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Dragan Huterer "Novi pogledi na svemir"

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Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
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Dragan Huterer "Novi pogledi na svemir"

  1. 1. New views of the Universe Dragan Huterer University of Michigan Illustris simulation
  2. 2. Moj put u svemir •Odrastao u Sarajevu; Druga Gimnazija - matematika, fizika, kompjuteri •Pohađao programe u Petnici 1991-e (četiri puta!) •Proveo ~1 godinu dana planirajući studije u Americi (biblioteka američkog centra u Sarajevu) •Napustio Sarajevo cargo-avionom u Aprilu 1992, (u Beograd), zatim u Ameriku •Dodiplomski studiji na MIT-u (1996), doktorat na University of Chicago (2001) •Profesor na University of Michigan od 2007
  3. 3. Ann Arbor, Michigan Michigan Stadium (115,000) Huterer group
  4. 4. Three key questions in cosmology Inflation Dark Matter Dark Energy
  5. 5. Three big questions in cosmology Dark Matter Inflation (Early Univ) Dark Energy What is the DM particle? What are its interactions, decay modes..? What is the physics behind the accelerated expansion? At what energy? How many fields? With what interactions?
  6. 6. Three big questions in cosmology Dark Matter Inflation (Early Univ) Dark Energy At what energy? How many fields? With what interactions?
  7. 7. Horizon problem Causally connected = 2 deg (without inflation) CMB temperature is uniform to 1 part in 100,000 over ~10,000 independent patches - why?? Answer: inflation T=2.725K δT/T=10-5
  8. 8. Extremely successful theory of post-BB universe: Inflation! Alan Guth (1981) Alan Guth Guth’s office at MIT
  9. 9. Figure credit Wayne Hu
  10. 10. Imagine a colony of ants living on If the been “b ( then uni Inflation “flattens” curved space ⇔ verified by CMB observations! Our observable universe
  11. 11. Inflation fits data fabulously wellPlanck collaboration: CMB power spectra & likelihood 2 10 50 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 D[µK2 ] 90 18 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Multipole moment, 1 0.2 0.1 0.07 Angular scale Figure 37. The 2013 Planck CMB temperature angular power spectrum. The error bars include cosmic variance, whose magnitude is indicated by the green shaded area around the best fit model. The low-⌅ values are plotted at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.5, 11.5, 13.5, 16, Points with error bars: Planck measurements Solid line: inflation theory Green region: theory error
  12. 12. Three big questions in cosmology Dark Matter Inflation (Early Univ) Dark Energy What is the DM particle? What are its interactions, decay modes..?
  13. 13. Dark Matter Fritz Zwicky “Dunkle Materie”,1933 Vera Rubin flat rotation curves, 1970s Coma cluster of galaxies Illustration: Jessie Muir
  14. 14. Dark Matter is in “halos” around galaxies (and also around clusters) (visible) light from galaxy (invisible) Dark Matter halo
  15. 15. DM “imaged” using gravitational lensing Smooth DM Galaxies T. Tyson et al
  16. 16. Modern evidence for Dark Matter Ωdark matterh2 = 0.1193± 0.0014 Ωbaryons h2 = 0.0222 ± 0.0001 Planck full-sky map Planck 2015
  17. 17. Examples: ‣ Hadrons: particle made of quarks ‣ baryons: 3 quarks ‣ mesons: 2 quarks ‣ Leptons and force carries are not made of quarks DM cannot be one of these!
  18. 18. DM could be one of these supersymmetric particles (there are other possibilities too...)
  19. 19. Direct and Indirect Searches for Dark Matter: Direct detection - wait for WIMP to scatter off of nuclei in underground detectors Indirect detection: detect products - “normal” particles - of WIMP annihilation in the center of Galaxy (or other galaxies)
  20. 20. cdms.berkeley.edu
  21. 21. Sanford Underground Research Facility (SD)
  22. 22. Courtesy D. McKinsey 9
  23. 23. 1 10 100 1000 104 10 50 10 49 10 48 10 47 10 46 10 45 10 44 10 43 10 42 10 41 10 40 10 39 10 38 10 37 10 14 10 13 10 12 10 11 10 10 10 9 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 WIMP Mass GeV c2 WIMPnucleoncrosssectioncm2 WIMPnucleoncrosssectionpb CDMS II Ge (2009) Xenon100 (2012) CRESST CoGeNT (2012) CDMS Si (2013) EDELWEISS (2011) DAMA SIMPLE (2012) ZEPLIN-III (2012)COUPP (2012) LUX (2013) DA M IC (2012) CDMSlite(2013) DarkSide G2 PICO250-C3F8 DarkSide 50 Xenon1T DEAP3600 LZ PICO250-CF3I LUX 300day SuperCDMS SNOLAB Sup erCDMS S NOLAB 8B Neutrinos Atmospheric and DSNB Neutrinos 7Be Neutrinos COHERENT NEUTRIN O SCATTERI NG COHERENTNEU TRINO SCATTERING COHERENT NEUTRINO SCATTERING J. Cooley, arXiv:1410.4960 Direct searches: Cross-section vs mass constraints
  24. 24. Indirect detection p e+ _ The Milky Way in gamma-rays as measured by Fermi-LAT Numerous alarms about “bumps” in spectra seen from Galaxy, and from dwarf galaxies (Reticulum, etc) So far, none are convincing or truly statistically significant Exciting and fast-developing field, but will be hard to have a convincing detection of DM just from indirect detection
  25. 25. Indirect detection through -rays from DM annihilation Fermi-LAT (Fermi Large Area Telescope) H.E.S.S. & H.E.S.S.-2 VERITAS CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array)
  26. 26. Three big questions in cosmology Dark Matter Inflation (Early Univ) Dark Energy What is the physics behind the accelerated expansion?
  27. 27. Saul Perlmutter, Age 52 Lawrence Berkeley Lab Brian Schmidt, Age 44 Australian National University Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 Adam Riess Age 41 Johns Hopkins University
  28. 28. Type Ia Supernovae A white dwarf accretes matter from a companion.
  29. 29. Evidence for Dark energy from type Ia Supernovae 0 0.5 1 Redshift z -0.5 0 0.5 1 ∆(m-M) SN BAO always accelerates accelerates now decelerated in the past always decelerates flat open closed
  30. 30. 4% 22% 74% Makeup of universe today Dark Matter (suspected since 1930s established since 1970s) Dark Energy (suspected since 1980s established since 1998) Also: radiation (0.01%) Baryonic Matter (stars 0.4%, gas 3.6%)
  31. 31. Dark Energy: Two Grand Mysteries
  32. 32. Matter Dark Energy NowCMBNucleosynthesisInflation Energy/volume Time >100ordersofmagnitude 10-35 sec 1 minute 380,000 yr 13.7 Gyr Radiation mat(a) / a 3 rad(a) / a 4 DE(a) / a 3(1+w) ' a0 a is scale factor a=0: Big Bang a=1: today a ≡ 1/(1+z) Fine-tuning problem I: Coincidence problem
  33. 33. Fine Tuning Problem II: “Why so small”? Vacuum Energy: Quantum Field Theory predicts it to be cutoff scale 60-120 orders of magnitude smaller than expected!! Planck scale: SUSY scale: (1019 GeV)4 (1 TeV)4 } (10−3 eV)4 Measured: ⇥VAC = 1 2 fields gi ⇥ 0 ⇤ k2 + m2 d3 k (2 )3 fields gik4 max 16 2
  34. 34. Steven Weinberg: ``Right now, not only for cosmology but for elementary particle theory, this is the bone in our throat" Frank Wilczek: ``... maybe the most fundamentally mysterious thing in all of basic science" Ed Witten: ``... would be the number 1 on my list of things to figure out" Michael Turner: “... the biggest embarrassment in theoretical physics” Theoretical explanation for DE: many ideas, no successful ones!
  35. 35. Why is DE so small relative to theoretical prediction (and yet not zero)? Is there a cancellation mechanism that sets vacuum energy to nearly but not precisely zero? Is there a huge number of universes with different values of the CC, and we just happen to live in one that supports life? (Anthropic) Kolb & Turner, “Early Universe”, footnote on p. 269: “It is not clear to one of the authors how a concept as lame as the “anthropic idea” was ever elevated to the status of a principle”
  36. 36. (Bizarre) Consequences of DE •Geometry is not destiny any more! Fate of the universe (accelerates forever vs. recollapses etc) depends on the future behavior of DE •In the accelerating universe, galaxies are leaving our observable patch -> the sky will be empty in 100 billion years •Under certain conditions we will have a Big Rip - galaxies, stars, planets, our houses, atoms, and then the fabric of space itself will rip apart!
  37. 37. •Ground photometric: ‣Dark Energy Survey (DES) ‣Pan-STARRS ‣Hyper Supreme Cam (HSC) ‣Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) •Ground spectroscopic: ‣Hobby Eberly Telescope DE Experiment (HETDEX) ‣Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) ‣Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) •Space: ‣Euclid ‣Wide Field InfraRed Space Telescope (WFIRST) Ongoing or upcoming DE experiments:
  38. 38. Dark Energy Survey (2012) LSST (~2018) Euclid and WFIRST (~202X) 21cm mapping ▲Harvard-Cfa survey (1980s) DESI (~2017)
  39. 39. Dark Energy Survey • New camera on 4m telescope in Chile • Observations 2013-2019 • >400 scientists worldwide • Analyses in progress (first major papers Aug 2017)
  40. 40. Summary •Huge variety of various observations in cosmology (since 1992) is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe •Dark Matter: probably a massive particle (but not a baryon!); still undetected; worldwide search ongoing •Dark Energy: perhaps the most puzzling problem in physics - why is the expansion of the universe today accelerating? •Inflation: period of accelerated expansion ~10-35 sec after Big Bang; spectacular agreement with data; more details to discover

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