant Branch: H → He in shell; star ex...
LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and
                Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe,
                               3rd e...
Low Mass Stellar Evolution
                 LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5


              • Hayashi Track
              • Typic...
Star Birth -- Hayashi Track


                                                                       Infrared energy
     ...
Low and High Mass Evolution

                                                                    The stellar wind
        ...
Low Mass Evolution




        http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/W07/Death/Page1.html

Thursday, April ...
Planetary Nebulae
      With some complications
      glossed over, the envelope
      and as much as 50% of
      the ste...
Planetary Nebulae




                           http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/
                                 Front/pne.jpg
...
Planetary Nebulae: Spectrum




                           http://mais-ccd-spectroscopy.com/Planetary%20Nebula.htm

Thursd...
Cat’s Eye Planetary Nebula




      At an estimated distance of 3,000 light-      The Cat's Eye (NGC 6543) is over half
 ...
Planetary Nebulae: A Dying
               Low Mass (<~10 Msun) Star




                           http://oposite.stsci.ed...
Low Mass Stellar Evolution
                 LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5

              • Hayashi Track: for all stars--low an...
LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and
                Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe,
                               3rd e...
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A1 18 Stellar Evolution

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Miller's Astronomy 1 lecture notes on Stellar Evolution

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A1 18 Stellar Evolution

  1. 1. Typical Stellar Evolution LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5 • Red Giant Branch • Horizontal Giant Branch • Asymptotic Giant Branch An attempt to answer the “big questions”: What is out there? Where did I come from? Thursday, April 29, 2010 1
  2. 2. HR Diagram http://outreach.atnf.csiro.au/education/senior/astrophysics/stellarevolution_hrintro.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 2
  3. 3. Low Mass Evolution http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/W07/Death/Page1.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 3
  4. 4. Low and High Mass Evolution The stellar wind causes mass loss for AGB stars. This loss is around 10-4 solar masses per year, which means that in 10,000 years the typical star will dissolve, leaving the central, hot core (the central star in a planetary nebula). http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast122/lectures/lec16.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 4
  5. 5. Low M Evolution: 1 vs. 5 M Notice how much mass is lost: 1 M to .065 M : a loss of 35% 5 M to 1.34 M : a loss of 73% http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/122/images/1_5.gif Thursday, April 29, 2010 5
  6. 6. Low Mass Evolution http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/movies/suntrackson.mpg Thursday, April 29, 2010 6
  7. 7. Main Sequence Turn-Off Point H-R diagrams of two clusters, the open cluster M67 (a young cluster), and the globular cluster M4 (an old cluster). The main sequence is significantly shorter for the older cluster; the luminosity and temperature of stars at the 'turnoff point' can be used to date these clusters. http://astro.berkeley.edu/~dperley/univage/univage.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 7
  8. 8. HR Diagram and Mass http://physics.uoregon.edu/~jimbrau/astr122/Notes/Chapter17.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 8
  9. 9. Typical Stellar Evolution LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5 • Red Giant Branch: H → He in shell; star expands and surface cools (but core temperature increases) • Horizontal Giant Branch: preceded by a Helium flash; He → C in core, H → He in shell; like a 2nd (brief, semi-return to the) main sequence • Asymptotic Giant Branch: He → C in shell, H → He in shell; star expands and surface cools (but core temperature increases) An attempt to answer the “big questions”: What is out there? Where did I come from? Thursday, April 29, 2010 9
  10. 10. LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe, 3rd ed. • Ch 20, pp. 461-462: 13. • Ch 22: Tutorial Quizzes accessible from: http:// www.brookscole.com/cgi-brookscole/course_products_bc.pl? fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=9780495017899&discipline_number=19 Due first class period of the next week (unless there is a test this week, in which case it’s due before the test). AstroTeams, be working on your Distance Ladders. Thursday, April 29, 2010 10
  11. 11. Low Mass Stellar Evolution LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5 • Hayashi Track • Typical Evolution • Planetary Nebula An attempt to answer the “big questions”: What is out there? Where did I come from? Thursday, April 29, 2010 11
  12. 12. Star Birth -- Hayashi Track Infrared energy emissions result from the gravitational collapse of the protostar http://www.physics.uc.edu/~sitko/Spring00/4-Starevol/starevol.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 12
  13. 13. Low and High Mass Evolution The stellar wind causes mass loss for AGB stars. This loss is around 10-4 solar masses per year, which means that in 10,000 years the typical star will dissolve, leaving the central, hot core (the central star in a planetary nebula). http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast122/lectures/lec16.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 13
  14. 14. Low Mass Evolution http://www.physics.uc.edu/~hanson/ASTRO/LECTURENOTES/W07/Death/Page1.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 14
  15. 15. Planetary Nebulae With some complications glossed over, the envelope and as much as 50% of the stellar mass is detached from the star and expelled into space leaving the AGB star very hot core exposed. The high temperature of the "central star" (it is not REALLY a star as there is no fusion energy source) means it has a Planck [or thermal spectrum] curve that peaks way out in the UV and produces many UV and even soft X-ray photons. These collide with the H, He, C and O atoms in the former envelope that we now call a PN. These atoms get ionized, and on recombination the e- drop through the energy levels giving off various lower energy photons (that add up in energy to the original UV or X-ray ionizing photon) as they head for the ground state. http://www.ucolick.org/%7Ebolte/AY4_00/week7/low-mass_deathC.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 15
  16. 16. Planetary Nebulae http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Front/pne.jpg Thursday, April 29, 2010 16
  17. 17. Planetary Nebulae: Spectrum http://mais-ccd-spectroscopy.com/Planetary%20Nebula.htm Thursday, April 29, 2010 17
  18. 18. Cat’s Eye Planetary Nebula At an estimated distance of 3,000 light- The Cat's Eye (NGC 6543) is over half years, the faint outer halo is over 5 light- a light-year across and represents a years across. More recently, some planetary final, brief yet glorious phase in the nebulae are found to have halos like this life of a sun-like star. This nebula's one, likely formed of material shrugged off dying central star may have produced during earlier episodes in the star's the simple, outer pattern of dusty evolution. While the planetary nebula phase concentric shells by shrugging off is thought to last for around 10,000 years, outer layers in a series of regular astronomers estimate the age of the outer convulsions. But the formation of the filamentary portions of this halo to be 50,000 beautiful, more complex inner to 90,000 years. structures is not well understood. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ ap070629.html ap080322.html Thursday, April 29, 2010 18
  19. 19. Planetary Nebulae: A Dying Low Mass (<~10 Msun) Star http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/96/13/Helix.mpg Thursday, April 29, 2010 19
  20. 20. Low Mass Stellar Evolution LACC §: 20.2, 21.4, 21.5 • Hayashi Track: for all stars--low and high mass; gravitation contraction heats protostar • Typical Evolution: Main Sequence → Red Giant → Helium Flash → Horizontal Giant Branch → Asymptotic Giant Branch → • Planetary Nebula with White Dwarf An attempt to answer the “big questions”: What is out there? Where did I come from? Thursday, April 29, 2010 20
  21. 21. LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe, 3rd ed. • Ch 21, p. 485-486: 2 (I want a one word answer), 4&5 (Mention how and where the thermal energy is coming from for each stage: protostar, main sequence, red giant, helium flash, horizontal giant branch, asymptotic giant branch) • Ch 23: Tutorial Quizzes accessible from: www.brookscole.com/cgi-brookscole/course_products_bc.pl? http:// fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=9780495017899&discipline_number=19 Due first class period of the next week (unless there is a test this week, in which case it’s due before the test). AstroTeams, be working on your Distance Ladders. Thursday, April 29, 2010 21
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