Chapter Three Home-School Collaboration: Working with Families <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protec...
Introduction  <ul><li>Prior to PL 94-142, many schools did not encourage parents of children with special needs to partici...
IDEA Requirements for  Parental Involvement <ul><li>Involve parents in decision-making activities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Info...
Six Categories of Family Support Principles <ul><li>Enhancing a Sense of Community </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing Resources ...
Areas in Which Family Participation Should Occur <ul><li>Student Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>IEP  </li></ul><ul><li>Invol...
What is a Family? <ul><li>Traditional View:   - A family is a group of individuals who live together including a mother, a...
Cultural Considerations <ul><li>Teachers must be sensitive to the background of their students to ensure that cultural dif...
Various Reactions Families May Have When Learning Their Child Has a Disability <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li...
Stage Theory Approach to Parental Reactions <ul><li>Assumes a series of presumed phases in response to learning that a chi...
Parents’ Views on Inclusion   <ul><li>Some parents have remained cautious about inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Other parents...
Involvement of Fathers   <ul><li>The involvement of the  entire  family should be the primary goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ofte...
Involvement of Siblings   <ul><li>Siblings are important in developing and implementing educational programs. </li></ul><u...
Areas of Concern Expressed by Siblings   <ul><li>Need for information about their sibling’s disability  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Considerations When  Dealing with Siblings <ul><ul><li>Express love for the sibling.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide s...
Parent Education <ul><li>Parent education classes may be very helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing that other parents face si...
Home-School Collaboration <ul><li>School personnel should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be actively involved with families/parent...
Communicating with Parents <ul><li>Many teachers are not prepared to work with parents.  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communicat...
Principles of Effective Communication <ul><li>Sit beside parents </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Set up reg...
Types of School-Home Communication <ul><li>Informal Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Tele...
Types of Formal Meetings <ul><li>IEP Meetings  </li></ul><ul><li>IFSP Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons why parents need ...
Mediation <ul><li>Conflicts between school personnel and parents are inevitable at times.  </li></ul><ul><li>In  mediation...
Cross-Cultural  Suggestions for Teachers <ul><li>Identify the cultural   values that influence your own interpretation of ...
Home-Based Intervention <ul><li>Families can become involved in the education of their child with a disability through hom...
Home-Based Intervention <ul><li>Ways Parents and Other Family Members Can Get Involved: </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Reinfo...
Providing Reinforcement and Encouragement <ul><li>The failure cycle of students with disabilities is difficult to break. <...
Examples of  Home-School Contingencies <ul><li>Daily Report Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback on schoolwork, homework a...
Providing Instructional Support for Older Children <ul><li>Students may need more assistance at home as they progress thro...
Reasons for Expanding  the Role of Parents in  Educating their Children <ul><li>Parents are the first and most important t...
Providing  Homework Support <ul><li>Homework is often the most problematic area relative to home-school collaboration.  </...
Homework Recommendations  <ul><li>General educators and parents need to take an active role in monitoring and communicatin...
Important Considerations  for Teachers <ul><li>Sometimes even the best of parents fail at their daily responsibilities to ...
Effective Strategies Relative to Homework From “Strategies for Improving Home-School Communication Problems about Homework...
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Chapter 03

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Chapter 03

  1. 1. Chapter Three Home-School Collaboration: Working with Families <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Prior to PL 94-142, many schools did not encourage parents of children with special needs to participate in the education of their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal law established the role of parents of students with special needs through the passage of PL 94-142. </li></ul>
  3. 3. IDEA Requirements for Parental Involvement <ul><li>Involve parents in decision-making activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform parents of impending actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Honor parents’ decision for no special education services. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available due-process rights to parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable parents to request a due-process hearing, engage in mediation or resolution efforts in cases of disagreement. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Six Categories of Family Support Principles <ul><li>Enhancing a Sense of Community </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilizing Resources and Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting Family Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening Family Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Responsibility and Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Human Service Practices </li></ul>
  5. 5. Areas in Which Family Participation Should Occur <ul><li>Student Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement with Parent Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Observation in the School Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with Educators </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a Family? <ul><li>Traditional View: - A family is a group of individuals who live together including a mother, a father, and one or more children. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary View: </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous family arrangements exist. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cultural Considerations <ul><li>Teachers must be sensitive to the background of their students to ensure that cultural differences do not interfere with school-family relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>School personnel should also put aside preconceived notions about various lifestyles. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must work to establish a classroom atmosphere that is respectful of all cultures. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Various Reactions Families May Have When Learning Their Child Has a Disability <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Grief </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>Although these reactions are common ones, school personnel should keep in mind that parents are very different in the ways they respond when learning that their child has a disability.
  9. 9. Stage Theory Approach to Parental Reactions <ul><li>Assumes a series of presumed phases in response to learning that a child has a disability </li></ul><ul><li>However, parental responses to learning that their child has a disability rarely follow any formal stage process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Parents’ Views on Inclusion <ul><li>Some parents have remained cautious about inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Other parents have actively favored inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should be sensitive to the fact that parents may have quite different views regarding inclusive practices. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Involvement of Fathers <ul><li>The involvement of the entire family should be the primary goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the father is left out of the planning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Children often do better in school if fathers are involved. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Involvement of Siblings <ul><li>Siblings are important in developing and implementing educational programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some siblings may experience adjustment problems related to their sibling’s disability. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Areas of Concern Expressed by Siblings <ul><li>Need for information about their sibling’s disability </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of resentment </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived pressure to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Caregiving demands </li></ul><ul><li>Their role in their sibling’s future </li></ul>
  14. 14. Considerations When Dealing with Siblings <ul><ul><li>Express love for the sibling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide siblings with information about the disability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the sibling informed about changes and stress on the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include the sibling in family and school meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work for equity within the family duties and responsibilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent siblings from becoming second parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware that the needs of all children will change. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Parent Education <ul><li>Parent education classes may be very helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing that other parents face similar challenges can be comforting and empowering. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Home-School Collaboration <ul><li>School personnel should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be actively involved with families/parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that parents vary tremendously in knowledge and expertise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider parental advice; parents know their children very well. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Communicating with Parents <ul><li>Many teachers are not prepared to work with parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication may cause many problems that could be avoided. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Principles of Effective Communication <ul><li>Sit beside parents </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Set up regular and frequent communication avenues </li></ul><ul><li>Stay directed </li></ul><ul><li>Be an active listener </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid defensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Share positives </li></ul>Effective communication must be regular and useful .
  19. 19. Types of School-Home Communication <ul><li>Informal Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Calls </li></ul><ul><li>Written Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Home Visits </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Meetings </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Formal Meetings <ul><li>IEP Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>IFSP Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons why parents need to be involved in IEP meetings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA requires it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most importantly, the input of parents is critical. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mediation <ul><li>Conflicts between school personnel and parents are inevitable at times. </li></ul><ul><li>In mediation , both parties share their concerns and work to develop a mutually-agreeable solution, typically through the facilitation of a third party. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cross-Cultural Suggestions for Teachers <ul><li>Identify the cultural values that influence your own interpretation of a student’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out if the family recognizes and values your assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and give explicit respect to cultural differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the most effective ways of adapting your professional recommendations to the family’s value system. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Home-Based Intervention <ul><li>Families can become involved in the education of their child with a disability through home-based intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>For preschool children, involvement is fairly common. </li></ul><ul><li>For older students, parents typically are less involved. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Home-Based Intervention <ul><li>Ways Parents and Other Family Members Can Get Involved: </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Direct Instructional Support </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Homework Support </li></ul>
  25. 25. Providing Reinforcement and Encouragement <ul><li>The failure cycle of students with disabilities is difficult to break. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing success is an important strategy to interrupt this failure cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to school personnel, parents are in an excellent position to provide reinforcement in areas such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trips </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Examples of Home-School Contingencies <ul><li>Daily Report Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback on schoolwork, homework and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebooks that are taken home daily </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Providing Instructional Support for Older Children <ul><li>Students may need more assistance at home as they progress through the grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Older children may resist parental attempts to assist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents should remain involved at an appropriate level with their older children. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Reasons for Expanding the Role of Parents in Educating their Children <ul><li>Parents are the first and most important teachers of their children. </li></ul><ul><li>The home is the child’s first schoolhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Children will learn more during the early years than at any other time in life. </li></ul><ul><li>All parents want to be good parents and care about their child’s development. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Providing Homework Support <ul><li>Homework is often the most problematic area relative to home-school collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Often homework issues are plagued by communication problems between home and school, particularly when failure becomes evident. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of communication problems reported by general education teachers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of follow-through by parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateness of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of importance placed on homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental defensiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of problems </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Homework Recommendations <ul><li>General educators and parents need to take an active role in monitoring and communicating with students about homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should provide teachers with the time needed to engage in regular communication with parents and provide students with increased opportunities to complete homework after school. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to take advantage of technological innovations such as homework hotlines and computerized student progress records. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to be held responsible for keeping up. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Important Considerations for Teachers <ul><li>Sometimes even the best of parents fail at their daily responsibilities to check their child’s homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Homework may be a low priority for families when compared with other issues (e.g., family illness, school attendance). </li></ul>
  32. 32. Effective Strategies Relative to Homework From “Strategies for Improving Home-School Communication Problems about Homework for Students with Disabilities,” by M.H. Epstein, D.D. Munk, W.D. Bursuck, E.A. Polloway, and M.M. Jayanthi, 1999, Journal of Special Education, 33 , pp. 166-176.

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