A1 05 Sol Sys Formation

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Miller's Astronomy 1 lecture notes on Solar System Formation

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A1 05 Sol Sys Formation

  1. 1. Solar System Formation LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Gravitational Contraction of a giant cloud of dust and gas • Condensation • Accretion w/ Differentiation An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 1
  2. 2. Nebular Hypothesis 2:15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfdDWdZcpOw Thursday, February 25, 2010 2
  3. 3. Gravitational Contraction What started out as a cloud of dust and gas light-years across, gravitationally collapsed to a solar nebula thousands of AU across. (1 ly = 63,240 AU) http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 3
  4. 4. Gravitational Contraction What started out as a cloud of dust and gas light-years across, gravitationally collapsed to a solar nebula thousands of AU across. (1 ly = 63,240 AU) http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/birth.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 4
  5. 5. Solar Nebula: Composition Note the typical condensation temperatures. http://woodahl.physics.iupui.edu/ Astro100/08-T01.jpg Thursday, February 25, 2010 5
  6. 6. Protoplanetary Disks Evidence for the Nebular Hypothesis: process is observed happening around other stars http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 6
  7. 7. Condensation then Accretion http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 7
  8. 8. The Frost Line and Condensation http://boojum.as.arizona.edu/~jill/NS102_2006/Lectures/Lecture6/lecture6.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 8
  9. 9. Accretion http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 9
  10. 10. Solar System Formation LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Gravitational Contraction of a giant cloud of dust and gas: Solar Nebula--98% H, He; flattens into a spinning disc • Condensation: the colder the temperature, the greater the number and types of compounds that will condense • Accretion w/ Differentiation: formation of planetesimals, many of which will combine to form planets An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 10
  11. 11. Formation of the Planets LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Know the difference between terrestrial and gas giant planet • Understand why there are terrestrial and gas giant planets • Understand the roles of the initial volatile molecules: CH4 (methane), NH3 (ammonia), H2O (water) An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 11
  12. 12. Planetesimals Formation of the Solar System- Güneş Sistemi oluşumu 1:55 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhYEQgLW5NM&feature=related Thursday, February 25, 2010 12
  13. 13. Making Planets Inner Terrestrial (Earthlike) Outer Jovian (Gas Giants) • small w/ solid surface • big balls of gas • circular orbits w/ low • circular orbits w/ low eccentricities and inclinations eccentricities and inclinations • high densities (about 5x • low densities (about the same water) as water) • atmospheres of N2 or CO2 (or • thick atmospheres of H and no atmosphere at all) He Thursday, February 25, 2010 13
  14. 14. Low e, Low Inclination Orbits Eccentricity Orbital Inclinations http://physics.lakeheadu.ca/courses/Astro/2310/ PlanetGraphs/graphs.htm http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 14
  15. 15. Eccentricities Doesn’t count (dwarf planet) http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 15
  16. 16. Orbital Inclinations Doesn’t count (dwarf planet) http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 16
  17. 17. Condensation then Accretion Near the sun, i.e. within the frost line, temperatures where higher (>150 K). Volatile materials, hydrogen compounds, remained gaseous and did not condense: • water (H2O) • ammonia (HN3) • methane (CH4) http://physics.lakeheadu.ca/courses/Astro/2310/PlanetGraphs/graphs.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 17
  18. 18. Surface Gravity and Solar uv Solar Nebula Jovian Planets Composition • Greater Mass = • 98% H, He Greater Gravity • 1.4% CH4, NH3, H2O • They hold on to H, He becoming gas giants • rock 0.4% Terrestrial Planets • metals 0.2% Note: Jovian planets had • They can’t hold H, He over three times as much • Solar uv knocks H off material to build of CH4, NH3, H20 from--2.0% vs 0.6% leaving N2 and CO2 Thursday, February 25, 2010 18
  19. 19. Terrestrial Planet Geology • Condensation Note: the smaller the planet it, the quicker it will cool. • Accretion w/ Differentiation • Mercury: smallest and has solid mantle • Cooling during heavy bombardment • Mars: smallish and had no significant geological • Tectonic Plates during thin activity in 3.5 billion years crust • Venus: active volcanoes? • Mantle solidifies resurfaced 0.5 billion • Interior Cools years ago • Earth: ongoing tectonic activity, e.g. volcanoes Thursday, February 25, 2010 19
  20. 20. Formation of the Planets LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Know the difference between terrestrial and gas giant planet: orbital distance, mass, size, density, composition, no. or moons • Understand why there are terrestrial and gas giant planets: the frost line • Understand the roles of the initial volatile molecules: CH4 (methane), NH3 (ammonia), H2O (water) An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 20
  21. 21. LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe, 3rd ed. • Ch. 6, pp. 150-151: #3. easily, five with a little effort. You should be able to list three • Ch 7: Tutorial Quizzes accessible from: www.brookscole.com/cgi-brookscole/course_products_bc.pl? http:// fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=9780495017899&discipline_number=19 Must Know: 1, 4, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19 Important: 2, 3, 5, 10 Due at the beginning of next class period Thursday, February 25, 2010 21

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