Gender Mainstreaming And Planning


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Real Estate
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Gender Mainstreaming And Planning

  1. 1. GENDER MAINSTREAMING <ul><li>B R SIWAL </li></ul><ul><li>NIPCCD </li></ul><ul><li>NEW DELHI </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL </li></ul>
  2. 2. Gender Mainstreaming <ul><li>What is the mainstream? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being mainstreamed? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be part of the mainstream? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the target of mainstreaming? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the goal of mainstreaming? </li></ul><ul><li>How gender mainstreaming </li></ul>
  3. 3. The concept <ul><li>Gender mainstreaming occurred on 1985 Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi. The idea has been developed in the United Nations development community. The idea was formally featured in 1995 on the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. Most definitions conform to the UN Economic and Social Council formally defined concept: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gender mainstreaming <ul><li>*is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation , policies or programmes , in all areas and at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>*Is a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mainstreaming <ul><li>* Maistreaming is not an end in itself but a strategy, an approach , a means to achieve the goal of gender equality. </li></ul><ul><li>*Mainstreaming involves ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities - policy development, research, advocacy/ dialogue, legislation, resource allocation, and planning, implementation and monitoring of programmes and projects </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gender mainstreaming: <ul><li>Is a pro-active process designed to tackle inequalities which can and do discriminate against either sex </li></ul><ul><li>Targets major economic and social policies that deliver major resources </li></ul><ul><li>Makes good economic sense ensuring that women as well as men are active, using 100% of the productive labour force </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a further step in the search for equality </li></ul><ul><li>Recognises that gender is one of the most fundamental organising features in society and affects our lives from the moment we are born </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Recognises that differences exist in men’s and women’s lives and therefore our needs, experiences and priorities are different </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a willingness to establish a balanced distribution of responsibilities between women and men </li></ul><ul><li>Needs determined political action and support with clear indicators and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Will not happen overnight, it is a continuous process </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gender mainstreaming means : <ul><li>That differences between women and men may never be used as a ground for discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lasting changes in society, transforming parental roles, family structures, and the organisation of work, time and even institutional practices </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping the mainstream rather than adding activities for women at the margins </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A partnership between women and men to ensure both participate fully in society’s development and benefit equally from society’s resources </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to the root causes of inequality and putting remedial action in place </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that initiatives not only respond to gender differences but seek to reduce gender inequality </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender mainstreaming is not: <ul><li>A Women only issue </li></ul><ul><li>It is not just about improving access or of balancing the statistics </li></ul><ul><li>About having well written statements </li></ul><ul><li>About blaming anybody for the inequalities which exist </li></ul><ul><li>About only women taking action </li></ul><ul><li>About only women benefiting from it </li></ul><ul><li>About stopping or replacing gender specific policies and projects targeted at either women or men </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gender mainstreaming covers: <ul><li>policy design </li></ul><ul><li>decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>procedures and practices </li></ul><ul><li>methodology </li></ul><ul><li>implementation </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Gender Mainstreaming? <ul><li>Shift in understanding of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition that gender equality is integral to development goals </li></ul><ul><li>Realization that previous approaches were not resulting in real change in the position of women and gender equality </li></ul>
  13. 13. Shift In Understanding Of The Problem Early Approaches Current Thinking <ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>women left out </li></ul><ul><li>women lack: </li></ul><ul><li>education </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul><ul><li>credit self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>social structures and processes recreate inequalities between women and men in: </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>decision-making </li></ul>Problem: women Problem : inequality between women and men Approach: women must change their attributes to be integrated into development Approach: society and institutions must change ideas and practices in support of equal choices and opportunities
  14. 14. Steps for Gender Mainstreaming <ul><ul><li>1. A Mainstreaming Approach to Stakeholders: Who are the Decision-Makers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Mainstreaming a Gender Agenda: What is the Issue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Moving Towards Gender Equality: What is the Goal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Mapping the Situation: What Information do we Have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Refining the Issue: Research and Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>6 Formulating Policy from a Gender Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Arguing Your Case: Gender Matters! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Monitoring: Keeping a (Gender-Sensitive) Eye on Things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Evaluation: How Did We Do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. En-gendering Communication </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Economic policy Trade and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is cross cutting in all sectors </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Is Gender Analysis? <ul><li>An intrinsic dimension of policy analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies specifically how public policy affects women and men differently </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates that policy and implementation cannot be gender neutral in gendered societies </li></ul><ul><li>Is supported by specific analytic tools </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Competencies Are Required To Undertake Gender Analysis? <ul><li>Familiarity with main Gender Analysis Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to select the Framework most likely to yield solutions to the development problem to be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Able to interpret data </li></ul><ul><li>Able to use strategic decision-making skills </li></ul>
  19. 19. GENDER ANALYSIS (GA) IS A PROCESS TO ASSESS THE – <ul><li>Differential impact of proposed or existing policies, programmes, projects and legislation on women and men. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis recognizes that realities of men’s and women’s lives are different and that equal opportunities does not necessarily men equal results. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis is a basis of all tools of gender mainstreaming. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gender Analysis Frameworks <ul><li>Harvard Analytical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>DPU Frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Moser (triple roles) Framework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Levy (web of institutionalisation) Framework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Equality and Empowerment Framework (Longwe) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacities and Vulnerabilities Framework (CVA) </li></ul><ul><li>People Oriented Framework (POP) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relations Approach Framework (SRA) </li></ul>
  21. 21. HARVARD FRAMEWORK OF GENDER ANALYSIS <ul><li>1. Activity profile - based on gender division of labour and delineates the economic activities of pop by sex, age and other factors and time spent on economic activities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Access and control profile- which identify individuals by sex have access and control over resources, services and benefits. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. Factors influencing access and control - factors affecting access and control e.G. Social, cultural, economic in relation to gender. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Project cycle analysis - examine a project proposal or area of intervention in the light of gender - disaggregated data, information and social change. </li></ul>
  23. 23. HARVARD METHOD OF PROJECT CYCLE (CHECKLIST) <ul><li>I. PROJECT PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing women’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>What needs and opportunities exist for increasing </li></ul><ul><li>women’s participation and/or </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access and control of resources, services and benefits? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Whether objectives adequately reflect women’s needs? </li></ul><ul><li>II PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Are project personnel sufficiently aware and sensitive towards women’s needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Are women involved in delivery of goods and services? </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Do personnel have specific skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What training techniques will be used? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there appropriate opportunities for women to participate in project management? </li></ul>
  26. 26. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE DOES THE ORGANISATION <ul><li>Enhance women’s access and control of resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Have adequate resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Have capabilities to support and protect women during the process of change? </li></ul><ul><li>Have delivery channel accessible? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Whether time and location suitable for women? </li></ul><ul><li>Have management information system (MIS)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have flexibility to meet changing requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>Have women participated in setting objectives? </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Is there any missed opportunity for women? </li></ul><ul><li>Have there been earlier efforts and lesson learnt? </li></ul><ul><li>Project impact on women </li></ul><ul><li>How project affect women’s status responsibilities and role in society? </li></ul><ul><li>Is planned change feasable and sustainable? </li></ul>
  29. 29. PRACTICAL AND STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS(Moser method) <ul><li>Strategic Gender Needs (SGN) </li></ul><ul><li>SGN relates to subordinate position of </li></ul><ul><li>women in society. SGN relate to gender division </li></ul><ul><li>of labour, power, control and issues like legal </li></ul><ul><li>rights over bodies oppression - SGN challenge </li></ul><ul><li>subordinate position by assisting women to </li></ul><ul><li>achieve greater equality and changing existing </li></ul><ul><li>roles. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS (PGN) </li></ul><ul><li>PGN are the needs women identify in their </li></ul><ul><li>socially accepted role in society. PGN do not </li></ul><ul><li>challenge gender division of labour or </li></ul><ul><li>subordination. PGN are a response of immediate </li></ul><ul><li>necessity. PGN relates to health, education, </li></ul><ul><li>nutrition, fuel, employment, credit, other </li></ul><ul><li>support services. </li></ul>
  31. 31. METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR GENDER PLANNING <ul><li>1. Gender roles and their identification </li></ul><ul><li>- Gender relation </li></ul><ul><li>- Division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intra-household resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>- Control over resources </li></ul><ul><li>- Power of decision making </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>3 . Gender needs assessment </li></ul><ul><li>- Practical gender needs </li></ul><ul><li>- Strategic gender needs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Balancing roles and linkage with competitive demands between </li></ul><ul><li>- Productive </li></ul><ul><li>- Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>- Household management </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>5. Relationship between roles and needs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Equality between men and women </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>