Civil War Lecture

2,637 views
2,473 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,637
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
155
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
161
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Civil War Lecture

  1. 1. The Civil War
  2. 2. Two Sides <ul><li>U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>(Union/North/Blue) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital : Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>President : Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Generals : </li></ul><ul><li>George McClellan </li></ul><ul><li>Ulysses S. Grant </li></ul>Confederacy (South, Gray) Capital : Richmond, VA President : Jefferson Davis Generals : Robert E. Lee
  3. 3. <ul><li>Lincoln </li></ul>Davis
  4. 4. Army Size <ul><li>U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>187,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(Yankees) </li></ul>Confederacy 112,000 (Rebels)
  5. 5. Border States <ul><li>All have strategic locations </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri controls parts of Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky controlled Ohio River </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland surrounds D.C. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lincoln’s Controversial Move <ul><li>Worried about Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested those who supported secession </li></ul><ul><li>Suspends Habeas Corpus (told what you’re being accused of) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Union-North <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to invade South (large area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to defeat the South – cannot settle for a tie </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Confederacy-South <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting on Home Turf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves can cover work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a position to defend, only have to avoid defeat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few Factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Railroad System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State’s Rights Backfire </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. War Aims & Strategies <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: Bring the Southern States Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockade Southern Ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Mississippi (Anaconda Plan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Richmond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: Win recognition of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get European Help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow example of Revolutionary War </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Outset of War <ul><li>False Hope: Most Americans thought war would be short. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers signed up for service based on this thinking (90 day enlistments) </li></ul>
  11. 12. 1st Battle of Bull Run <ul><li>1st Major Battle of Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson rises to fame </li></ul><ul><li>South develops a “Rebel Yell” </li></ul><ul><li>Inexperience: Troops and Civilians stampede back to D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate Victory (call it Battle of Manassas Junction) </li></ul>
  12. 14. North’s Reaction to Loss <ul><li>Complete Shock </li></ul><ul><li>1 Benefit - become more realistic about War - realize it will be a long and bloody war </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan to head Army of the Potomac </li></ul>
  13. 15. War at Sea <ul><li>Monitor vs. Merrimack </li></ul><ul><li>2 Ironclads (wooden ship covered with thick iron plates) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually unsinkable - cannons bounce off them </li></ul><ul><li>Completely changes warfare at Sea </li></ul>
  14. 17. Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson <ul><li>Grant’s rise to fame - captures Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers - calls for Unconditional Surrender (leads to nickname) </li></ul><ul><li>Important Because : </li></ul><ul><li>Kick Confederates out of Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>Opened path to Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama </li></ul>
  15. 18. Battle of Shiloh <ul><li>Ulysses Grant marches army to Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Confederates try surprise attack </li></ul><ul><li>2 days - 20,000 casualties (Dead and Wounded) - Conf. General Johnston among the dead </li></ul><ul><li>More deaths in 1 battle than any other previous war </li></ul><ul><li>Union Victory - continues advance towards Mississippi </li></ul>
  16. 20. Capture of New Orleans <ul><li>David Farragut uses Navy to capture largest city in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Confederacy can no longer use Mississippi River to transport goods </li></ul>
  17. 21. 7 Day’s Battle
  18. 22. 7 Day’s Battle <ul><li>McClellan tries to capture Richmond </li></ul><ul><li>Meets Robert E. Lee’s defenses </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan is cautious, Lee is risky </li></ul><ul><li>J.E.B. Stuarts goes on daring Cavalry ride - gathers intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Union Defeat (Major Turning Point) - Lee becomes famous </li></ul>
  19. 23. Battle of Antietam <ul><li>Lee responds by marching Army into Maryland (near Sharpsburg) </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan finds copy of Lee’s Battle plans - waited 4 days to attack </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodiest Day of Entire War (23,000 Casualties) </li></ul><ul><li>Slight Union Victory - McClellan does not pursue - Lincoln fires him </li></ul>
  20. 28. Emancipation <ul><li>Lincoln Hesitates to Emancipate (free) the Confederate Slaves Because: </li></ul><ul><li>Union’s Main Goal is to preserve Union , Not end slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Worried about Border States </li></ul><ul><li>Also waiting for American Victory so it doesn’t look like last ditch effort </li></ul>
  21. 29. Emancipation <ul><li>Lincoln Reasons for issuing Emancipation: </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to Damage South - If they lose slaves, more men must return home to work on farm (can’t fight in war) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Europe Out </li></ul>
  22. 30. Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>Lincoln issues in 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Freed only the Slaves in the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged Slaves to run away </li></ul><ul><li>Usually only became free if Union Army was near </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore : Who should get credit? Lincoln - Army - or slaves themselves? </li></ul>
  23. 32. 13th Amendment <ul><li>Congress responds by issuing Amendment in 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Ratified in 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Officialy put an end to slavery </li></ul>
  24. 33. African American Contributions <ul><li>South: Ag, hospital work, cooked for soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misconception: Did not fight for South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North: Navy work, 1862 - can serve in Army - by end of war 200,000 serve (10% of army), 37,000 lost their lives for the country </li></ul>
  25. 34. 54th Massachusetts <ul><li>One of the most famous all Black regiments </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Robert Gould Shaw </li></ul><ul><li>Led a heroic attack on a fortified Charleston fort - 50% casualties </li></ul><ul><li>Killed immediately if captured </li></ul>
  26. 37. Camp Life <ul><li>Pleasant Moments: Songs, Friends, Letters, Games </li></ul><ul><li>Dull Moments: Drills, Marches, Guard Duty </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Moments: Food, Disease, Bugs, Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners lacked food and supplies (Shoes) </li></ul><ul><li>One in ten deserted (ran away) </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest Killer: Dysentery, Diarrhea </li></ul>
  27. 38. Life at Home <ul><li>Fighting and Blockade disrupt many families </li></ul><ul><li>Huge loss of crops and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of Meat, Clothing, Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>If Army comes through - land trampled, fences used for firewood, crops eaten, well drunk dry </li></ul>
  28. 39. Tougher Life in South <ul><li>9,000% inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Farmland overrun and Rail lines destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Impressment = take horses, mules </li></ul><ul><li>1,000s become homeless - many chose prison, population doesn’t return until 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Blockade leads to food riots </li></ul><ul><li>High Desertion Rate among soldiers </li></ul>
  29. 40. Tougher Life in South <ul><li>1/2 of Southern Livestock Killed </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of Farm Machinery destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 of Confederate Soldiers are dead </li></ul>
  30. 41. Women’s Role <ul><li>Picked up Men’s work: became teachers, office workers, clerks </li></ul><ul><li>Managed farms, government jobs, factory work </li></ul><ul><li>Aided Soldiers - Women enter Nursing Profession (thanks to Clara Barton) thought to be male work </li></ul><ul><li>Spy legend is exaggerated </li></ul>
  31. 43. Women’s Role <ul><li>Sanitary Commission cut in half sickness of U.S. Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Impact : Women keep war alive </li></ul>
  32. 47. Declining Enlistment <ul><li>North and South need soldiers - institute a draft (require men to serve in army) </li></ul><ul><li>Can avoid draft by hiring a substitute ($600) or pay commutation ($300) - exempt from 1 draft call (4 in war) - most subs are immigrants </li></ul>
  33. 48. 1862-1863 <ul><li>Robert E. Lee and Army of Northern Virginia seem invincible </li></ul>
  34. 49. Battle of Chancellorsville <ul><li>Union Army is rebuilt – Lee strikes before North can launch a major campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Wilderness – Lee ’s big risk pays off – divides Army twice in front of enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Stonewall Jackson is injured (dies from wounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Major Confederate Victory </li></ul>
  35. 51. Battle of Gettysburg <ul><li>Lee feels confident with Army – decides to invade the North </li></ul><ul><li>George Meade is ordered to find and attack Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally meet near Gettysburg Pennsylvania (Confederates looking for shoes) </li></ul><ul><li>3 Days – Bloodiest Battle of the War: 50,000 Casualties </li></ul>
  36. 52. Battle of Gettysburg <ul><li>Day 1: Union forced South of Town </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2: Union holds Cemetery Ridge against attack (form an upside down “U” Shape), Ends of the U save the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3: Union repels major assault, Pickett’s Charge – 14,000 Conf. soldiers charge in open territory, ½ die </li></ul>
  37. 53. Day 1
  38. 54. Day 2
  39. 55. Day 3
  40. 56. Little Round Top Today
  41. 57. Culp’s Hill: Ireland led defense against 2,000 Confederates (Little Round Top only fighting against 300)
  42. 58. Battle of Gettysburg <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Confederate Defeat, Pushed out of the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended on July 4 th – date was very significant to all involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Turning Point to the War, Not THE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln disappointed: Meade did not pursue Lee during retreat </li></ul></ul>
  43. 59. Battle of Vicksburg <ul><li>Grant trying to secure Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Army crosses river, attacks Vicksburg from the back </li></ul><ul><li>Lays siege to town for several months </li></ul><ul><li>Surrender on July 4 th : Major Victory for U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows U.S. to control Mississippi River and splits Confederacy in half </li></ul>
  44. 62. Gettysburg Address <ul><li>Lincoln’s speech commemorating deaths at Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><li>2 minute speech , followed 2 hour keynote speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Gave the Civil War meaning </li></ul>
  45. 63. Gettysburg Address <ul><li>Attempted to win the Ideological Battle of the War </li></ul><ul><li>Changes meaning of Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gov’t of equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not a gov’t of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puts an end to States Rights Argument, Gov’t of the People , not the States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Before)The United States Are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(After) The United States Is </li></ul></ul>
  46. 64. Grant’s Promotion <ul><li>Lincoln promotes Grant to oversee War in East – knows that he will pursue and attack Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Grant’s Strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack Confederacy on all fronts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army of Potomac will crush Lee in Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman will attack South </li></ul></ul>
  47. 67. Election of 1864 <ul><li>Virginia clashes ending in ties, 100,000 men are dead, Confederates are pushed to Petersburg </li></ul><ul><li>North is war weary, Democrats want to negotiate peace </li></ul><ul><li>Summer of 1864 – Lincoln is sure he will lose election </li></ul>
  48. 68. Election of 1864 <ul><li>However: Sherman accomplishes breakthrough in September and captures Atlanta </li></ul><ul><li>October, Sheridan amassed many victories in Shenandoah of Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Lincoln to win </li></ul><ul><li>If Lincoln would’ve lost : McClellan and Democrats would’ve negotiated for peace, Confederacy would be recognized as a country </li></ul>
  49. 70. Election of 1864
  50. 71. Election of 1864
  51. 72. Sherman’s March <ul><li>After capture of Atlanta, Sherman marched Army to the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Unleashed total war : Army destroyed anything in its path </li></ul><ul><li>Continued up through South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to turn Southern Civilians against War, only made them more bitter and steadfast in cause </li></ul>
  52. 73. William Tecumseh Sherman
  53. 77. War in Virginia <ul><li>Grant lays siege to Lee’s Army in Petersburg for several months </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Crater – Low Point </li></ul><ul><li>Grant forces Lee to extend lines until they break </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond falls on same day (April 2 nd ) Deserters set fire to most of town on their way out </li></ul>
  54. 81. Appomattox <ul><li>April 9 th 1865: Lee is surrounded, asks for meeting with Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Lee surrenders to Grant in McLean House </li></ul><ul><li>Grant allows soldiers to go home, keep horses, gives them 3 days worth of food </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War Ends </li></ul>
  55. 84. Results of the War <ul><li>600,000 soldiers die </li></ul><ul><li>Damage=$Billions </li></ul><ul><li>Bitter feelings created between sides (Lincoln’s Assassination) </li></ul><ul><li>Union is saved – Federal government established as more powerful than states </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of slaves are free </li></ul>
  56. 85. Winners and Losers <ul><li>Winners: </li></ul><ul><li>4 Million Free Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone interested in Union </li></ul><ul><li>Losers: </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Confederates </li></ul>
  57. 86. What Happened To: <ul><li>Lincoln: </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth on April 14th </li></ul>
  58. 87. What Happened To:
  59. 88. What Happened To: <ul><li>Ulysses S. Grant: </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes 18th President of the United States </li></ul>
  60. 89. What Happened To: <ul><li>Robert E. Lee: </li></ul><ul><li>Loses Plantation for Cemetery </li></ul><ul><li>Ran Washington and Lee College until his death </li></ul>
  61. 90. What Happened To: <ul><li>Jefferson Davis: </li></ul><ul><li>Caught and Arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Served 3 years in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Worked for rest of his life </li></ul>
  62. 91. Memory of the War: Lost Cause
  63. 92. Memory of the War: Lost Cause
  64. 93. Memory of the War: Lost Cause Remember: Confederacy would’ve never entered war if they didn’t think they were going win

×