1. Sinners in the Hands from of an Angry God Sermon by Jonathan EdwardsDO NOW: Read the intro on Edwards.Analyze the idea that religion is to berooted in emotion, not thought. Why? Edwards’s sermons appeal to the emotional parts of the congregation. It is hard to explain religion without emotion.
2. What keeps you IN LINE?A sense of morality probably keepsyou from cheating on a test. In other words, you know cheating is wrong.
3. What keeps you IN LINE?But there are other reasons for behaving morally.Some people are anxious to please.Others fear the consequences of breaking the rules.Jonathan Edwards uses fear to get his point across in the sermonSinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
4. PersuasionPuritan Jonathan Edwardsdelivered powerfully persuasivesermons.
5. PersuasionOne of Edwards used biblicalallusions— references to figures,events, or places in the Bible thathe assumed his congregationwould recognize.
6. • Define sermon: a form of religious persuasion in which the speaker urges listeners to behave in a more spiritual and moral fashion. Shaped by purpose, audience, context.
7. Analyze Emotional AppealsEmotional appeals are messages designed to persuade anaudience by creating strong feelings. They often include sensory language to create vivid imagery and loaded words to create these types of feelings: • fear, which taps into a fear of losing one’s safety or security • pity, which draws on a sympathy or compassion for others • guilt, which relies on one’s sense of ethics or morality
8. As you read, use a chart like the one below torecord examples of language that appeals tothe emotions. Examples Emotional Appeals “arrows of death fly unseen” appeals to fear by creating anxiety, unease
9. Is fear the best way to convince someone to behave the right way? How else might you convince?• Look at the painting on pg. 121 and analyze. As you read the first page think about what the congregation might be thinking at this moment. What emotions or thoughts are going through their heads as Edwards paints the picture of hell and a very angry God“We are insects or worms to God?” “I don’t want to goto hell.” “Is God angry with me?” “Which people in thecongregation is God angry with?”
10. Details from the Sermon• God is more angry with those in the congregation than those in hell, since the living have a chance to change and redeem themselves
11. Imagery – God’s Punishment• “men walk over the pit of hell on a rotten covering”• “bow of God’s great wrath is bent,”• “spider held over the fire, tortured and dangled”
12. Edwards’s God• angry and fickle• only God’s pleasure keeps some sinners from immediate doom• God abhors sinners• Humans are as worthless as worms compared to God
13. Appeal to Fear • “made drunk with your blood” – painful death • “swallowed up in everlasting destruction” – heal as a hungry beast, • “bottomless pit” • “everlasting wrath” • “merciless vengeance”
14. What is the purpose of this sermon? Whathappens to those that are born again (lines 38-49)? • Teaches people to repent and turn their life back to morality and religion •“raised from being dead in sin” •“state of life and light” for those redeemed
15. Is morality enough to save a person from judgment, according to Edwards? Why or why not? • line 90 – “no matter how moral or strict, sober and religious” you are, if you haven’t been born again it doesn’t matter
16. Look at the image on pg. 123. How is the burning of Babylon relevant to Edwards’ warning to his listeners? • Babylon symbolized immoral living and disregard for God, fire sent by God and angels surprised the sinners
17. • Who is Edwards alluding to when he refers to the Mediator? Why doesn’t he explain (until the end) how the Mediator can save them? Jesus will save those that repent; however, he reveals it at the end so his audience feels desperate. Christ can cleanse the sins of theimpure and invite them to heaven.
18. Is Edwards’ sermon effective andconvincing? How do you think they audience might have felt afterhearing this? What might they have done?
19. • According to Edwards, humans are in constant threat of being snatched out of life and cast down to hell at any moment
20. Why do you think Edwards felt it was necessary to terrify his Puritan audience into action?• They have become complacent and lazy in their religion. Need to be awakened to morality.
21. • How would you describe Edwards’ view of God, Christ, and humanity? Site examples.• Do you think that Edwards’ sermon resulted in improving the morality of his congregation? Why or why not?
22. • People died at a much younger age. The awareness of the fragility of life made a bigger impact on these people. They were used to uncertainty and death.