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Mobile Communication in India

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  • 1. GIVE HER THE PHONE Mobile Communication & Gender Roles in india
  • 2. Mobile phones can... our argument ...change India’s gender structure
  • 3. but… how? really? Yes! (Given the fact that India is one of the most unequal country when it comes to gender)
  • 4. according to the un’s gender inequality report (2012) That is...a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market. 186 countries #1 norway #136 india
  • 5. FIRST, LET’S REMEMBER THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THIS KIND OF PHONE!
  • 6. 1 Emphasis on the community as a whole Rather than on individual members women in disadvantage social structures Scholars have long recognized that Indian women are disadvantaged by widely shared gender ideologies that restrict women’s movements outside the home and limit women’s interactions with their husbands within the home 2 Men and women are place into designated spheres that benefit the community as a whole
  • 7. Work outside + Advantages Male dominance Men are aware of the advantages and act to maintain them Restrictions + Housework + Honor LET’S UNDERSTAND THE INDIAN GENDER STRUCTURE Women are expected to behave in a way that emphasizes: modesty, obedience, self-sacrifice and attachment to the home
  • 8. factors that make women less likely to own a phone 23% africa Income and occupation 37% Developing level of the region Educational Level Age south asia
  • 9. can mobile phones transform social structures? Technological object Social object
  • 10. What Exactly is empowerment? is the increasing capacity “ Empowermentgroups process ofchoices and thetransform of individuals or to make to those choices into desired actions and outcomes.” - The World Bank ...And can mobile phones really make it possible?
  • 11. With mobile phones, women can ACHIEVE… Balance Community Organization Knowledge
  • 12. Mobile phones used as teaching tools Audio messages Hotlines Kencall’s Kenya Farmers Helpline SMS messages Health care and farming advice
  • 13. Commonwealth of Learning study in Southern India Mobile phones help women business owners Important distance education tool Fear of school Family duties
  • 14. Commonwealth of Learning study in Southern India Provided women with independence Changed typical mobile phone usage In my family and neighbourhood, some men do not know how to use a mobile phone.They see me using the phone, listening to voicemails … Mobile phones have become a symbolic representation of our transition from dependency on males to self-dependency. -- Sudha
  • 15. 1 “ If I have 100 rupees, I can think of hundred more important things to do than recharge my mobile phone.” Poverty drawbacks 3 Apprehension that it could trigger conflict and tensions 2 Lack of income Women are restricted to housework We come back to the gender structure issue and male dominance in India
  • 16. What challenges affect rural indian women’s ability to use mobile phones for everyday purposes? ...and how can we address them? Making Data Tangible
  • 17. We Recommend… Manufacturers and carriers should increase marketing directed towards women. Simpler devices require less tech training, and are more appealing to rural consumers. Learning groups may help reduce intimidation and teach women to use mobile phones.