Grade 8 PE module(Q2.2)

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Grade 8 PE module(Q2.2)

  1. 1. 74 PHYSICAL EDUCATION Grade 8 Quarter II LESSON 2 Objectives: At the end of the lesson you should be able to  discuss the nature and background of baseball/softball;  explain the health and fitness benefits derived from playing baseball and softball;  practice proper and acceptable behavior (e.g. fairness, respect for authority) when participating baseball/softball;.  execute proficiently the basic skills and tactics in baseball/softball;  interprets rules and regulations of baseball/softball;  exhibit enjoyment in playing baseball/softball. Pre-Assessment Before you proceed any further, you have to pass through the pre-assessment items below in order to find out whether you already have prior knowledge on the terms, skills and understanding in team sports. Read the directions carefully and write your answer in your activity sheet/notebook.
  2. 2. 75 Modified TRUE-FALSE TEST Write TRUE if the statement is correct. Write FALSE if the statement is incorrect then change the underlined word or group of words into the right one to make the statement true. 1. Gripping is a basic skill in baseball/softball which is related to throwing. 2. Catching is an offensive skill in baseball/softball. 3. Nine(9) players compose a team in baseball/softball. 4. Fielding and throwing drills develop throwing accuracy in baseball/softball. 5. An inning is finished after both teams commit two outs in baseball/softball. 6. A batter is out when he/she misses four( 4) pitched balls in baseball/softball. 7. Foul ball is a batted fly or ground ball that lands outside the foul line. 8. A free walk is awarded to a batter on the fourth ball. 9. Lead is a term in baseball/softball which is related to running on base. 10.The official in baseball/softball is called referee. www.fotosearche.com Activity 1: How much do you know about Team Sports? In this activity, your prior knowledge on specific team sports will be assessed. Procedure: BASKETBALL BASEBALL SOFTBALL 1. Below is a table indicating the basic skills in playing team sports. Your task is to identify which of the sports enumerated above does each of the skills indicated in the table below. Welcome to Part I. In this phase of the lesson, you will be given activities to assess your prior knowledge and communicate your expectations; what you want to know, understand, produce or perform by asking questions and clarifying misconceptions. You will be taught the necessary rudiments of baseball/softball and be informed of the assessment techniques which will be used to rate your output and performance at the end of the lesson.
  3. 3. 76 2. Write the corresponding team sport in the space provided in the right side of the column for basic skills. BASIC SKILLS CORRESPONDING TEAM SPORT 1. Dribble 2. Chest Pass 3. Bounce Pass 4. Assist 5. Bat/Batting 6. Pitch 7. Shoot 8. Throw 9. Catch 10.Homerun 11.Strike 12.Balls 13.Home Base 14.Initial Sack 15.Key Stone 3. This time, let‟s find out whether your answers are correct or not. (Refer to the answer key to be given by your teacher . 4. Choose one team sport indicated above describe it creatively (e.g. demonstration of the basic skills, dramatization of a certain team sport scene, performing the selected team sport skills with an action song, etc.) 5. Present your work to the class 6. It is possible that you have already participated in team sports competitions or even qualified in inter-school athletic meets. You may share the insights you gained from participating in such activities. Write your responses in your activity notebook. 7. Below are critical questions for you to strike! Give your ideas as briefly and concisely as possible in your activity notebook.
  4. 4. 77 How do you think can team sports help you become a better member of your family? Activity 2: The team sport that I would like to know more about This activity will allow you to share what you know about team sports at the same time bring out your expectations on the lesson, your prior knowledge and skills, and the specific team sport you want to learn more about. Procedure: 1. Below is a K-W-L chart. Under K column, write three things that you already know about your chosen team sport. Under W column, write three things that you want to know more about. Don‟t write anything yet on the L column. Great idea! Because of that, you can now proceed to the next activity... what benefits can you derived from partcipating in team sports?What do Team Sports mean to you?
  5. 5. 78 Name: ___________________________ Chosen Team Sport:______________ K-What you KNOW W-What you WANT to know L-What you‟ve LEARNED 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 2. After accomplishing this task, share the things you KNOW and the things you WANT to KNOW with the class, friends, relative and neighbors. Activity 3: Team Sport Engagement Survey This time you need to fill up a team sport engagement survey form. This will help assess your engagement in team sports which will serve as a reference for your planning the sequence of learning activities about team sports. Procedure: 1. Copy the survey form in your activity notebook and reflect on your participation in team sports by honestly responding to the survey questionnaire below. SURVEY QUESTIONS BASKETBALL BASEBALL SOFTBALL YES NO YES NO YES NO 1.Have you experience playing team sports? 2. Do you play team sports often? 3. Do you play team sports with friends? 4. Do you play team sports with your family? 5. Are you a member of the school varsity team? 6. Do you participate in community sports programs? 7. Do you enjoy participating in team sports? 8. Do you consider the benefits derived from playing team sports? 9. Are there team sports enthusiasts in your family? 10. Do you plan to make team sports one of your lifetime fitness activities?
  6. 6. 79 2. Just put a checkmark (  ) on the colunm of your corresponding response to the items indicated in the survey questions. It‟s quite easy, right? So go on, grab a pen and accomplish the questionnaire. 3. Now that you‟re done, submit the questionnaire to your teacher during the face-to-face encouter. The result of the survey may help your teacher in designing your succeeding activities in team sport Activity 4. This activity will give you an idea as to what is expected of you at the end of this lesson. Output: Create a journal containing pictures of your family showing your engagement in team sports. Indicate dates, places, and short description (caption) of each picture including a final essay talking about the benefits that your family derived from engaging in team sports. In case you have a problem of producing pictures where your family is engaging in team sports, you may have a collection of pictures of family(s) engaging in sports and wellness, and from there, draw your insights or conclusions as to the benefits of a family playing together. . Example : Alvin Patrimonio‟s Family, Robert Jaworsky Family Indicators:  Presented pictures which are aligned to the content and of great relevance to the lesson  Showed creativity and resourcefulness in the presentation of their work or output  Showed a very comprehensive and deep understanding on the benefits of team sports to family fitness and wellness At the end of all the lesson, the following is the expected output for you to accomplish:
  7. 7. 80 Activity 5: Lecture/Discussion A copy of the lecture on baseball and softball is hereby attached through Appendix A for your reading. Carefully read the lecture for you to be able to answer the questions which will later be given to assess your knowledge on the following contents: - Nature and background of baseball/softball - Facilities and equipment needed - Proper playing attire/shoes - Conduct of the game - Rules and regulations Activity 6: Pick-pass n’ throw (Assessment of Knowledge) This activity will assess your knowledge on baseball/softball. It will be easier for you to answer the given questions below if you have read carefully the lecture attached in Appendix A. Directions: 1. Form five groups. Each group will be given a manila paper and pentel pen. 2. Each group shall be in circular formation and will be assigned an initial question to answer for two minutes. Performance: Demonstrate your understanding of team sports by executing proficiently the skills and basic rules in playing . Indicators:  Can perform or execute the skills proficiently/properly  Can adapt to other sports discipline and situations by using these skills  Can maintain his positive manners and behavior while playing team sport At the end of all the lessons, you are expected to play an actual baseball/softball game in a mini tournament.
  8. 8. 81 What are the necessary things to be considered in playing team sports like Baseball/Softball? How can a specific team sport like Baseball/Softball develop teamwork among the players? Why are rules and strategies important in team sports? Why is playing Baseball/Softball necessary in the promotion of family fitness and wellness? What makes Baseball/Softball an excellent means of enhancing family fitness and wellness? 3. After answering the first question, rotation follows. Pass your question clockwise to the next group and wait for the next question to be passed to your group. Passing and receiving of questions shall be done every two minutes. 4. All answers shall be written in the manila paper given to your group. 5. Now, let‟s see if you really studied the attached lecture in Appendix A. Your knowledge will be assessed on matters of adequacy and relevance. Your score in this activity will be graded and recorded.
  9. 9. 82 Activity 1: Baseball/Softball Basics This activity aims to introduce you to the the basic skills in baseball/softball and the mechanics on how each skill is properly executed. Read the instructions carefully so that you will know how the skills are being executed. You will be given a chance to perform them later. These skills will make you a better baseball/softball plahyer, so what are you waiting for? Let‟s go and play baseball/softball! In this activity, you will need  baseball/softball ball and gloves  baseball/softball playing area or diamond  partner or group  a good pair of playing shoes  body and knee protector  masks and helmets Basic skills to be learned  throwing  pitching  catching  batting  running or base running Kudos for passing the task and challenge. You can proceed to the next part of the lesson.. Congratulations again! You made it to this phase! Prepare yourself for you will be provided with various learning resources and experiences to enable you to understand and perform better in team sports.
  10. 10. 83 Throwing is the most basic skill in baseball and softball. It allows the team to prevent their opponents from touching bases or even earning points or runs. Style and technique in doing it differ from player to player. A. Throwing Here’s how the elements of throwing are being executed... To have a good throw in baseball/softball, you should consider the elements of grip, fragmentwind-up, delivery and follow-through... Grip Grip the ball across the seams with your index and middle finger. The thumb is under the top fingers. . Wind-up Raise the throwing arm up and turn the shoulder in the direction of the throw. The gloved hand points toward the target. Raise left foot and place all the weight of the body on the right foot. Delivery Make a backward swing with bent elbows; lean forward in transferring wieght to the left foot and release the ball.
  11. 11. 84 Pitching is a skill that puts the game to play. It is performed by a pitcher, one of the key players in baseball/softball who stays at the center of the playing field called diamond. B. Pitching Follow-through Point the throwing arm down-forward, putting the feet parallel in a ready position. It is important for you to focus on your target before you execute the l throw. To have a good pitch you have to consider the elements of grip, wind-up, pivot delivery and follow- through...
  12. 12. 85 Here’s how the elements of pitching are being executed... Wind-up Keep the front part of the right foot in contact with the side of the plate. Shift the weight to the back leg and take a backward step. Pivot Pivot on the ball of the front foot to turn parallel to the plate. Lift the left foot. Stride Take a stride or wide step with your left foot. Release It is important for you to focus your pitch on your target before you execute thel pitch. Follow-through After the relase of the ball, continue the forward motion, with the throwing arm pointing to the target.
  13. 13. 86 This is a defensive skill used to receive a thrown ball and hold a base runner or batter from proceeding or preventing them from earning a point or a run. This is an offensive skill used to strike the pitched ball using a bat done to advance to the bases and eventually leading to earning a run or point. C. Catching D. Hitting/Batting In performing this skill, you must consider the following mechanics:  Hold your glove open and keep a visual on the ball at all times;  Keep your free hand in front of you and bring it on top of the glove as the ball approaches; and  Close your hand over the ball the moment it hits inside your glove. In doing this skill, you must consider the following: Grip, stance, stride and swing. Gripping-use your fingers in gripping the bat and tighten your grip as ball approaches. Stance-proper stance includes slightly bending your knees, feet parallel to the plates in shoulder width distance and bat tilted at 45 degrees and not positioned over the shoulder. Stride-as the ball approaches, stride right foot a little backward to gain momentum Swing-after a little stride backward, transfer the strength generated by the body towards the arms to bat as it swings parallel to the ground aiming a the ball and directing it to the intended destination.
  14. 14. 87 E. Running/Base-Running Activity 2: Skill development activities This activity provides an opportunity for you to demonstrate the basic skills you have learned previously. You will be given five skill stations for you to actually demonstrate a paticular skill based on the demonstration given in the activity You will need  baseball/softball balls  playing area (a baseball/softball diamond/improvised diamond/gym)  gloves  bat  protective gears (mask, sheen guards, body protectors)  proper playing outfit with a good pair of playing shoes This is a very important skill you need to master because it allows you to advance from one base to the other with full speed and agility safely. To condition the body for efficient and effective running, you must take into consideration the following: Speed Running-running with speed from one point to a definite distance. Try getting your time as you run and improve your speed everytime you do it. Agility Running-running with a change in position and direction in the fastest possible speed you can. To master this, you might as well consider running through the bases of the diamond. Improve your speed everytime you do it. Before the start of any baseball/softball drill lessons, lead-up or actual game, consider doing a combination of the following exercises that may help you improve your running: Shuffle, Back Pedal, Jogging, High Knees, Carioca, Butt Kicks, Jumping Jacks.
  15. 15. 88 Basic skills to be learned  throwing  pitching  catching  batting  base running Procedure: 1. Consider the following before starting the activity: warm-up exercises, safety precautions. 2. You now proceed to the playing area designated by your teacher five stations corresponding to each basic skill to perform will be provided for you. 3. You should pass through each station of drill lessons on basic skills. After undergoing the drill lesson in one station, move to the next station so that you will experience all drill lessons provided. 4. You should do well in this activity because your performance will be rated according to the following criteria: Indicators for Assessment: Can perform or execute the skills Can follow instructions efficiently and effectively Can exemplify positive behavior troughout the drill 5. At the end of the drill lessons, gather yourselves together with your classmates and report to your teacher in a circle formation. This time, share your drill experiences to the class. As you share your experiences, expect for reactions from your classmates. As this happens, be ready to openly accept their reactions, be it positive or negative. Consider it a room for you to improve your Baseball/Softball performance more. Drill Sequence: TEAM SPORT Station I Station II Station III Station IV Station V Baseball/Softball Throwing Catching Pitching Batting Running
  16. 16. 89 Drill Illustration: Station 1 And 2: Throwing and Catching Throw-catch X O X O X O X O Catch-Throw Station 3: Pitching Station 4: Batting Station 5: Running Base on Balls  How well have you performed in the drill lessons? You must be tired after the drill lessons but before you proceed to your next baseball/softballl challenge, let‟s check if you have done well with the activities. Just put a checkmark ( ∕ ) on the column of your corresponding response to the items indicated below based on how well you did in each drill station. You might as well consider the criteria given before you started the activity (proficiency in the execution of skills - 40%, ability to follow instructions - 30%, behavior during the drill - 30%).Copy and accomplish the table in your activity notebook.
  17. 17. 90 SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL ON BASIC SKILLS IN BASEBALL/SOFTBALL Name: Section: Date: STATION DRILLS Advanced Proficient Approaching Proficiency Developing Beginning Station 1: Throwing Station 2: Catching Station 3: Pitching Station 4: Batting Station 5: Running Please refer to the following for a more accurate self-assessment: Advanced: 90% and above Proficient: 85-89% Approaching Proficiency: 80-84% Developing: 75-79% Beginning: 74% and bbelow Activity 3: Rules do count! Let‟s level-up! You now proceed with the introduction to the basic rules and regulations of baseball/softball. Study them carefully because you will need them to overcome the challenges of the next activity. You will need:  baseball/softball balls  playing area (official or improvised diamond)  gloves  bat  protective gears (mask, sheen guards, body protectors)  proper playing outfit with a good pair of playing shoes Skills to be refined:  throwing  catching  pitching  batting  running  basic rules officiating Procedure:
  18. 18. 91 1. The table below shows the most crucial aspects of baseball/softball when it comes to rules and regulations. Be guided accordingly as to how you should play baseball/softball. Remember, we‟re talking of amateur baseball/softball, not of professional baseball/softball yet, because in professional baseball/softball like in International Baseball Federation (IBF) or Little League Baseball rules and regulations are highly technical. ASPECTS OF THE GAME THINGS TO CONSIDER TEAM COMPOSITION Nine Players per team (Pitcher, Catcher, 1st Baseman, 2nd Baseman, 3rd Baseman, Short Stopper, Right Fielder, Left Fielder, Center Fielder) START OF PLAY As the Chief Umpire anonunces “PLAY”/Toss-coin (whichever team wins the toss-coin, that team decides whether they start with offense or defense play) DURATION OF THE GAME Seven Innings Ball “In” And “Out” of play The ball is “ in play” if it batted and lands on safe zone or within the 90-degree foul line; it‟s out of play if it lands outside the safe zone or outside the foul line TIME-OUTS SUBSTITUTIONS Two substitutions per inning (in case of injuries or upon decision of the coach in case substitution is needed for a better play) REGULAR FOULS/VIOLATIONS Batter unable to strike pitched ball in strike zone (strike is awarded); three strikes results to an “out”, next batter resumes; three outs results to change of play/inning; Base-runner/s unable to reach base and tagged; batted ball is caught before it hits the ground SERIOUS OFFENSES/MISCONDUCTS Assault to an opposing player Disrespect to officials OVERTIME One inning is given to each team in case of tie OFFICIALS OF THE GAME Chief umpire 1st base umpire 2nd base umpire 3rd base umpire Scorer Time-keeper (in case innings are timed) 2. Your teacher will discuss more about the aspects of playing baseball/softball indicated in the table above. You might as well do some research on this matter
  19. 19. 92 to enrich your knowledge on baseball/softball rules and regulations. Remember some of the amateur rules indicated and discussed by your teacher may vary depending on the tournament or league agreements like for intance number of innings in a game, substitution, number of time-outs per inning, and others. Reminder: You have to consider the following before starting the activity: proper attire, warm-up exercises, safety precautions. 3. This time, your class will be grouped into three. Groups 1 and 2 will play first while group 3 will manage and officiate the game. Make sure that participation among your teammates is maximized. In the meantime, you may consider a game of 3-5 innings as your class time allows you to. Below is the schedule of games and officiating officials: Game 1 Group 1 Vs. Group 2 Officials: Group 3 Game 2 Group 2 Vs. Group 3 Officials: Group 1 Game 3 Group 3 Vs. Group 1 Officials: Group 2 Activity 4: Baseball/Softball Developmental Activities (Bass-on-balls/Zigzag throw-catch/Throw Baseball/Softball) You are encouraged to make the best of your performance in this activities because your performance will be rated and recorded. Criteria for Assessement: On Skill Execution while playing Proficiency in the execution of skills 30% Ability to adapt or use skills to certain baseball/softball situations 40% Behavior in playing baseball/ softball 30% 100% Criteria for Assessement: On Officiating Appropriateness of calls and signal 30% Fairness and Equality 40% Coordination with other officials and behavior in officiating 30% 100%
  20. 20. 93 In this activity, you will be provided with lead-up activities for you to see how basic skills, when combined together, can be applied efficiently and effectively in playing baseball/softball You will need  baseball/softball balls  playing area (Official/Improvised diamond)  gloves  bat  protective gears (mask, sheen guards, body protectors)  proper playing outfit with a good pair of playing shoes Skills to be learned:  throwing  catching  pitching  batting  running  basic rules and basic officiating Procedure: 1. With same three groups as the previous activity, group 1 will start with “base on balls”, group 2 will proceed with zigzag throw-catch drill, and group 3 will start with throw baseball 2. Carefully observe carefully the mechanics of the activity to guide your group on what to do at the course of the activity. You have to be reminded that the performance of the group determines the success of the drill. 3. Rotation shall follow after each group finishes the drill so that every group will also experience the playing in the other drill/lead-up stations. Reminder: Consider orienting learners on the following before starting the activity: proper attire, warm-up exercises, safety precautions Drill Matrix:
  21. 21. 94 PHASES GROUP ACTIVITY Group I Group II Group III I Base on balls Zigzag throw-catch drill Throw baseball/softball II Throw baseball/softball Base on balls Zigzag throw-catch drill III Zigzag throw-catch drill Throw baseball/softball Base on balls Drill illustration: Station 1: Base on Balls Pitcher/Catchers Batter-Runner Mechanics:  Players: 6-8 players in a team  Equipment: baseballs/softbalsl, gloves, bat  Area: Playground or gymnasium (with official or improvised bases)  Skills:Throwing catching, batting and base-running  Procedure: The objective is for the batter to hit the ball into fair territory and run the bases without stopping, before the catcher gains possession of the ball and calls “STOP!” The fielders, instead of playing regular baseball/softball rules, throws the ball directly at home to the catcher. There are no outs. A caught fly ball would mean no score. A fly ball would count as a turn at bat. After each batter has had turn to bat, side changes.  Scoring: One point is scored for each base touched before the catcher receives the ball at home. A home run counts for four points. The team that earn higher score after 2 side changes or innings wins.  Variations: (1) Use batting tee. (2) Have the batter throw the ball into the field instead of batting it. (3) Use a pitcher. (4) Instead of having the fielders throw the ball to the catcher, let them throw it to the pitcher who must pitch a “strike” to stop the batter from running. Use a different pitcher for each batter. (5) specify the number of throws per relay Station 2: Zigzag Throw-Catch Drill
  22. 22. 95 Throw-Catch Side X X X X X Catch-Throw Side Mechanics:  Players: 6-8 per side; 12-14 per team  Equipment Needed: Gloves, baseball/softball balls/improvised balls  Area: Playground or any open space (30 feet or more between lines)  Skills: Throwing, catching, ;pitching  Procedure: The objective is for the team to throw or pitch the ball through a zigzag pattern in the shortest time. Each team is divided evenly into two lines facing each other. The first person in one line throws the ball across to the first person in the other line who throws the ball to the second in line, and so on down the line. When the person at the end of the line receives the ball, he or she throws diagonally to the first person in the other line and then goes to the head of his/her own line This continues until everyone is back in his original position.  Scoring: the team which records the shortest time upon accomplishing the activity wins the game.  Variations: Use underhand or overhead and side throwing
  23. 23. 96 Station 3: Throw Baseball/Softball Catcher/ Fielder Catcher-thrower-runner Mechanics:  Players: 6-8 per team.  Equipment Needed: Gloves, baseball/softball balls/improvised balls  Area: Playground or any open space with an official or improvised baseball/softball diamond  Skills: Throwing, catching, fielding and base-running  Procedure: The objective is for the batter to run the bases without being out. The game is played like baseball/softball except that the batter, instead of batting the ball, catches the pitched ball and immediately throws it into the field. The ball is, then played as in regular baseball/softball. The batter is allowed only one throw per time at- bat. If he/she drops a ball in the strike zone, he/she is out. A foul ball is an out. There‟s no stealing. Upon reaching three outs, the game changes sides. The game ends after 2-3 game changes or innings.  Scoring: One point is scorred for each run. The team that earns higher points wins the game  Variations: (1) Have the batter use an under-the-leg throw. (2) Use an underhand throw. (3) Use a batting t
  24. 24. 97 Activity 5: Checking Your Understanding In this activity, your understanding of the essence and benefits of participating in team sports will be assessed. You can present your responses in any form you are comfortable with. Do this activity in a separate sheet of paper or even in your activity notebook. Examples:  Reaction or position paper  poster and slogan  essay Activity 1: Living Legends In this activity, you will be given an opportunity to rethink and refine your undersdtandings on team sports by listening to invited resource persons as they speak on how team sports influenced them as an individual and as a member of the family. Assess for process in this activity. Criteria for Assessement: On Skill Execution Proficient execution of the skills 40% 40% Can follow /understand instructions 30% 30% Can/manifest positive /behavior while playing team sports 40% ____ 100% Let‟s go deeper and deeper this time! In this phase, you are provided with other learning resources and learning experiences for you to enrich/broaden your understanding of the lesson.
  25. 25. 98 NOTE : In the absence of an invited guest, you can utilize available resources in their place like recorded interviews or written materials like autobigraphy and features that has something to do with team sports. Procedure: 1. Form three groups .. 2. With each group you determine and decide who among the home-grown team sports enthusiasts in your immediate community interests and inspires you most and could share meaningful insights to your class as regards his/her participation in team sports. 3. Draft an invitation letter requesting him/her to speak to the class on the following topics: a. Persons who influenced him/her to engage in team sports b. How team sports contributed to his success in life c. The role of his/her family in his active participation in team sports d. His/her team sports achievements (winnings, awards, recognitions) e. How team sports influenced him/her as an individual and as a member of the family. 4. Upon confirmation of the resource persons‟ approval to your request, invite them to deliver their inspirational message to your class. 5. After the sharing of the resource persons answer the following questions: a. Who among the three resource persons inspired you most? Why? b. How did their sharings reinforce or enhance your understanding, belief or view on team sports? c. What role did his/her family play in his/her success in team sports and in life? d. Based from the insights shared by the resource persons, what benefits can one derive from participating in team sports? 6. You may answer the questions above using any of the six facets of understanding (explanation, interpretation, application, perspective, empathy and self-knowledge). You refect your answer to the questions in your activity notebook. NOTE: If you choose or use other means aside from inviting a guest, you can give your reactions and insights by using any of the six facets too .
  26. 26. 99 COMMUNITY GOALS: ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ FAMILY GOALS: ______________________ ______________________ _____________________ That was impressive so with that, I‟ll give you a “thums up!” Kudos!!! Hope you can do the same in this next activity. Activity 2.: How Good is your Aim if you wont pull the Trigger “ You will list down your goals as regards your personal, family, and community involve basetball/softball) or team sports in general. This aims to reaffirm your commitment in making team sports your lifetime fitness endeavor. The following is an example of an output on this activity. You are encouraged to have other modes of presentation employing your creativity and resourcefulness in this challenge. Activity 3: What have I learned? Here‟s your final challnge in this part of the lesson, you will accomplish the K-W-L chart you have started accomplishing in Part I of the learning sequence. You will be tasked to share three things you have learned from participating inbaseball and softball and in team sports in general. K-What you KNOW W-What you WANT to know L-What you’ve LEARNED 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. PERSONAL GOALS: ________________ ________________ ________________
  27. 27. 100 Activity 1: Mini-Team Sport Tournament (Assessment of Performance) This activity aims to finally let you synthesize and apply what you have theoretically and practically learned in the previous phases of the learning sequence. Decision making, critical thinking and sportsmanship will be revealed and developed. Your performance during this activity will be rated according to the following criteria: Appropriateness of Skills, Execution of Skills and Behavior during Performance. You will need:  baseball and softball balls  diamond and playing area  teams or groups  a good pair of playing shoes  proper playing outfit  score sheet Skills to be demonstrated:  batting  throwing and catching  base running  postive manners and behavior while playing  execution of other offensive and defensive skills Finally, you have made it to this part! This is now your chance to show enveryone that you can demonstrate the different skills in baseball/softballl as you play with your classmates/family/friends. After playing, your task of accomplishing your final product is up next! Don‟t waste this opportunity because there are no second chances! Your performance and product will be graded accordingly to the given criteria.
  28. 28. 101 Procedure; 1. Form three groups.Group 1 and 2 will play first; group 3 officiates the game. Rotation will be made so that all groups will be able to play and officiate. Make sure that participation among your teammates be maximized. You may consider a quarter of 8 minutes only to allow rotation of roles among all 3 groups in your class. Here is the schedule of games and officials: Game 1 Group 1 Vs. Group 2 Officials: Group 3 Game 2 Group 2 Vs. Group 3 Officials: Group 1 Game 3 Group 3 Vs. Group 1 Officials: Group 2 HERE’S HOW YOUR PERFORMANCE WILL BE ASSESSED IN THIS ACTIVITY Proficiency in the Execution of Skills Ability to Adapt a Skill to a Certain Sport Situation Behavior in Playing Team Sport Weight 30% 40% 30% 5 MASTERFUL: Able to use knowledge and skills automatically, effectively and efficiently in diverse game situations SKILLFUL: Demonstrates powerful and skillful execution of the game skills with high level of confidence MATURE: Highly disciplined and able to demonstrate appropriate behavior towards the game, players and game officials 4 SKILLED:Completely able to use knowledge and skills in diverse game situations COMPETENT: Demonstrates the game skills with confidence SENSITIVE: Disciplined and able to demonstrate appropriate behavior towards the game, players and game officials 3 ABLE: Has limited but growing ability to use knowledge and skills in diverse game situations PRACTITIONER: Demonstrates general level of coordination and competence in the execution of game skills with limited but growing confidence AWARE: Generally demonstrates proper behavior towards the game, player and game officials 2 APPRENTICE: Relies on a limited repertoire of knowledge and skills; has limited use of judgment and responsiveness to game situations. APPRENTICE: Demonstrates limited coordination and competence in the execution of game skills, with low level of confidence DECENTERING: Has some capacity for self-discipline but is still limited to own reactions and attitudes towards the game, players, and game officials 1 NOVICE: Can perform only with coaching and relies on highly directed skill execution, procedures and game approaches NOVICE: Has very low or no coordination in demonstrating game skills; has very low level or no confidence at all EGOCENTRIC: Has little or no consideration to the rules of the game; behaves untowardly and has no respect for other players and game officials
  29. 29. 102 Activity 2. Team sports family journal (Assessment of Product) This activity will encourage you to involve your family in playing team sports . This is a form of fitness activity wherein you prepare a documentary of your family‟s engagement in team sports. You will need:  team sports photographs of you and your family  coloring materials  folders/card boards, etc.  writing/printing materials  adhesives/glues  anything that could be used for collage, recyclable materials/old magazines)  computer and computer programs (Movie-maker, Photoshop, Powerpoint, Nero, etc.)  camera  blank CD/s Skills to be demonstrated:  Uniqueness and originality  Creativity and resourcefulness  Deep understanding of the benefits derived from participating in team sports  Involving the family in team sports endeavors Procedure: 1. Gather some pictures or videos of your family‟s team sports activities. Prepare a documentary by organizing them in a portfolio or scrapbook or any other presentation you wish to do. You are also encouraged to have it digitally presented (videograph, powerpoint presentation, movie maker presentation, etc.). 2. Don‟t forget to put descriptions or captions in each documented activity. Your descriptions/captions may include the team sport played, date and place it was taken and the like. 3. The last page or final slide, in case you prefer digital presentation, should include your insights gained from participating in baseballor softball and team sports in general and the benefits that the learner and the family as a whole gained from engaging in it. 4. Your uniqueness, creativity,and resourcefulness will be challenged through this activity so don‟t waste your chance. Go and start your masterpiece!
  30. 30. 103 Criteria for Assessment: Content and relevance of pictures presented 30% Creativity, resourcefulness and quality of presentation 30% Understanding (benefits of team sports to family fitness wellness) 40% 100% NOTE: In case you have no family pictures or videos, you can cut out pictures of well known/prominent sports icon then organized it in a portfolio or scrap/tbook or any other presentation you wish to do.
  31. 31. 104 APPENDIX A Lecture on baseball and softball HISTORY OF BASEBALL The game of baseball is said to have begun in the early 19th century, but that's just half the truth. The game was played much before but the first baseball clubs were formed around that time. An Englishman named Alexander Cartwright in the year 1845 devised the first set of rules baseball. In fact, many of the rules listed out then are still used in the game. In the early 20th century the concentration was more on hitting the home runs. Babe Ruth changed the course of the game with his magical abilities to achieve home runs. It was due to sportsmen like Babe Ruth that baseball achieved the levels of popularity that it did. The popularity of Babe Ruth also helped in improving the money in the game, since people just went to watch Babe Ruth in action. Baseball became a game of strategy and hitting throughout the last part of the 20th century. However, pitching and home run hitting are the baseball benchmarks of today. Depending on the strength of their bullpens and their home run hitters, baseball teams are either big winners or big losers. The one thing that is consistent is that the cost of admission still continues to rise. THE GAME A baseball/softball game is played by two teams who alternate between offense and defense. There are nine players on each side. The goal is to score more runs than the opponent, which is achieved by one circuit of four bases that are placed on the diamond. THE EQUIPMENT The defense wears baseball/softball gloves, a leather contraption that fits on the hand, to catch the ball. A baseball is a white ball roughly three inches in diameter with red stitching. A softball is roughly twice as big, sometimes yellow (but no softer). The offense uses a bat, which is made of wood in the professional ranks, and likely made of aluminum or a metal composite at amateur levels. Almost all softball bats are aluminum or metal. THE FIELD The part of the field closest to the bases is called the infield, and the grassy farther reaches is called the outfield. The bases are 90 feet apart on the diamond, closer in children's leagues and softball. Other fields are variable, and the outfield fences or the amount of “foul territory” - the
  32. 32. 105 amount of ground that borders the field between the long white lines that connect first base to home plate and third base to home plate – varies from field to field. DEFENSE: THE POSITIONS There's a pitcher in the middle of the mound who initiates the action by throwing the ball toward home plate. The catcher catches the ball if it's not hit. The infielders are the first baseman, second baseman, shortstop (between second and third base) and the third baseman. There are three outfielders: The left fielder, center fielder and right fielder. THE GAMES There are nine innings in professional baseball games (sometimes fewer in lower levels), and each inning is divided in half to the top of the inning (when the visiting team hits and the home team plays defense) and the bottom of the inning (when the home team hits and the visiting team plays defense). Each team gets three outs in each half of the innings. ON OFFENSE Each team has nine players in its batting order, and they must stick to that order throughout the game (players may substitute in for other players). A play begins with a batter waiting to hit a pitch from the pitcher. If the batter hits the ball into the field of play, the batter runs to first base and can run to as many bases as he or she deems fit without getting "out." If a players hits the ball over the outfield fence in fair territory (between the foul lines), it's a home run, and the batter can circle all four bases. ON DEFENSE There are many ways that the team on defense can get an offensive player out. Four common ways are:  Strikeouts (hitter misses three pitches)  Force outs (when, after the ball is hit, the defensive player with the ball reaches a base before the runner)  Fly outs (when a player hits the ball in the air and it's caught by a defensive player before the ball hits the ground)  Tag outs (when a runner is touched with the ball, or a glove with the ball in it) SKILLS IN BASEBALL Baseball requires a high degree of skill to play well. Athletic ability will help a player compete with other top players, but the specific skills of hitting, throwing and catching the baseball require significant work and practice to acquire. Many of the top
  33. 33. 106 hitters in the game don't have a tremendous speed or strength, but they all have a high- level of eye-hand coordination. Hitting Hitters who can drive the ball over the fence, such as Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron, are lionized, but many hitters who don't hit frequent home runs can be just as important to their teams. Hitting the ball consistently takes timing, hand-eye coordination and confidence. These skills are developed through regular batting practice. Hitters must be balanced when standing at the plate and drive their hands through the ball with all their strength and momentum behind their swings. Catching Catching and fielding the baseball takes athleticism, aggressiveness, timing and coordination. Fielding ground balls requires the player to get to a spot on the field quickly, to get his body in front of the ball and to catch it out in front of him. Catching fly balls takes speed, timing, anticipation and coordination. Fielders need to catch hundreds of ground balls and fly balls in practice to learn how to field consistently. Throwing Throwing the ball well requires arm strength, balance and timing. Baseball players must build the strength in their arm by throwing regularly with the proper technique. That means players must step toward the target when they throw and must get their momentum traveling toward their target. Base Running Having speed alone does not make one a good base runner. Speed helps, but understanding the route to run, the arm strength of opposing outfielders and the game situation are more important skills than flat-out speed. A good base runner will listen to advice from coaches on the base paths, but will make the final decisions whether to run or stop based on his knowledge. EQUIPMENT Gloves In the beginning baseball players did not wear gloves. Today there are several different kinds of gloves. The catcher's mitt is big, round, and padded. The first baseman's mitt is longer than the other fielders' gloves, and an outfielders' glove is larger than an infielders' glove. Bases
  34. 34. 107 The first bases used in baseball were four-foot high stakes. Too many players ran into them and were hurt, so they tried big flat rocks. Players were still being injured, so they finally filled soft sacks with sand. The modern day bases are made similar to the sand filled bags. Safety Gear The first catchers in baseball did not wear any gear for protection. Today's players wear a face-mask, helmet, chest protector, shin guards and a cup. In 1952, the Pittsburgh Pirates were the first team to wear helmets. They wore them when they were batting and when they were playing in the field. Bats In the major leagues, only wooden bats are used. The rules say that the bat can only be 42 inches long, and can only be 2 3/4 inches in diameter at the thickest point. White ash is the best wood to use to make a bat. A bat made out of white ash helps absorb some of the shock when hitting a 90 mile-per-hour pitch. Baseballs All baseballs are made the same size and weight. They are 9 to 9 1/4 inches in circumference and weigh 5 to 5 1/4 ounces. The center of the baseball is cork. The cork ball is covered with rubber. Cotton and wool yarn are tightly wound around the cork and rubber center. 150 yards of cotton yarn (450 feet) and 219 yards of wool yarn (625 feet) are used to make a baseball. Baseball Rules & Regulations Former Chicago White Sox owner Bill Veeck famously said, “I try not to break the rules but merely to test their elasticity.” A certain amount of rule-bending is likely to exist in any sport, but no game has a set of rules as well established as baseball, where the regulations have been virtually unchanged for over a century. For newcomers to baseball, the following is a brief overview of the game‟s essential tenets: Each team in a baseball game starts nine players. The game is broken up into innings, during which each team plays both offense and defense. A regulation baseball game consists of nine innings (many levels of youth baseball, including high school, play only six- or seven-inning games). An inning starts with the home team on defense and the away team on offense. The offensive team attempts to score runs, while the defensive team attempts to record outs. One inning is completed after each team makes three outs. The team that has the most total runs after nine innings are completed is the winner. If the score is tied, play continues, with each extra inning functioning as sudden death.
  35. 35. 108 Positions & Lineups On defense, the players occupy nine positions. There are five infield positions (pitcher, catcher, first base, second base, third base, and shortstop), and three outfield positions (left field, center field, and right field). The diagram to the left shows the typical defensive alignment on a basic baseball diamond. On offense, the nine starters form a strategically arranged lineup, which determines the order in which each player bats. Many baseball organizations allow the use of a designated hitter. This means that one player who is not among the defensive starters may bat in the place of a defensive player. In many cases, the designated hitter bats for the pitcher. The players take turns batting according to the lineup, and once every player has batted, the order starts over from the top. It is against the rules to bat out of order. Substitutions may be made at any time, but once a player has been removed from the game, he cannot return (unless specific league rules allow it). Pitching & Defense In baseball, play starts when the pitcher delivers a pitch. There are two positions from which a pitcher may start his delivery: The wind-up and the stretch. The wind-up is typically used with no runners on base, while the stretch is utilized when there are base runners, because it is a quicker way to make a pitch. The pitcher must be in contact with the pitcher‟s rubber when he throws the ball. For every at-bat of a game, a “count” is kept in order to keep track of how many balls and strikes have been thrown (for example, one ball and two strikes, or 1-2). The strike zone is an area that reaches from the batter‟s knees to his chest, and spans the width of home plate. The home plate umpire determines whether each pitch crossed through the strike zone, and so strike zones tend to be somewhat subjective. If the pitcher throws a pitch that misses the strike zone, it is called a ball. If he throws a pitch inside the strike zone, or if the batter swings and misses, or if the batter hits the ball into foul territory, it is called a strike. There are several ways to record an out on defence: Strike out: After three strikes, the batter is out. However, a batter cannot strike out on a foul ball. If he hits a foul ball with two strikes, the count remains the same. Tag out: When the ball is in play, any defensive player may tag a base runner when he is off the base to record an out. Catch: If the batter hits a pitched ball in play, and any member of the defense catches it in the air, then the batter is out. A runner on base may attempt to advance to the next
  36. 36. 109 base once a catch has been made by “tagging up.” However, the runner does so at the risk of being tagged out. Force out: If the batter hits a pitched ball in play that is not caught in the air, the defense may field the ball and touch first base (or more likely, throw it to the first baseman, who then touches first base) before the batter reaches the base to record the out. Also, if there are runners on first base, first and second base, or all three bases, the runners must advance if a batted ball touches the ground (they are “forced”). Therefore, the defense can tag a base in front of a runner for a force-out. It is possible for the defense to record multiple force-outs on the same play. This is called a double play. Scoring The home plate area consists of home plate, a left-hand batter‟s box and right- hand batter‟s box (on separate sides of home plate, and a catcher‟s box (directly behind home plate). The offensive player stands in one of the batter‟s boxes, while the catcher squats down behind home plate, and the umpire stands just behind the catcher. In order to score a run, a batter must safely touch all four bases (in a counter-clockwise direction) and home plate. The player doesn‟t need to touch all four bases during one play. Once he reaches a base, he may choose to stay there, and as long as he stays on the base he cannot be tagged out. Therefore, in order to score a run, the offensive team typically must get multiple players on base safely in order to advance them around the diamond and touch home plate to score a run. There are several ways that a batter may reach base safely: Single: The batter hits a pitched ball into fair territory, and the defense is unable to catch it in the air. If the batter makes it to first base without being tagged with the ball or before the defense can make a force-play at first base, then the batter is safe with a single. Double: The batter hits a pitched ball into fair territory, and the defense is unable to catch it in the air. If the batter makes it to second base without being tagged with the ball or before the defense can make a force-play, then the batter is safe with a double. Triple: The batter hits a pitched ball into fair territory, and the defense is unable to catch it in the air. If the batter makes it to third base without being tagged with the ball or before the defense can make a force-play, then the batter is safe with a triple. Home run: The batter hits a pitched ball into fair territory, and the defense is unable to catch it in the air. If the batter touches all three bases and makes it to home plate without being tagged with the ball or before the defense can make a force-play, then the batter is safe with a home run. In addition, if the batter hits a pitched ball that lands beyond the designated outfield fence, it is an automatic home run. He is allowed to jog
  37. 37. 110 around the bases and touch home plate, and any runners who were on base are also allowed to score. Base on balls: If the pitcher throws four pitches out of the strike zone (as determined by the home plate umpire) before the batter hits the ball fair or strikes out, then the batter is awarded first base. Hit by pitch: If a pitched ball strikes the batter on any part of his body, the batter is awarded first base (unless an umpire determines that the batter intentionally moved in order to get hit). Catcher’s interference: If the batter‟s bat makes contact with the catcher while he attempts to swing at a pitch, the batter is awarded first base. Defensive error: If the batter is able to safely reach base as the result of a defensive player‟s mistake, then the play is called an error. An error has effectively the same result as a hit, but officially it is a different type of play. Dropped third strike: If a batter swings and misses at a pitched ball for the third strike, but the catcher drops the ball or it bounces away, the batter may attempt to run to first base. If the batter reaches first base before the catcher can tag him or make a force-out, then the batter is safe. Fielder’s choice: If the batter hits a pitched ball into play, and the defense chooses to tag or force-out another base runner instead of the batter (thereby allowing the batter to reach base safely), then it is considered a fielder‟s choice. This is a less desirable way to reach base, because an out is recorded in the process. SOFTBALL The name "softball" dates back to 1926. The name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. (In addition to "indoor baseball", "kitten ball", and "diamond ball", names for the game included "mush ball", and "pumpkin ball".) The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. The formation of the Joint Rules Committee on Softball in 1934 standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States.. The first British women's softball league was established in 1952. In 1991, women's fast-pitch softball was selected to debut at the 1996 Summer Olympics. The 1996 Olympics also marked a key era in the introduction of technology in softball; the IOC funded a landmark biomechanical study on pitching during the games.
  38. 38. 111 In 2002, sixteen-inch slow pitch was written out of the ISF official rules, although it is still played extensively in the United States under The Amateur Softball Association of America, or ASA rules. The 117th meeting of the International Olympic Committee, held in Singapore in July 2005, voted to drop softball and baseball as Olympic sports for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Other sanctioning bodies of softball are AAU, NSA, PONY, ASA, ISC, USSSA, and ISA. Equipments of softball Equipment required in softball includes a ball, a bat, gloves, uniforms and protective gear: for example, helmets for the offensive team and a helmet, shin guards and chest protector for the defensive catcher. Also cleats, sliding shorts, face masks and knee sliders may be worn for softball. Ball Despite the sport's name, softballs are not especially soft. The size of the ball varies according to the classification of play; the permitted circumferences in international play are 12±0.125 in (30.5±0.3 cm), in weight between 6.25 oz (178 g) and 7.0 oz (198.4 g) in fast pitch;. A 12-inch circumference ball is generally used in slow pitch; although in rare cases some leagues (especially recreational leagues) do use a 14-inch circumference ball.. In 2002, high-visibility yellow "optic" covering, long-used for restricted flight balls in co- ed recreational leagues, became standard for competitive play. Yellow is the color of official NCAA and NAIA softballs. Yellow softballs are fast becoming the standard for all levels of play for girls' and women's play in particular. White balls are also allowed, but are much more common in slow pitch than in fast pitch. Bat The bat used by the batter can be made of wood, aluminum, or composite materials such as carbon fiber. Sizes may vary but they may be no more than 34 inches (86 cm) long, 2.25 inches (6 cm) in diameter, or 38 oz. (1.2 kilograms) in weight. In fast pitch softball, wooden bats are not allowed. The standard bat barrel diameter for both slow-pitch and fast pitch softball is 21∕4 inches. Many players prefer a smaller barrel, which reduces weight and allows higher swing speed. Gloves All defensive players wear fielding gloves, made of leather or similar material. Gloves have webbing between the thumb and forefinger, known as the "pocket". The first baseman and the catcher may wear mitts; mitts are distinguished from gloves in that they have extra padding, and no fingers. No part of the glove is allowed to be the same color as that of the ball, including that of its seams. Gloves used in softball are
  39. 39. 112 usually larger than the ones used in baseball. No glove larger than 14" (36 cm) can be used in ASA sanctioned play.. Protective equipment A helmet must have two ear flaps, one on each side. Helmets and cages that are damaged or altered are forbidden. Helmets must be worn by batters and runners in fast pitch. Helmets are optional in slowpitch. In NCAA fast pitch softball you have the option to wear a helmet with or without a face mask.. In male fast pitch masks are generally only used for medical reasons. In fast pitch, the catcher must wear a protective helmet with a face-mask and throat protector, shin guards and body protector. Shin guards also protect the kneecap. In any form of softball, any player (other than fast pitch catchers on defense) can wear a protective face mask or face guard. As usual, it must be in proper condition and not damaged, altered, or the like. This is intended to prevent facial injuries. Umpires Decisions about plays are made by umpires, similar to a referee in American football. The number of umpires on a given game can range from a minimum of one to a maximum of seven. There is never more than one "plate umpire"; there can be up to three "base umpires", and up to a further three umpires positioned in the outfield. Most fast pitch games use a crew of two umpires (one plate umpire, one base umpire). The plate umpire often uses an indicator (sometimes called a clicker or counter) to keep track of the game Decisions are usually indicated by both the use of hand signals, and by vocalizing the call. Safe calls are made by signaling with flat hands facing down moving away from each other, and a verbal call of "safe". Out calls are made by raising the right hand in a clenched fist, with a verbal call of "out". Strikes are called by the plate umpire, who uses the same motion as the out call with a verbal call of "strike". Balls are only called verbally, with no hand gesture. The umpire also has the option of not saying anything on a ball. It is understood that when he stands up, the pitch was not a strike. Foul balls are called by extending both arms up in the air with a verbal call of "foul ball", while fair balls are indicated only by pointing towards fair territory with no verbal call. No signal is given for balls that are obviously foul and for closer calls that are not borderline; a mere acknowledgement signal is given. All decisions made by the umpire(s) are considered to be final. Only decisions where a rule might have been misinterpreted are considered to be protestable. At some tournaments there might be a rules interpreter or Tournament Chief Umpire (TCU) (also known as the Umpire In Chief, or UIC) available to pass judgment on such protests, but it is usually up to the league or association involved to decide if the protest would be
  40. 40. 113 upheld. Protests are never allowed on what are considered "judgment calls" – balls, strikes, and fouls. Pitching Play begins with the umpire saying "Play Ball". After the batter is ready and all fielders (except the catcher) are in fair territory, the pitcher stands at the pitching plate and attempts to throw the ball past the batter to the catcher behind home plate. The throw, or pitch, must be made with an underarm motion often called the "windmill" motion: the ball must be released below the hip when the hand is no farther from the hip than the elbow to get it in the strike zone. Batters The batter stands facing the pitcher inside a "batter's box" (there is one on each side of the plate to compensate for either right or left handed batters). The bat is held with both hands, over the shoulder, and away from the pitcher (90 degree angle). The ball is usually hit with a full swinging motion in which the bat may move through more than 360 degrees. The batter usually steps forward with the front foot, the body weight shifts forward, as the batter simultaneously swings the bat. When swinging, the back foot should look like it is squishing a bug. A bunt (baseball) is another form of batting. There are different types, including a [sacrifice bunt], or [slap bunt]. There is also regular slapping in which a batter takes position on the left side of the plate and usually stands in the back of the box, but it is possible form anywhere. Once the ball is hit into fair territory the runner must try to advance to first base or beyond. While running to first base, the batter is a "batter-runner". When she safely reaches first she becomes a "base-runner" or "runner". A batted ball hit high in the air is a "fly ball". A fly ball hit upward at an angle greater than 45 degrees is a "pop fly". A batted ball driven in the air through the infield at a height at which an infielder could play it if in the right position is a "line drive". A batted ball which hits the ground within the diamond is a "ground ball". If a batted ball hits a player or a base, it is considered to have hit the ground. Pitcher The pitcher is the individual who throws the ball from the middle of the diamond or the pitcher's mound. In baseball, the mound is elevated, but in softball the mound is not elevated. The pitcher usually throws the ball in the strike zone. In softball, the pitcher uses an underarm motion to pitch the ball towards the strike zone. As soon as the pitcher makes a throw, the fielders are ready to field balls that are hit in the middle of the diamond. Pitchers usually tend to be tall, very flexible and have good upper body strength. Pitchers can be righthanded or lefthanded. The softball pitcher makes a windmill motion while throwing under hand. Unlike baseball who throw over hand. Catcher
  41. 41. 114 The catcher is always behind the hitter in semi-crouched position at home plate. The catcher recovers pitches from the pitcher. The catcher also throws balls to other bases to throw out runners. At home plate, the catcher is responsible for making some of the team's outs by retiring base runners attempting to score. In most games, catchers provide a visual or finger clue as to what the next pitch should be. Catchers are usually very strong, agile, think fast and possess fast reflexes. Catchers need a lot of muscle to make powerful and fast throws. Catchers must block balls on the ground and try to keep the pitches in front of them in order to prevent a girl from steeling a base. They are one of the most important players in the game. A good catcher makes the pitcher look good by framing the pitches (moving balls into the strike zone in order to fool the umpire). First baseman The first baseman is the position to the right of the first base. The major role of the first baseman is to make fielding plays on all balls hit towards first base. The first base is usually involved in every hit that occurs on the playing field. Individuals at first base have quick hands, a good reach and are always on the lookout to catch the player off base. First basemen can be both left and right handed. Second baseman The second baseman plays in between the first baseman and the gap at second. If the ball is hit to the left side of the field, second covers second base. If the ball is hit on their side of the field, they back up the fielder, cover first, or field the ball depending on where it is hit.The second baseman also is the cut off on balls hit to the right side of the outfield. The second baseman also throws directly to the catcher to prevent runners from scoring. Mostly, when the ball is hit to the left side of the field, the second basemen plays second for shortstop. Also, in the case of a bunt, the second baseman must cover second as the shortstop runs to cover third base, since the third baseman is running up for the bunt. Shortstop The shortstop fields all balls hit to the infield between the second and third bases. This individual also helps cover second base, third base and is frequently involved in force plays, double plays and frequently throws the ball to the catcher to throw out runners at home plate. On steals to second base (when the runner from first is advancing to second on the pitch) the shortstop usually covers. The shortstop only doesn't cover second base when a right handed batter is up. In this case, the second baseman covers the steal. Most short stops are very quick, agile and think fast. They are the captain of the infield as is the center fielder of the outfield.. Third baseman The third baseman covers all hits to the third base and receives balls from the outfield. The third base person also frequently throws the ball to the catcher trying to
  42. 42. 115 throw out the runner at home plate. The individual at third base usually thinks fast because of the types of hits that commonly occur in that zone. Quick thinking can often stop runners from scoring or can result in double plays. Outfielders The outfielders are players that cover the grassy area behind the infield. Outfielders are named for their positions in the field relative to home plate. Traditional outfield positions include a left fielder, a center fielder, and a right fielder. These players usually back up the plays made by the infielders and make plays when the ball is hit past or over the infield. Because their positions cover a greater range than those of infielders, outfielders tend to have strong throwing arms. Web Sources: SOFTBALL http://www.softballperformance.com/softball-history/ http://www.isfsoftball.org/english/rules_standards/rulebook.pdf http://www.buzzle.com/articles/softball-rules-and-regulations.html http://www.wiaawi.org/Sports/Softball/RulesRegulations.aspx BASEBALL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baseball http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/54751/baseball http://www.libertyball.com/coachcorner/Baseball%20Handbook.pdf http://www.infosports.com/zdr/tm/jzm.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baseball_clothing_and_equipment http://www.baseball-rules.com/basicbb.ht Bibliography Cole, Terrence. “„A Purely American Game‟: Indoor Baseball and the Origins of Softball.” International Journal of the History of the Sport 7.2 (September 1990): 287– 296. Gems, Gerald R. Windy City Wars: Labor, Leisure, and Sport in the Making of Chicago. 1997. Garmean, Judith Fay. "A Study Of Attitudes Toward Softball Competition For Women." Santa Barbara: University if California 1969: 87
  43. 43. 116 Berlage, Gai Ingham. "Women In Baseball: The Forgotten History". London: Greenwood Publishing 1994:208 Alexander, Charles C. Our Game: An American Baseball History. New York: MJF, 1991. Bjarkman, Peter C. (2004). Diamonds Around the Globe: The Encyclopedia of International Baseball. Greenwood. Alexander, Charles C. Our Game: An American Baseball History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1991.

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