Welcome to the
Military Families Learning Network Webinar:
Tax Planning for Military Families
A few days after the present...
Welcome to the
Military Families Learning Network Webinar:
Tax Planning for Military Families
www.eXtension.org/militaryfa...
Additional Resources Available
https://learn.extension.org/events/1440
https://learn.extension.org/events/1440
Today’s Speaker
Michael Gutter, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor, Interim Family and
Consumer Sciences State Program Leader...
Tax Planning for Military
Families
Dr. Michael S. Gutter
University of Florida IFAS Extension
@mikegutter
msgutter@ufl.edu
How Taxes Affect Your Finances
1. Understand basic taxes
2. Implications for you
3. Tax management/reduction strategies
Filing Status
• Taxpayers must specify a filing status
for their tax return because different
rates are associated with ea...
Alien Status
• Three are three categories of citizenship
for a non-U.S. citizen, or Alien. Each
category has a different i...
Alien Status
2. Nonresident: you do not meet the above tests
• File 1040NR or 1040NR-EZ if you have to file
• Pay tax on i...
What information do you need in order
to do your taxes?
• W-2
– Wages, salaries, taxes withheld including FICA
– Contribut...
Which form to use
• Although many of you can use 1040EZ
we will work with the full form 1040 with
accompanying schedules
•...
Schedules
• Think of as worksheets for specific
situations
• Itemized deductions
• Interest and dividend income
• Small bu...
Let’s look at the math
• Basic Steps
– Sum up income sources to get Gross Income
– Subtract adjustments to get AGI
– Subtr...
Basic Tax Calculation
Gross income
(-) adjustments to gross income
= AGI
(-) itemized or standard deduction
(-) Personal e...
Basic Tax Calculation
Taxable income is used to determine
Computed tax
(-) tax credits
+ other taxes
= total or net tax du...
Gross Income:
What is included? [1 of 2]
• Salary, wages, commissions, investment
income
• Alimony
• Scholarships (above w...
•
•
•
•
•
•

Gross Income:
What is included? [2 of 2]

Basic Pay
Special Pay
Bonus Pay
Incentive Pay
Differential wage pay...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [1 of 9]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Child support
Federal income tax refund
Garage sale procee...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [2 of 9]
• Combat zone pay
• Defense counseling
• Disability payments for injury resul...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [3 of 9]
• Death allowances
– Burial services
– Death gratuity payments to eligible su...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [4 of 9]
• Living Allowances
– Basic allowance for housing and subsistence
– Overseas ...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [5 of 9]
• Moving Allowances Continued
– Moving trailers or mobile home
– Storage
– Te...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [6 of 9]
• In-kind Benefits
– Medical/dental care
– Legal assistance
– Dependent-care ...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [7 of 9]

Combat Zone Pay
• Active duty pay for any month in which a
servicemember ser...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [8 of 9]

Sale of House

• Can exclude up to a certain amount of gain on the
sale of a...
Gross Income:
What is not included? [9 of 9]

Sale of House Continued

Lieutenant Mike Morris and his wife, Carol, moved ...
Adjustments to Gross Income
[1 of 7]
• Adjustments to Gross Income (AGI) used to
determine limits on many deductions
• Sub...
Adjustments to Gross Income [2 of 7]
• Armed Forces Reservists
– Reserve member that travels >100 miles in
connection with...
Adjustments to Gross Income [3 of 7]

Armed Forces Reservist Continued

Captain Harris, a member of the Army Reserve, tra...
Adjustments to Gross Income [4 of 7]
• Individual Retirement Arrangements
– Includes service member and spouse (if applica...
Adjustments to Gross Income [5 of 7]
• Individual Retirement Arrangements
Continued
– Qualified Reservist Distribution
• N...
Adjustments to Gross Income [6 of 7]
• Moving Expenses
– Time and distance test OR on active duty with a
permanent change ...
Adjustments to Gross Income [7 of 7]
Moving Expenses Continued
Sargent Ramos is on active duty and is
reassigned to Hawai...
Deductions and Exemptions
• These reduce the amount of income that is
subject to tax
• Deductions are subtracted from inco...
2014 Standard Deductions
Filing Status

2014 Rate

Single

$6,200

Head of Household
Married Filing Jointly
Married Filing...
Deductions and Exemptions
• However, if your itemized deductions
exceed the standard deduction than you
would use these
– ...
Itemized Deductions [1 of 13]
• Add total of itemized deductions and compare
against the standard deduction
• Itemized Ded...
Itemized Deductions [2 of 13]
• Employee Business Expenses (2% limit)
– Unreimbursed expenses or expenses in excess
of rei...
Itemized Deductions [3 of 13]
• Travel Expenses

– Unreimbursed, work related expenses while traveling away from
home (at ...
•

Itemized Deductions [4 of 13]
Transportation Expenses
– Includes
• Getting from one workplace to another when
you are n...
Itemized Deductions [5 of 13]
Transportation Expenses Continued
Chief Petty Officer Davis is attending a business
meeting...
Itemized Deductions [6 of 13]
• Uniform Cost and Upkeep
– If required and can be worn off duty : cannot
deduct uniform cos...
Itemized Deductions [7 of 13]
Uniform Cost and Upkeep Continued
Reggie purchases a military battle dress
uniform that he ...
Itemized Deductions [8 of 13]
• Professional Dues
– Unreimbursed dues for professional societies
directly related to milit...
Itemized Deductions [9 of 13]
• Educational Expenses (Pub. 970)
– Unreimbursed and qualifying work-related
education
• Req...
Itemized Deductions [10 of 13]
• Educational Expenses Continued
– Qualified education can lead to a degree
– If qualified ...
Itemized Deductions [11 of 13]
Educational Expenses Continued
Lieutenant Colonel Mason has a degree in financial
manageme...
Itemized Deductions [12 of 13]
Educational Expenses Continued
Major Williams worked in the military base legal office
as ...
Itemized Deductions [13 of 13]
• Repayments to employer for amount included
in income in an earlier year
– If ≤ $3,000 and...
Deductions and Exemptions
• Personal Exemptions:
– $3,950 (for 2014) for each person who is
supported by the income report...
Taxable Income and Taxes
• Taxable income: adjusted gross income
less deductions and exemptions
Tax Rates (ordinary income)
• Tax brackets are indexed for inflation
• Marginal Tax Rate: tax on the last dollar
earned
• ...
Tax Rates (ordinary income) [2 of 2]
 Monica and Gabriel are married and filing jointly.
Their taxable income is $40,500....
What is a credit?
• Reduces tax liability, not taxable income
• So what is better, a deduction or a credit
– A deduction r...
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
• Provides tax credit to lower income working families
• Multiply a max amount of earned i...
Child-Related Credits [1 of 2]
• Child tax credit
• Based on # of eligible dependent children
• Increased credit $600-1,00...
Child-Related Credits [2 of 2]
• Child and Dependent Care Expenses
– For specific % of expenses related to
working or seek...
Credit for Retirement Account
Contributions
• Max contribution $2000 per year
• Must be over 18 years old
• Dependents and...
Education Credit: American
Opportunity
• Formerly the HOPE scholarship credit
• Credit for four years of post-secondary ed...
Education Credit: American
Opportunity
•

2013 IRS
Education Credit: Lifetime Learning
• Credit for an unlimited # of years of post-secondary
education
–
–
–
–
–

20% of exp...
Education Credit: Lifetime Learning
 Bruce and Toni Harper are married and file a joint
tax return. For 2013, their MAGI ...
Education Credits
• For each student, you cannot claim both
American Opportunity credit and Lifetime
Learning credit at th...
Credit for Excess Social Security Tax
Withheld
• Common if you worked for two or more
employers and earned more than $117,...
The Big Picture
• Taxes affect many savings and
consumption decisions
– Buying a home
– Using home equity loans for other ...
Tax Liability Forgiveness
• Liability forgiven, or if paid is returned, if
servicemember dies:
–
–
–
–

In active service ...
Filing Returns
• Send return to the IRS Center for the state in
which you live.
 Miguel is stationed in Texas but his
per...
Automatic Filing Extensions
• Extends the due date for the return but
not the timing of tax due. Tax unpaid by
April 15th ...
Automatic Filing Extensions
– Outside U.S. and Puerto Rico
• Automatic 2 month extension, don’t have to file
4868 if
– You...
Extension of Deadlines [1 of 4]
• Automatically allows postponement of filing
taxes, payment of taxes, and filing refund
c...
Extension of Deadlines [2 of 4]
• Deadline extended for 180 days following the later
of:
– Last day in combat zone, qualif...
Extension of Deadlines [3 of 4]
 Petty Officer Leonard Brown's ship entered the Persian Gulf
on January 5, 2012. On Febru...
Extension of Deadlines [4 of 4]
 The 2012 tax return. The deadline is January 31,
2014. Petty Officer Brown has 285 days ...
Signing Returns
• Should sign own return unless other
conditions met:
– Overseas or Incapacitated
• Grant power of attorne...
Continue the Conversation
• Find the Personal Finance Team online
» Facebook: PersonalFinance4PFMs
» Twitter: #MFLN
» Link...
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Tax Planning Updates for Military Families

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This presentation offers advice and tips for military families to maximize their eligible deductions and exemptions when filing 2013 tax returns.

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  • January, 2014
  • Understand basic taxes: Ask rhetorical questions: What is the purpose of having income taxes? What are different types of Income taxes?
    Implications for you: Considerations that need to be made when chosing
    Tax management/reduction strategies: What are ways people can minimize their taxes?
  • Taxpayers must indicate what their filing status is.
    Someone who is single shouldn’t face the same tax brackets as someone who is married and has another income.
    Different types are single, married filing joint return, married filing separately, head of household, and qualifying widow(er) with dependent child
  • 1099
    If you have even a savings account, you may receive a 1099, which is taxable interest paid. This represents income from someone other than an employer.
    DIV- dividends earned on a stock
    G- certain government payments
    R- distributions from retirement plans like IRA or 401k plans
    MISC- for self employment or rental income
    1098
    Indicator you made payments from mortgage interest.
    You will also get this when you start paying student loans.
  • If you have taxable income less than $50,000, you can use a 1040EZ.
    If you have no itemized deductions but you have an IRA, you would use a 1040A.
  • A schedule is a worksheet for specific situations:
    Schedule A is for itemized deductions.
    Schedule B is for interest and dividend income
    Schedule C is for small business income.
  • What is gross income? It includes everything.
    Subtract certain adjustments (above the line deductions) to get to your adjusted gross income. This takes up the first page of the 1040.
    On the second page, we subtract itemized deductions (figure these out on a schedule, and enter total here). Then we arrive at taxable income.
    Calculate all the taxes you can apply (capital gain, income and wage tax…)
    Subtract the credits. These will reduce the tax.
    Figure how much you owe
    Look at your W2 statements and figure how much was withheld. If you owe more than you originally paid in, you still have to pay. If you paid more than you needed, you will get a refund.
  • Read slide
  • One common theme of what's included in gross income is whether or not your economic status is improved. Not included:
    Garage sale proceeds, you sell a shirt for 50 cents that you bought for $50 dollars, you aren't being improved by that at all, you’re actually taking a massive loss. You can’t take the losses, but you won’t be taxed for the petty change.
    If you were in an unfortunate accident and receiving a cash settlement, you do not include gross income because you are essentially being returned to the state you were before.
    Income from municipal bonds are investments issued by local governments to fund their activities and are not included.
    Combat Zone Pay explain in more detail later
  • “State bonus payments.   Bonus payments made by a state (or a political subdivision thereof) to a member or former member of the uniformed services of the United States or to a dependent of such member are considered combat pay (and therefore may not be taxable) if the payments are made only because of the member's service in a combat zone. See Combat Zone , later, for a list of designated combat zones.” [taken from IRS Pub 3]
  • “You are on extended duty when you are called or ordered to active duty for a period of more than 90 days or for an indefinite period.”
    Home can be a:
    -House
    -Houseboat
    -Mobile Home
    -Cooperative Apt
    -Condominium
  • AGI is very important.
    Part of gross income that we do not have to pay taxes on.
    Contributing to IRAs ( traditional, not Roth)
    Contributing to health savings accounts
    The amount you pay in student loan interest up to $2500 can be subtracted (only the interest portion)
    Qualified moving expenses such as moving for a job without getting reimbursed are all deductions you can subtract.
  • Reservist deduction on line 24 of Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Can only deduct these expenses if they are due to a change in station and are unreimbursed.
    Cannot deduct allowances.
  • You have a choice of deductions between standard deductions and itemized deductions.
    Based on your filing status, you are entitled to a standard deduction (the amount you receive if your itemized deductions do not exceed the standard deduction)
    For single, or married filing separately, the standard deduction is $5,150 (2006).
    For married filing jointly or a widow(er) you receive $10,300 (2006).
    The head of household receives $7,550 (2006).
    If your parents declare you as a dependent, you aren't entitled to your $5,150, but you will be getting one based on your earned income.
    Marriage Penalty: 1996 Congressional Budget Office Analysis, 42% of married taxpayers paid more in taxes due to being married than if they were each single. Average penalty: $1,380.
    However, 51% of the total paid less tax jointly than if they had not married. Average saved: $1,300.
    Households where individuals earn similar wages more likely to take a penalty. Households with disparate incomes most likely to benefit.
  • From Forbes.com [http://www.forbes.com/sites/kellyphillipserb/2013/10/31/irs-announces-2014-tax-brackets-standard-deduction-amounts-and-more/]
  • Always take advantage of the biggest deductions. If you can itemize more than the standard deduction, always itemize.
  • Without a mortgage, many people do not qualify for itemized deductions.
    They are tricky because they are subject to floors and ceilings.
    Medical and dental expenses are out of pocket expenses that exceed over 7.5% of your AGI.
    If you make $100,000/year, only the amount that exceeds $7,500 is deducted.
    If the expenses are $7,499 or less, you do not get to itemize.
    This is considered a floor because there is a minimum amount you can have that can be deducted.
    State, local, and property taxes are common (Florida is famous for not having a state income tax).
    Charitable contributions can be itemized, but if you do not itemize, you cannot deduct your charitable contributions. You also need receipts for these.
    This is subject to a ceiling. You can only deduct up to 50% of your AGI.
    Job-related and miscellaneous are subject to a floor, over 2%.
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Examples taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Personal Exemption:
    The deduction for the filer if married, for the spouse (if filing jointly), and for each child.
    A married family with 2 children would receive 4 exemptions.
    If your income exceeds $376,700 if filing individually or $427,550 if filing jointly (2014) you do not qualify for these exemptions.
    Personal exemption phaseout begins at an AGI of $254,200 for individual an $305,050 for joint (2014)
  • Taxable income, as the name indicates, is the amount used to determine income tax owed.
  • Tax Rates:
    Single and earn $10,000- 15% tax bracket.
    The first 2 columns tell you exactly where you would be.
    You know what bracket you’re in, so you pay this base tax which is $907.5 plus 15% of the amount over $9,075.
    The amount you are into this bracket is what you are going to pay the marginal tax of.
    The tax lower is 10% of the amount of $9,075, which means you’re paying the $907.5 plus 15% after that.
    That’s what we mean by the progressive-tax someone would pay for that income.
    For each additional bracket you go up, your tax will increase.
    If you make $100,000 you will be paying $18,193.75 plus 28% of the amount over $89,350. ($100,000-$89,350=$10,650, which is subject to 28% taxes).
    $10,650 x 28%=$2,982
    Add that to the $18,193.75=$21,175.75
    Someone who makes $100,000 taxable income would owe 21,175.75
  • Credit is subtracted from the taxes.
    Deduction is subtracted from the income.
    They are both good, but if you have a choice between a $1,000 tax credit or a $1,000 tax deduction, you would choose the credit
    The credit reduces tax liability dollar for dollar
    Deduction reduces tax liability by the dollar amount of the deduction multiplied by the marginal tax rate because it only reduces the income.
    These promote social and economic good such as the redistribution of income and wealth, taking care of children, and education.
  • Tax credit for low income households based on their household compositions
    It is affected by whether or not you have a child (it is not required in order to qualify).
    Take the amount of earned income multiplied by a credit percentage based upon your level of income.
    There are free services that provide for this called vita sites.
    This credit is refundable. This means if the credit you qualify for is more than what you actually had withheld from your paycheck, you still get the full amount of the credit so you get back even more than you pay into the tax system.
    TRA: Tax reform act
    For 2014, Max values for married filing jointly: no children $496, one child $3,304, two children $5,460, more than two children $6,143
  • If you make too much money, the amount of this credit will be diminished or reduced.
    If you are single and make over $75,000, or married and make over $110,000 these credits are reduced.
    If someone is entitled to the full amount, it may be partially refunded to them.
  • Read slides, continued
  • If you are independent, you should check to see if you are eligible for this credit.
    For more information on tax benefits for education, see IRS Publication 970: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p970.pdf
  • You can file an amended return.
    You would fill out form 1040x, so its basically something you are amending.
    20% of your education expenses are covered up to $10,000 worth of expenses making the max credit $2,000.
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 970
  • For more information see IRS Publication 970
  • Read slide
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Example needs work
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Example taken directly from IRS Publication 3
  • Tax Planning Updates for Military Families

    1. 1. Welcome to the Military Families Learning Network Webinar: Tax Planning for Military Families A few days after the presentation, we will send an evaluation and links to an archive and resources. We appreciate your feedback. To receive these emails, please enter your email address in the chat box before we start the recording. Once we start the recording, all chat will be recorded and archived. This material is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Family Policy, Children and Youth, U.S. Department of Defense under Award No. 2010-48869-20685.
    2. 2. Welcome to the Military Families Learning Network Webinar: Tax Planning for Military Families www.eXtension.org/militaryfamilies facebook.com/militaryfamilies blogs.eXtension.org/militaryfamilies twitter.com/MilFamLN bit.ly/MFLNwebinars To receive notifications of future webinars and other learning opportunities from the Military Families Learning Network, sign up for the Military Families Learning Network Email Mailing list at: http://bit.ly/MFLNlist This material is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Family Policy, Children and Youth, U.S. Department of Defense under Award No. 2010-48869-20685.
    3. 3. Additional Resources Available https://learn.extension.org/events/1440 https://learn.extension.org/events/1440
    4. 4. Today’s Speaker Michael Gutter, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor, Interim Family and Consumer Sciences State Program Leader, and Financial Management State Specialist for the Department of Family, Youth, and Community Sciences, in the Institute for Food and Agricultural at the University of Florida. His BS is in Family Financial Management and his PhD is in Family Resource Management from The Ohio State University with a specialization in Finance. Gutter currently explores how financial education and financial socialization are related to financial capability. His Extension Programming includes the Florida Master Money Mentor Volunteer Program, Florida Saves, and Fresh$tart Florida. He recently won Outstanding Conference Paper Award for the 2010 Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education. The common theme that connects Dr. Gutter’s Research, Teaching and Outreach is helping households achieve financial security. His projects focus on enabling access to resources and services as well as improving people’s knowledge and understanding about family resource management. These projects have had funding from the Consumer Federation of America and Bank of America
    5. 5. Tax Planning for Military Families Dr. Michael S. Gutter University of Florida IFAS Extension @mikegutter msgutter@ufl.edu
    6. 6. How Taxes Affect Your Finances 1. Understand basic taxes 2. Implications for you 3. Tax management/reduction strategies
    7. 7. Filing Status • Taxpayers must specify a filing status for their tax return because different rates are associated with each status. – Single – Married filing joint return – Married filing separate return – Head of household – Qualifying widow(er) with dependent child
    8. 8. Alien Status • Three are three categories of citizenship for a non-U.S. citizen, or Alien. Each category has a different income reporting and tax form requirement 1. Resident: meet green card test or substantial presence test for the calendar year • Pay tax on all income, worldwide • Same tax forms as U.S. citizens 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax
    9. 9. Alien Status 2. Nonresident: you do not meet the above tests • File 1040NR or 1040NR-EZ if you have to file • Pay tax on income from U.S. sources 3. Dual-status: you are both a resident and nonresident. Often occurs in years of arrival and departure from U.S. For the part of the year you are a resident alien, you are taxed on all income and for nonresident time you are taxed on income from the U.S. 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    10. 10. What information do you need in order to do your taxes? • W-2 – Wages, salaries, taxes withheld including FICA – Contributions to employer-provided qualified plans • 1099 - Other income • • • • • 1099 INT – interest paid 1099 DIV - dividends 1099G – certain government payments 1099 R – distributions from retirement plans 1099 MISC – self-employment, rental income • 1098 – Payments for mortgage interest paid
    11. 11. Which form to use • Although many of you can use 1040EZ we will work with the full form 1040 with accompanying schedules • Generally – 1040EZ TI<50K, no deductions – 1040A TI<50K, no itemized deductions, IRA ok – 1040 when you need everything
    12. 12. Schedules • Think of as worksheets for specific situations • Itemized deductions • Interest and dividend income • Small business income • Others • Forms – For credits, etc.
    13. 13. Let’s look at the math • Basic Steps – Sum up income sources to get Gross Income – Subtract adjustments to get AGI – Subtract standard deduction or itemized deduction – Subtract personal exemption(s) – Calculate the tax – Subtract credits (if any) – Determine whether you owe or are entitled to a refund
    14. 14. Basic Tax Calculation Gross income (-) adjustments to gross income = AGI (-) itemized or standard deduction (-) Personal exemptions = Taxable income
    15. 15. Basic Tax Calculation Taxable income is used to determine Computed tax (-) tax credits + other taxes = total or net tax due
    16. 16. Gross Income: What is included? [1 of 2] • Salary, wages, commissions, investment income • Alimony • Scholarships (above what you paid in fees), some awards • Pensions, rental income • Gambling winnings, prizes, unemployment • State and local income tax refunds (if you itemized in the previous year)
    17. 17. • • • • • • Gross Income: What is included? [2 of 2] Basic Pay Special Pay Bonus Pay Incentive Pay Differential wage payments Settlement payments and interest payments related to foreclosures – Rules vary based on situation – may be able to exclude some of payment of interest 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    18. 18. Gross Income: What is not included? [1 of 9] • • • • • • • • • Child support Federal income tax refund Garage sale proceeds Proceeds from accident and insurance policies Welfare, food stamps Income from municipal bonds Cash rebates Gifts, inheritances Disability or workers comp
    19. 19. Gross Income: What is not included? [2 of 9] • Combat zone pay • Defense counseling • Disability payments for injury resulting from terrorism or military action • Group-term life insurance • State bonus pay for service in combat zone • Survivor and retirement protection plan premiums • Uniform allowances 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    20. 20. Gross Income: What is not included? [3 of 9] • Death allowances – Burial services – Death gratuity payments to eligible survivors – Travel of dependents to burial site • Family Allowances – Emergencies – Evacuation to place of safety – Certain educational expenses of dependents 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    21. 21. Gross Income: What is not included? [4 of 9] • Living Allowances – Basic allowance for housing and subsistence – Overseas housing allowance – Housing and cost of living allowances paid by US government or foreign government • Moving Allowances – Dislocation – Military base closure or realignment benefit – Cost of moving household and personal items 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    22. 22. Gross Income: What is not included? [5 of 9] • Moving Allowances Continued – Moving trailers or mobile home – Storage – Temporary lodging and related expenses • Travel Allowances – Annual round trip for dependent students – Leave between consecutive overseas tours 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    23. 23. Gross Income: What is not included? [6 of 9] • In-kind Benefits – Medical/dental care – Legal assistance – Dependent-care assistance program – Commissary/exchange discounts • State Bonus Payments 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    24. 24. Gross Income: What is not included? [7 of 9] Combat Zone Pay • Active duty pay for any month in which a servicemember serves in a combat zone is not taxable – Can also exclude pay while hospitalized as a result of combat zone related injury or disease • Pay can be considered in calculation of tax credit – Earned income tax credit (EITC)  Nevaeh was overseas serving in Afghanistan for almost all of 2013, from February 28th to December 31st in 2013. 11 months of her pay would be excluded from her 2013 gross income. 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    25. 25. Gross Income: What is not included? [8 of 9] Sale of House • Can exclude up to a certain amount of gain on the sale of a main home from gross income – In 2013, up to $250,000 single ($500,000 joint) – Must own and live in home for 2 years during a 5 year period • Can suspend 5 year period if on qualified official extended duty: – At duty station > 50 miles from home, or – Living in Government quarters under Government orders – Cannot deduct loss 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    26. 26. Gross Income: What is not included? [9 of 9] Sale of House Continued Lieutenant Mike Morris and his wife, Carol, moved into their new home in 2006 that they purchased for $600,000. From 2006 until 2010 they lived in the house. Mike was deployed and Carol decided lived with her family from the beginning of 2011 until the end of 2013. In 2013 Mike returned from duty and they decided to sell the house because they want to move closer to Carol’s family. They sell the house for $850,000. Because they resided in the home for two of the past five years, they are able to exclude the gain from selling their house ($250,000) from their gross income. 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    27. 27. Adjustments to Gross Income [1 of 7] • Adjustments to Gross Income (AGI) used to determine limits on many deductions • Subtract from gross income – Contributions to qualified retirement plans (taxdeferred savings) – Contributions to FSA – Student loan interest – Qualified moving expenses
    28. 28. Adjustments to Gross Income [2 of 7] • Armed Forces Reservists – Reserve member that travels >100 miles in connection with reserves can deduct unreimbursed travel expenses for the time between leaving home and returning home – Limited to the amount the federal government generally reimburses its employees for travel expenses 2013 IRS
    29. 29. Adjustments to Gross Income [3 of 7] Armed Forces Reservist Continued Captain Harris, a member of the Army Reserve, traveled to a location 220 miles from his home to perform his work in the reserves in April 2013. He incurred $1,549 of unreimbursed expenses consisting of $249 for mileage (440 miles × 56.5 cents per mile), $300 for meals, and $1,000 for lodging. He also had other deductible mileage expenses of $110 for several trips to a location 20 miles from his home. Only 50% of his meal expenses are deductible. He shows his total deductible travel expenses of $1,509 ($249 + $150 (50% of $300) + $1,000 + $110) on Form 2106, line 10. He enters the $1,399 ($249 + $150 + $1,000) for travel over 100 miles from home on Form 1040, line 24. He then subtracts that $1,399 from the amount on Form 2106, $1,509, and enters $110 on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21. 2013 IRS
    30. 30. Adjustments to Gross Income [4 of 7] • Individual Retirement Arrangements – Includes service member and spouse (if applicable) – Can deduct the lesser of the: 1. set limit or 2. the contributions made to a traditional IRA that year – Cannot have been covered by an employermaintained retirement plan at any point during the year – Can include combat pay in calculating the contribution limit 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    31. 31. Adjustments to Gross Income [5 of 7] • Individual Retirement Arrangements Continued – Qualified Reservist Distribution • Not subject to 10% penalty tax on early distributions • Repayment starts 2 years after active duty period ends – Cannot deduct repayments 2013 IRS Publication 3, Armed Forces’ Tax Guide
    32. 32. Adjustments to Gross Income [6 of 7] • Moving Expenses – Time and distance test OR on active duty with a permanent change of station – Moving household goods and personal effects and travel – If a foreign move, can deduct storage costs for time outside US 2013 IRS
    33. 33. Adjustments to Gross Income [7 of 7] Moving Expenses Continued Sargent Ramos is on active duty and is reassigned to Hawaii. She currently is stationed in Arizona. She receives an allowance of $1,000 for the cost of moving her household and personal effects and $200 her temporary lodging. The reassignment costs her $3,000 in moving expenses and $500 in temporary lodging. She can subtract $2,300 from her gross income. 2013 IRS
    34. 34. Deductions and Exemptions • These reduce the amount of income that is subject to tax • Deductions are subtracted from income • Standard deduction: – Not affected by income – Affected by filing status and age – Marriage penalty: term used to describe the fact that many two-income married people pay more in taxes than if they were single
    35. 35. 2014 Standard Deductions Filing Status 2014 Rate Single $6,200 Head of Household Married Filing Jointly Married Filing Separately $9,100 $12,400 $6,200
    36. 36. Deductions and Exemptions • However, if your itemized deductions exceed the standard deduction than you would use these – These are found on Schedule A • • • • State and local income taxes Interest on a mortgage Medical expenses Other
    37. 37. Itemized Deductions [1 of 13] • Add total of itemized deductions and compare against the standard deduction • Itemized Deductions: • Medical and dental (amount over 7.5% AGI) • phased out, based on AGI • State, local, property • Mortgage interest, home equity interest • Charitable contributions (cannot exceed 50% AGI) • Casualty and theft (amount over 10% AGI)
    38. 38. Itemized Deductions [2 of 13] • Employee Business Expenses (2% limit) – Unreimbursed expenses or expenses in excess of reimbursed expenses – File Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ – See Publication 463 2013 IRS
    39. 39. Itemized Deductions [3 of 13] • Travel Expenses – Unreimbursed, work related expenses while traveling away from home (at permanent duty station) • Not permanent duty assignment overseas • Not temporary assignment in a single location (expected to last < 1 yr) – Cannot deduct meals or lodging at permanent duty station  Captain Rodgers travels from the base which he is permanently assigned to in Georgia to a base in California for temporary assignment. He is reimbursed 50% of the cost for his travel. He can deduct the remaining 50% of his travel costs as an itemized deduction. Travel costs he can include are the lodging in California, 50% of meals while in California, laundry, dry cleaning, and taxicabs. 2013 IRS
    40. 40. • Itemized Deductions [4 of 13] Transportation Expenses – Includes • Getting from one workplace to another when you are not away from home, • Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace, and • Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have a regular place of work – By air, bus, rail, taxi, and personal car 2013 IRS
    41. 41. Itemized Deductions [5 of 13] Transportation Expenses Continued Chief Petty Officer Davis is attending a business meeting that is not on his home base where he usually works. The meeting is off base, 1 hour away, and he drives his own car. He is not reimbursed for his transportation expenses. Davis can deduct the cost of driving to the business meeting from his home base and back to home base after the meeting. But he cannot deduct the cost of driving from home to his home base and back. 2013 IRS
    42. 42. Itemized Deductions [6 of 13] • Uniform Cost and Upkeep – If required and can be worn off duty : cannot deduct uniform cost or upkeep – If required and cannot be worn off duty: can deduct expenses minus any reimbursements or allowances • Military battle dress uniforms and utility uniforms • Articles not replacing regular clothing (Insignia of rank, corps devices, epaulets, aiguillettes, and swords) • Reservists’ uniforms if only worn while performing reservist duties 2013 IRS
    43. 43. Itemized Deductions [7 of 13] Uniform Cost and Upkeep Continued Reggie purchases a military battle dress uniform that he cannot wear while off duty. He received no allowance to pay for his uniform or reimbursement. Reggie can deduct the cost of his military battle dress uniform. 2013 IRS
    44. 44. Itemized Deductions [8 of 13] • Professional Dues – Unreimbursed dues for professional societies directly related to military position – Not officers’ club or noncommissioned officers’ club  Lieutenant Margaret Allen, an electrical engineer at Maxwell Air Force Base, can deduct professional dues paid to the American Society of Electrical Engineers. 2013 IRS
    45. 45. Itemized Deductions [9 of 13] • Educational Expenses (Pub. 970) – Unreimbursed and qualifying work-related education • Required by employer or law to keep salary, status, or job. Education must serve a purpose to employer • Maintains or improves skills needed for present work – But cannot be education that: • Is needed to meet minimum requirement for present trade or business or • Part of study for a new trade or business 2013 IRS
    46. 46. Itemized Deductions [10 of 13] • Educational Expenses Continued – Qualified education can lead to a degree – If qualified education, can deduct costs of travel including meals up to 50% limit – If qualified education, can deduct transportation costs for that education (ie actual cost of bus, subway, cab, other fares, or personal car) 2013 IRS
    47. 47. Itemized Deductions [11 of 13] Educational Expenses Continued Lieutenant Colonel Mason has a degree in financial management and is in charge of base finances at her post of duty. She took an advanced finance course. She already meets the minimum qualifications for her job. By taking the course, she is improving skills in her current position. The course does not qualify her for a new trade or business. She can deduct educational expenses that are more than the educational allowance she received. 2013 IRS
    48. 48. Itemized Deductions [12 of 13] Educational Expenses Continued Major Williams worked in the military base legal office as a legal intern. He was placed in excess leave status by his employer to attend law school. He paid all his educational expenses and was not reimbursed. After obtaining his law degree, he passed the state bar exam and worked as a judge advocate. His educational expenses are not deductible because the law degree qualified him for a new trade or business, even though the education maintained and improved his skills in his work. 2013 IRS
    49. 49. Itemized Deductions [13 of 13] • Repayments to employer for amount included in income in an earlier year – If ≤ $3,000 and was reported as wages, deduct it the year in which the amount was repaid as a misc. itemized deduction – If > $3,000, see publication 525. Rules vary depending on how was claimed and whether you want a deduction or credit for the value. 2013 IRS
    50. 50. Deductions and Exemptions • Personal Exemptions: – $3,950 (for 2014) for each person who is supported by the income reported on a tax return – Usually one exemption each for the filer, the spouse and each dependent child – Deducted from adjusted gross income to determine taxable income
    51. 51. Taxable Income and Taxes • Taxable income: adjusted gross income less deductions and exemptions
    52. 52. Tax Rates (ordinary income) • Tax brackets are indexed for inflation • Marginal Tax Rate: tax on the last dollar earned • Not calculated, just looked up • 10, 15, 25, 28, 33, 35 • Effective or Average Tax Rate – Take tax liability divided by taxable income – Always lower than MTR (except those in 10%)
    53. 53. Tax Rates (ordinary income) [2 of 2]  Monica and Gabriel are married and filing jointly. Their taxable income is $40,500. They would pay 10% of the first $17,850 of their income ($1,785). They would also pay 15% on the remaining $22,650 ($40,500 - $17,850 = $22,650; $22,650 x 15% = $3,397.5). They would add the two tax values: $1,785 + $3,397.5; leaving them with a tax Taxable Income Additional Tax liability of $5,182.50. Tax Rate Applied $0.00 to $17,850 At 10% $17,850 to $72,500 At 15% Plus $1,785 $72,500 to $146,400 At 25% Plus $9,982.50
    54. 54. What is a credit? • Reduces tax liability, not taxable income • So what is better, a deduction or a credit – A deduction reduces your tax liability by the MTR – The credit reduces tax liability dollar for dollar
    55. 55. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) • Provides tax credit to lower income working families • Multiply a max amount of earned income by credit % – There is a schedule that accompanies the form • Earned income – Employee compensation, net earnings from self-employment – No alimony, pension benefits, or investment income • As of 2001 IRA excludes nontaxable employee compensation • Taxpayer need not have a child • Refundable 2013 IRS
    56. 56. Child-Related Credits [1 of 2] • Child tax credit • Based on # of eligible dependent children • Increased credit $600-1,000 between 2001-2010 • Phase out when AGI > 110K (75K single) – Phase out limit depends on # children • Partially refundable 2013 IRS
    57. 57. Child-Related Credits [2 of 2] • Child and Dependent Care Expenses – For specific % of expenses related to working or seeking work – Home or day care for child or dependent • Child under 13 • Dependent or spouse is physically, mentally incapacitated
    58. 58. Credit for Retirement Account Contributions • Max contribution $2000 per year • Must be over 18 years old • Dependents and full time students do not qualify • Can be used against regular tax and AMT • Would be based on contributions to – IRA and Roth IRA – 401K, 403b, 457 plans, Simple and SEP – Credit reduced by distributions from plans • Income Limit – No credit at all if AGI > $50K (MFJ) – or $37.5K (HOH) or $25K (MFS & S)
    59. 59. Education Credit: American Opportunity • Formerly the HOPE scholarship credit • Credit for four years of post-secondary education – 100% of first $2,000 paid + 25% of next $2,000 – Max of $2,500 per student – Half-time or more and pursing a degree – For tuition, fees, and course materials – Phase-out: MAGI $160-180K (married); $80K-90K (single) • 2001 TRA – Can be used with 529 or Education IRA distributions as long as used for different expenses
    60. 60. Education Credit: American Opportunity • 2013 IRS
    61. 61. Education Credit: Lifetime Learning • Credit for an unlimited # of years of post-secondary education – – – – – 20% of expenses paid up to $10,000 Max of $2,000 per tax return For tuition, fees, and course materials Do not have to be pursing a degree Phase-out: MAGI $107-127K (married); $53K-63K (single) • 2001 TRA – Can be used with 529 or Education IRA distributions as long as used for different expenses 2013 IRS
    62. 62. Education Credit: Lifetime Learning  Bruce and Toni Harper are married and file a joint tax return. For 2013, their MAGI is $75,000. Toni is attending a local college (an eligible educational institution) to earn credits toward a degree in nursing. She already has a bachelor's degree in history and wants to become a nurse. In August 2013, Toni paid $5,000 of qualified education expenses for her fall 2013 semester. Bruce and Toni can claim a $1,000 (20% × $5,000) lifetime learning credit on their 2013 joint tax return. 2013 IRS
    63. 63. Education Credits • For each student, you cannot claim both American Opportunity credit and Lifetime Learning credit at the same time – You could claim American Opportunity for one student and Lifetime Learning for the other – For each student, you could alternate credits. American Opportunity one year and Lifetime Learning the next 2013 IRS
    64. 64. Credit for Excess Social Security Tax Withheld • Common if you worked for two or more employers and earned more than $117,000, that too much social security tax was withheld • Max amount of social security tax that should be withheld for 2014 is $7,254 (6.2% of $117,000) • Can claim the excess over the maximum social security tax as a credit again your income tax
    65. 65. The Big Picture • Taxes affect many savings and consumption decisions – Buying a home – Using home equity loans for other major purchases – Absorbing job-related expenses – Investing • Tax-deferred (401K, 403b, TSP) • Tax-exempt (municipal bond)
    66. 66. Tax Liability Forgiveness • Liability forgiven, or if paid is returned, if servicemember dies: – – – – In active service in a combat zone From combat zone injuries From terrorist or military action wounds or injuries If work qualified the member for speical military pay for duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger  Army Private John Kane died in 2013 of wounds incurred in a terrorist attack in 2012. His income tax liability is forgiven for all tax years from 2011 through 2013. 2013 IRS
    67. 67. Filing Returns • Send return to the IRS Center for the state in which you live.  Miguel is stationed in Texas but his permanent home is in Florida. He should send his return to the IRS Center in Florida • Returns should be filed by regular due date, April 15th, 2014, unless filing for an extension or if servicemember is serving in a combat zone or is serving overseas. 2013 IRS
    68. 68. Automatic Filing Extensions • Extends the due date for the return but not the timing of tax due. Tax unpaid by April 15th will gain interest • Depends on where you were located during tax year; in the U.S or abroad – Inside U.S: • File form 4868 by April 15th or pay part of tax liability by credit or debit card and get an automatic 6 month extension 2013 IRS
    69. 69. Automatic Filing Extensions – Outside U.S. and Puerto Rico • Automatic 2 month extension, don’t have to file 4868 if – You live outside US/Puerto Rico and post of duty is outside US./Puerto Rico, OR – As a result of an assigned tour of duty, you were outside the US for a period that includes the entire due date of the return 2013 IRS
    70. 70. Extension of Deadlines [1 of 4] • Automatically allows postponement of filing taxes, payment of taxes, and filing refund claims if servicemember is: – In a combat zone or qualifying service outside of a combat zone – Part of a contingency operation (deployed outside of U.S, away from permanent duty station) – Hospitalized outside of the US as a result of combat or contingency operation injury or hospitalized up to five years in U.S. 2013 IRS
    71. 71. Extension of Deadlines [2 of 4] • Deadline extended for 180 days following the later of: – Last day in combat zone, qualifying service outside of combat zone, contingency operation, or – Last day of any continuous qualified hospitalization for injury from service in combat zone or contingency operation • In addition to the 180 days, the deadline is extended by the number of days left to take action with the IRS when combat zone was entered – Number of days between deployment and the April 15 th deadline 2013 IRS
    72. 72. Extension of Deadlines [3 of 4]  Petty Officer Leonard Brown's ship entered the Persian Gulf on January 5, 2012. On February 15, 2012, Petty Officer Brown was injured and was flown to a U.S. hospital. He remained in the hospital through April 21, 2013. The deadlines for filing Petty Officer Brown's 2011, 2012, and 2013 returns are figured as follows.  The 2011 tax return. The deadline is January 28, 2014. Petty Officer Brown has 282 days (180 plus 102) after his last day in the hospital (April 21, 2013) to file his 2011 return. The 102 additional days are the number of days in the 3½ month filing period that were left when he entered the combat zone (January 5– April 15, 2012). 2013 IRS
    73. 73. Extension of Deadlines [4 of 4]  The 2012 tax return. The deadline is January 31, 2014. Petty Officer Brown has 285 days (180 plus 105) after April 21, 2013, to file his 2012 tax return. The 105 additional days are the number of days in the 2013 filing period that were left when he entered the combat zone (January 1– April 15, 2013).  The 2013 tax return. The deadline is not extended because the 180-day extension period after April 21, 2013, plus the number of days left in the filing period when he entered the combat zone (105) ends on January 31, 2014, which is before the due date for his 2013 return (April 15, 2014). 2013 IRS
    74. 74. Signing Returns • Should sign own return unless other conditions met: – Overseas or Incapacitated • Grant power of attorney, Form 2848 – In combat zone • Souse can sign, providing a statement explaining the situation 2013 IRS
    75. 75. Continue the Conversation • Find the Personal Finance Team online » Facebook: PersonalFinance4PFMs » Twitter: #MFLN » LinkedIn: Military Personal Finance Managers Group
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