Ob+Stress Management


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Stress Management

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Ob+Stress Management

  1. 1. STRESS MANAGEMENT Dr.Preetam.Khandelwal FMS,University of Delhi,Delhi
  2. 2. How big is the stress problem? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Very big and growing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There are potential stressors in all human activities </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Work Stress and Its Management Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity , constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
  4. 4. Work Stress and Its Management Constraints Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire. Demands The loss of something desired.
  5. 5. MISCONCEPTIONS 1. All stress harmful 2. Must be avoided 3. Hard w or k kills 4. Not Organization’s problem
  6. 6. TRUTHS <ul><li>No life without stress </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Progress of mankind </li></ul><ul><li>Not only individual, but Org as well , affected </li></ul><ul><li>Stress kills, not hard work </li></ul><ul><li>An individual experience </li></ul>
  7. 7. Work Stress and its Management <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressor : The person or event that triggers the stress response </li></ul><ul><li>Eustress : Healthy ,normal stress </li></ul><ul><li>Distress: Adverse Psychological,physical,behavioral and organizational consequences due to stressful events </li></ul><ul><li>Strain: Distress </li></ul>
  8. 8. NEGATIVE STRESS <ul><li>It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical and spiritual health. </li></ul>NEGATIVE STRESS
  9. 9. POSITIVE STRESS <ul><li>Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations. </li></ul>POSITIVE STRESS
  10. 10. THE INDIVIDUAL <ul><li>Everyone is different, with unique perceptions of, and reactions to, events </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people </li></ul><ul><li>Some are more sensitive owing to experiences in childhood, the influence of teachers, parents and religion etc </li></ul>
  11. 11. Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance
  12. 12. Potential Sources of Stress <ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic uncertainties of the business cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political uncertainties of political systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological uncertainties of technical innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Potential Sources of Stress <ul><li>Organizational Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task demands related to the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role demands of functioning in an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal demands created by other employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational structure (rules and regulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational leadership (managerial style) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d) <ul><li>Individual Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality problems arising for basic disposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater job experience moderates stress effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social support buffers job stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS   Work related   Non-work related Episodic stress Type 1 (e.g.Re-organisation) Type11 (e.g.Marriage ) Chronic stress Type 111 (e.g. Too much, too little work ) Type 1V (e.g. Concern over economy)
  16. 16. SOURCES OF STRESS <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing stress important </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic stress both on and off the job causes disruptions ,triggers a chain reaction ,requires personal adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stress even after we become accustomed to it causes pressures that induce illness ,lower feelings of satisfaction ,inhibit growth and work effectiveness </li></ul>
  17. 17.   L ife Styles and Stress <ul><li>We embrace material goods, conveniences,”the good life” </li></ul><ul><li>we thus ,reduce are ability to cope with stress </li></ul><ul><li>  We reward competition and achievement above most other human endeavours </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>We design our life around left brain and increase the amount of stress in our daily lives </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>We ignore our physical, mental and spiritual wellness </li></ul>
  18. 18. Consequences of Stress High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms
  19. 19. A Model of Stress
  20. 20. Stage 1 -Alarm The body shows characteristics of the first exposure to the stressor ,increase BP, high respiration rate Stage 2- Resistance As stressful condition persists person resists stress ,(Anxiety, tension,accidents ,poor decision making,illness) Stage 3- Exhaustion Resistance fails,headaches,high BP Because of long exposure to same stress General Adaptation Syndrome
  21. 21. Personality <ul><li>Type A’s </li></ul><ul><li>are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; </li></ul><ul><li>feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; </li></ul><ul><li>strive to think or do two or more things at once; </li></ul><ul><li>cannot cope with leisure time; </li></ul><ul><li>are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>Type B’s </li></ul><ul><li>never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; </li></ul><ul><li>feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; </li></ul><ul><li>play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; </li></ul><ul><li>can relax without guilt. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Necessity for Life-Style Change   <ul><li>It is important to take a holistic perspective or a “systems” approach to understanding stress </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  H olistic perspective: Three key dimensions of life </li></ul>
  23. 23. ILLNESS WELLNESS   - __________________________________ +     DEPRESSION HAPPINESS   - __________________________________ +     ALIENATION INTEGRATION   - __________________________________ +   THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSION   THE PHYSICAL DIMENSION THE SPRITUAL DIMENSION  
  24. 24. Managing Stress <ul><li>Individual Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing time management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- life style management -diet,exercise,yoga   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing physical exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation training/Meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding social support network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Behavioral techniques—learn to react </li></ul><ul><li>differently </li></ul><ul><li>- Cognitive technique— </li></ul><ul><li>think yourself out of stress </li></ul>
  25. 25. TIME MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Prioritizing activities by importance & urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritization -Make a list </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What MUST be done </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What SHOULD be done </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would you LIKE to do </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduling – Plan your Day </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Quite hour, Interruptions, Personal time, Balance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Time Management <ul><li>Knowing your daily cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Doing high demanding jobs when you are alert and active </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate & Follow-up </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust yourself to relinquish control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Edit your Life - Learn to drop unimportant activities </li></ul>
  27. 27. Managing Stress <ul><li>Organizational Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved personnel selection and job placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of realistic goal setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redesigning of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased employee involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved organizational communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering employee sabbaticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of corporate wellness programs </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Tips for managers <ul><li>we must commit ourselves to action </li></ul><ul><li>Learn effective stress –management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise that stress and stress management are unique for each of us </li></ul><ul><li>we must be patient </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Accept stress management as a life long learning process </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Approach stress management one step at a time </li></ul>
  29. 29. Tips for managers <ul><li>Become knowledgeable about stress </li></ul><ul><li>T ake a systematic approach to problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Come to terms with your feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Develop effective behavioural skills </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and maintain a strong support network </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on positive spiritual development </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  30. 30. ABC STRATEGY <ul><li>A = AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>What causes you stress? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you react? </li></ul>
  31. 31. ABC STRATEGY <ul><li>B = BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>There is a fine line between positive / negative stress </li></ul><ul><li>How much can you cope with before it becomes negative ? </li></ul>
  32. 32. ABC STRATEGY <ul><li>C = CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Taking responsibility for your own health and well –being is one of the most important keys to successful stress management and life style change
  34. 34. Type A Scoring <ul><li>120 or more A+ </li></ul><ul><li>106-119 A </li></ul><ul><li>100-105 A- </li></ul><ul><li>90-99 B+ </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 90 B </li></ul>