Quantitative and qualitative data, questionnaires, interviewsPresentation Transcript
Quantitative and Qualitative dataL/O: to describe the differences between quantitative andqualitative data. To apply this to questionnaires andinterviews (AO3). Starter: In pairs Recap QUESTIONNAIRES What kinds of questions do they include? Specific names and layouts? Quantitative or qualitative data? Why?
L/O: to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative data (AO3).Quantitative researchWhat are the likely features of quantitative researchthen?• Gathering numerical data – numbers• The researcher assigns numerical values.• Always involves measuring in some way e.g. ‘how many times…’• Analysis: Statistically analysed for numerical patterns / relationships.• Objective = limited opinion and interpretation.
L/O: to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative data (AO3).Qualitative research…and for qualitative research?• Gathers non-numerical information – words.• Focuses on experiences and feelings.• Open ended questions e.g. ‘What is your experience of…’• Analysis: usually summarised.• Subjective = lots of opinion and interpretation.
L/O: to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative data (AO3).Why choose one over the other?Aims and purpose of the research?Create an aim for research that would requiregathering:a. Quantitative datab. Qualitative datac. Both quantitative and qualitative data.
L/O: to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative data (AO3). Can we? Quantitative Qualitative• To do with QUALITY.• Very controlled.• Focus on collecting opinions.• Is less controlled.• To do with QUANTITY.• Analysis can be subjective (lots of interpretation).• Focus on collecting numbers.• Analysis can be objective (limited interpretation).
To apply this to questionnaires and interviews (AO3). Questionnaires: self-report technique Types of questionsType 1: Closed questions- Rank order questions- Likert scale questions Generate- Checklist questions QUANTITATIVE data- Dichotomous questions- Semantic differential questions. GenerateType 2: Open questions. QUALITATIVE data
To apply this to questionnaires and interviews (AO3).Interviews: self-report techniqueStructured interview: A.K.A. ‘verbal questionnaire’.Verbal response to a set of set questions.Semi-structured interview: no fixed questions but aguided interview with a set of predetermined topics.The way questions are asked can vary.Unstructured interview: just a topic set and theparticipant talks about anything they like.
To apply this to questionnaires andinterviews (AO3).Interviews: self-report techniqueStructured interview: GeneratesSemi-structured interview: quantitative or qualitativeUnstructured interview: data? How? Reliability? Validity? Bias? Ethical Issues?