Research Design [Creswell]

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Research Design [Creswell]

  1. 1. Research Designby John Creswell
  2. 2. Worldviews (aka methodologies)Postpositivist (6-7)Social Constructivist (8-9)Advocacy/Participatory (9-10)Pragmatic (10-11)
  3. 3. Strategies of Inquiry(aka methodologies)Qualitative (e.g. ethnography)QuantitativeMixed Method
  4. 4. Methodsways to gather data
  5. 5. Literature ReviewSecondary/library research conducted tosituate current studyImportant questions:Can it be researched?Should it be researched?Is there any interest in this?
  6. 6. Independent & Dependent Variablessituation + independent variable = dependentvariableSO...adults over 25 + drink green tea = betterperformance on memory test
  7. 7. Intervening Variablessituation + independent variable + interveningvariable = dependent variableadults over 25 + drink green tea + steeped teafor 15 minutes = better performance onmemory test
  8. 8. Moderating Variablessituation + independent variable + interveningvariable = dependent variable[+moderating variables]adults over 25 + drink green tea + steeped teafor 15 minutes = better performance onmemory test[age x ounces consumed daily]
  9. 9. Control Variablessituation + independent variable = dependentvariableadults over 25 + drink green tea = betterperformance on memory testsituation + control variable = dependentvariableadults over 25 + drink no green tea = nochange in performance on memory test
  10. 10. Confounding Variablesituation + independent variable [+confounding variable] = dependent variableadults over 25 + drink green tea [+ dailycrossword] = better performance on memorytest
  11. 11. Purpose Statementcoveys overall intent of study (111);include methodology, method, site,participants, definitions (112-113)
  12. 12. Research Questionscentral question of projectwhat or how are generally qualitativequestionsQuintessential ethnography question:What is happening here?nondirectional (no cause, impact, influence,etc.)
  13. 13. Hypothesespredictionsnull, directional, nondirectional (134-135)
  14. 14. Sampling Termscross-sectional (146)longitudinal (146)population (148)samplingsingle-stage or cluster sampling (148)random sampleconvenience sample (148)stratification (148)random table list & sample size formula (149)
  15. 15. Validity (Experimental)Does the instrument measure what you wantit to measure? [Think SATs: are they aptindicators of a students potential forcollege?]threats to validity (162-165)
  16. 16. Reliability (Experimental)Consistency of scores internally (on the sameinstrument), over time, and in theadministration and scoringKey for Writing Studies: interrater reliability:will different readers score a piece of writingthe same over time?
  17. 17. ExperimentsTrue experiment (uses random sampling) vs.Quasi experiment (does not use randomsampling) (155)pre-experiment (no control group) (158)
  18. 18. Backyard ResearchStudying the researchers own organization,friends, work, family, etc. (177)In Writing Studies, this is a researcher studyinghis/her own classroom (teacher research) orown institution (happens a lot in dissertationsand theses)
  19. 19. Methods for qualitative researchobservationsinterviewsdocumentsaudio/visual artifacts(182)
  20. 20. Codingbreaking data into pieces and assigning eachpiece at least one label (code)
  21. 21. Qualitative Reliability Strategiescheck transcripts for accuracycheck for code driftintercoder agreement (190-91)
  22. 22. Qualitative Validity Strategiestriangulationmember checkingrich, thick descriptiondisclosure of biasinclude discrepant informationstay in field long enoughpeer debriefingexternal auditor (191-92)

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