The role of policy-project relations in innovation deployment Maria Kapsali
Relations in project management and public policy literatures
The concept of Relationality
The purpose & process of the research
Key findings and contribution
Project Relations in PM theory
“ managing communication to satisfy the needs of and resolve issues with project stakeholders – planned supported and monitored interactions that runs parallel and are fully integrated with the development of the technical deliverables ” PMBOK (1996). Closed-system and linear thinking approaches 2) Partnering and similar types of relational contracting
Reconciliation of interests – relational theory of contracting (MacNeil, 1978) contracts need to encourage cooperation and flexibility
Combine the traditional approach with conflict resolution techniques and develop economic interdependence
Change the culture and develop legal framework
Project Relations in PM theory Relating Process Means Normative Approach Formal preplanned process based on plans and specifications Prescribed control procedures (WBS, phases) and performance criteria (cost, quality, time) Descriptive Approach Formal preplanned process that allows for periodical readjustments of plans and specifications Prescribed control procedures (WBS, phases) and performance criteria (cost, quality, time) incorporating stakeholders and risk assessment (spiral model) Systems Approach Formal processes are guides and can change- relating based on mutual adjustment- managing change Both formal monitoring procedures and informal social mechanisms. Focus on both outcome and process.
Policy Relations Relating Process Means The Triple Helix Model of University-Industry-Government Systems ‘‘ operate on each other selectively during processes of mutual adjustment ’’ (Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz, 1996) Bridging function Role substitution Task overlap Pubic Policy literature (implementation through projects) Policy relates to the project through its strategic and implementation rationales in a top-down or bottom-up way (Artto et al., 2004; Matland, 1995) Bottom-up processes to achieve consensus and goal alignment – bridging function Top-down coordination mechanisms to implement rules
Strategy implementation through projects depends on the alignment of goals
2. Relations management influenced by contracting theories do not seem to be as effective in dealing with complexity of interests and the sharing of risk
How can the same paradigms be effective in managing relations in innovation projects, which carry greater risks and have more complex and unique activities?
The concept of Relationality The project is an open system- managing relations through its common boundaries with other systems In this study, Relationality is defined as the actual process and means of interaction between two (or more) (sub)systems in an innovation system.
How is Relationality between policy and project?
How does Relationality affect innovation project performance?
The process of the research
31 semi-structured interviews in UK and Greece on EARSS and eTEN projects. 9
2 embedded multiple case studies (EARSS and eTEN).
Within and cross-case comparative analysis.
Strategic Rationale: Stimulate the deployment of an electronic network through supporting collaborative projects
Too many goals
Support of collaboration – coordinating mechanisms, conferences, publications, participation in decision making and collaboration with other networks
Strategic Rationale: Stimulate the deployment of electronic networks through supporting collaborative projects
Choice between goals
Construction of collaboration rules – controlling the process of collaboration during evaluation procedures - funding (more and cheaper)
Implementation Rationale: Provide the managers with assistive tools and allow them to manage for results
Not extremely efficient but within budget and time
Tolerance provided flexibility
Implementation Rationale: the projects need to be controlled through the managerial process
Loss of leadership
Diversity of interests
Intolerance - Focus on the evaluation process
Systemic Project Management
Manage relationships to satisfy stakeholders and achieve as many of the objectives as possible – compromise
Flexibility to make decisions according to circumstances
Normative Project Management
Manage the process in order to satisfy the main stakeholder (EU) at the expense of the project goals
Limits the project manager
Outcome over Process Process over Outcome Outcome over process
The cases Relationality Project Management Outputs Outcomes Impact of national environments Strategic Rationale Implementation Rationale EARSS Instigate deployment through collaborative networks Provision of resources, organize collaboration through interaction and monitor of results Systemic – focus on mediating between different stakeholder boundaries to achieve the project goals Compromise goals and efficiency Low Deployment Effect on the infrastructure and the motivation of stakeholders to take part Effect on the way managers handle the boundaries with the project stakeholders eTEN Provision of resources, organize collaboration through participation rules and monitor of the project processes and outcomes Normative – focus on managing the boundary with the sponsor to pass evaluation Compromise goals and effectiveness Ceremonial Deployment
Key findings Boundary space Policy and project interaction Tensions strategic rationale- Tensions in implementation rationale Policy Strategic and Implementation rationales Project Boundary Tensions in goals and the boundary role of the managers Performance objectives tensions Project Project Management Tasks Prioritization and compromise between goals and performance objectives How do Policy and project relate Effects on project management and performance