Gender Analysis: Tips And Tools Mahmuda Anwar EDRD 6000, March 2013
Some Basic DefinitionsSex-refers to the biological difference between men and women. The differences areconcerned with men’s and women’s bodiesGender-refers to the social difference between men and women based on activities,roles and responsibilities connected to be a male or female. These differences arechangeable overtimeEquity- refers to fairness and justice in the distribution of responsibilities andbenefits between men and women. It leads to gender equalityEquality- refers to equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for men andwomen(and girls and boys)Gender Relations-refers the social relationships between men and women. Genderrelations vary according to time , place and other relations such as class, race,ethnicity , disability and so on(March, Smyth & Mukhopadhyay , 1999)
Gender ConceptsWomen in Development(WID) This concept, introduced in the 1970s, focuses on women’s practical needs. It aims tochange the condition of women through women’s participation. Specific women’s project andsupport form all development actors were centered to make women more efficient in developmentactivities/projects.Gender And Development(GAD) This concept focuses on gender relation, and addresses inequalities in women’s and men’ssocial roles in relation to development. It aims to change the position of women and incorporategender consideration into mainstream. This approach argues that sustainable development is only possible if women and menare equally involved and that equality of women is not just a women’s issue, it is a goal that requiresthe active participation of both men and women(“Gender Analysis Guideline”, 2012).Gender Mainstreaming The concept focuses on institutionalizing gender sensitivity and equality. It aims tomainstream all gender concerns into every aspect of an organizational priorities and procedures. “Mainstreaming gender is both a technical and political process which requires shifts inorganizational cultures and ways of thinking, as well as in the goals, structures, and resourcesallocation of international agencies , government, and NGOs”(Kardam,1998).
What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis is a systematic analytical process thatexamines the relationship between men and women, and theinequalities of those relationships in relevance of gender rolesand power dynamics in a given context (“Tips for”,2011,p-2).Main Goals of Gender AnalysisTo better understand a community for developmental workTo ensure gender equality in development contextSource of picture :http://tinasheonline.com/2012/09/gender-based-analysis-immigrantyouth-social-innovation/
When to conduct Gender Analysis Policy/Program/project DesignPolicy/Program/project Gender Policy/Program/project Evaluation Analysis Planning Policy/Program/project Implementation
Stages of Gender Analysis Adapted from “Gender Analysis Toolkit”, 2009
What questions do we ask for Gender Analysis Questions about Questions about Roles and Access & Control Questions about Responsibilities the Influencing Factors Who has what? Who does what? Why not equal? Who decides for How? whom? Cultural factors? When? Who has access? Social factor? Where? Who benefits? Economical ? With whom? Who losses? Others?
How to find the answers of the questions Development context tool kit, livelihood toolkit and stakeholders priorities for development toolkit can be used for asking questions about current situations and future planning(FAO,2001).The development context tools are-Village resource map, transects, trend lines, village social map , Venn diagram and institutional profiles .Livelihoods tools are- farming system diagram, benefits analysis flow chart, daily activities clocks, seasonal calendars, income and expenditure matrices and resource picture cards.Stakeholders Priorities Tools are- Pair wise ranking matrix, flow diagram, problem analysis chart, venn diagram of stakeholders, stakeholders conflict and partnership matrix , and best bets action plan.Source: SEAGA Field Handbook,FAO,2001
Gender Analysis Frame Works Gender Analysis Frame Works are practical instrumentsdesigned to understand the gender dynamics within a projector a context. Framework used for analysis of tools.Purposes of Gender Analysis Frame WorkContext AnalysisVisualisation of key pointsPlanning of Development works CommunicationsMonitoring & Evaluation
Name of Frame Work Key concepts Strength Weakness/ChallengesThe Harvard Analytical This is a grid/matrix for collecting data on gender • Easy adaptable to all sectors •Focusing on gender rolesFrame Work roles at individual and community level. It has four •Provides micro level data rather than gender main components: activity profile; access and control •Helps planners design more relations over resources ; influencing factors; and project cycle efficient projects and improve •Lack of power analysis analysis. overall productivity •Time consumingThe Moser Frame It identifies women’s triple role as productive, •Accessible and easy applicable •Assumes women areWork reproductive and community activities. It is a •The concept of “triple role ” homogenous(Also known as the planning methodology which tells: division of labour makes all areas of work visible •Time consumingtriple roles framework) at micro level; gender differences in access to and •Does not highlight other control over resources; decision making, and forms of inequalities such WID/GAD policy matrix. as class and raceGender Analysis Matrix This is a community–based technique to analyze •Fosters “bottom-up’ analysis •Difficulties defining a gender differences at household and community level through community community and considers impact on labour, time, resources and participation •Excludes macro and social cultural factors. institutional analysisCapacities and Used by external agencies in emergency relief •CVA can be used at all levels- •Does not include anVulnerabilities interventions to meet immediate needs, and to build from the community to the explicit agenda forAnalysis(CVA) Frame on people’s strengths to support at long-term social national and even international women’s empowermentWork and economic development. levelWomen’s This frame work might be used to assess how a Focus on gender relation rather •Ignores other aspects ofEmpowerment Frame development intervention or programme might than only women’s role empowerment(rights,Work support greater women’s empowerment. claims and responsibilities)Social Relation The approach uses an institutional analysis in order to •This approach can be use both • Complex analysisApproach identify how institutions(community, market , state in policy analysis and in •Emphasis on structure and family) create and reproduce inequalities. development programmes and ignores agencyThe People-Oriented This framework is an adaptation of the Harvard •Easy to use •Top-down approachesPlanning Frame Work Analytical Frame Work and uses to the situation of • Give a clear picture refugees . Aims of the frame work is: to ensure that there is an efficient and equitable distribution of resources .
Tips for Gender AnalysisI came up with the term “PERFORM” which when expanded summarizes the keyconsiderations for gender analysis specially in the rural contextParticipation of community members is essentialEnsure full diversity of women’s and men’s voices and experiences are capturedRespect values, culture and norms of the societyFind a place for using the tools which is accessible to all men and womenOrganize the process in natural settingsRepresent same issue from different perspectives(triangulation)Monitor the whole process from the position of an observer or a facilitatorNote: Consider sexual minorities if any (gay/transgender)
References• Canadian International Development Agency.n.d. Gender Analysis. Retrieved from http://tamarackcommunity.ca/downloads/gender/Tools.pdf• Food And Agriculture Organization(FAO). (2001). SEAGA Field Handbook. Rome. Retrieved from www.gdnonline.org/resources/seaga-field-handbook.pdf•Gender Analysis Toolkit.(2009). Queensland Government. Retrieved from http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/women/resources/resource-types/gender-analysis-toolkit-resource• Gender Analysis Guideline.(2012). Retrieved from www.aid.govt.nz/.../Gender%20Analysis%20Guideline_0.pdf• Kardam , N.(1998).Changing Institutions in Women’s Interests. Retrieved from http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/Dgb5• March,C.,Smyth,I., Mukhopadhyay , M.(1999). A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frame works . Oxfam: Oxford• Tips for Conducting a Gender Analysis at the Activity or Project Level. (2011,March 17). USAID. Retrieved from http://transition.usaid.gov/policy/ads/200/201sae.pdf• World Health Organization(WHO).(2002).Gender Analysis: A Review of Selected Tools. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gender/documents/en/Gender.analysis.pdf