Mid Tudor Crisis Revision


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Mid Tudor Crisis Revision

  1. 1. Mid Tudor Crisis 1540-1558
  2. 2. How was Tudor society shaped? Was there a Crisis of Government? How did economic factors cause discontent in Tudor England? To what extent can the problems of the Mid-Tudors be attributed to Henry VIII’s legacy? Why did Edward face unrest early in his reign? How did Northumberland come to power in 1549? How did Northumberland tackle Government? Was there a religious crisis? How successful was Mary I? What were the extent of the Religious changes? To what extent had England become Catholic by 1558?
  3. 3. How did the governments of the country work in the 16 th Century? How was Tudor society shaped?
  4. 4. Henry VII Elizabeth of York Arthur Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon Mary I Anne Boleyn Elizabeth I Jane Seymour Edward VI Anne of Cleves Margaret James IV Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Mary Married into Tudor family Tudor Monarch Tudor
  5. 5. Five Tudor Monarchs Henry VII 1485-1509 Elizabeth I 1558-1603 Mary I 1553-1558 Edward VI 1547-1553 Henry VIII 1509-1547 Mid Tudor Crisis viewed as period 1540-1558 What were their religions?
  6. 6. Religious roller coaster of 16th Century Catholic Protestant Term used to describe changes in religion from Catholic to Protestant
  7. 7. Henry VII 1485-1509 Elizabeth I 1558-1603 Mary I 1553-1558 Edward VI 1547-1553 Henry VIII 1509-1547 Duke of Somerset 1547-1549 Duke of Northumberland 1549-1553
  8. 8. How was Tudor society shaped?
  9. 9. Tudor Social Structure Monarch Church Nobility Archbishops Bishops Clergymen Gentry Yeoman Labourers Citizens Vagrants / Beggars
  10. 10. Tudor Social Structure <ul><li>Four main blocks </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>2. Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>3. Yeoman </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cottagers/Labourers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gentlemen <ul><li>Subdivided into </li></ul><ul><li>1. ‘Nobilitas Major’ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary peerages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landed elite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summoned to attend Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May stay at home if climate not good at court e.g. during religious change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. ‘Nobilitas Minor’ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knights/esquires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act as local Justices of the Peace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Citizens <ul><li>Located largely in towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Gained certain privileges due to social standing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Yeoman <ul><li>Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Act as local bailiffs/churchwardens/constables – assisting in maintaining order </li></ul><ul><li>Economic influences </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cottagers/Labourers
  15. 15. Main divide <ul><li>Gentry and Commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Gentry rich enough not to work and able to display standards of living expected of the gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners – no political voice / gain government attention by riot / rebellion / viewed as inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational, stupid and fickle – ‘ many headed monster’ </li></ul><ul><li>However authorities fail to recognise that with no voice only option is to riot or rebel. Access to politics was required. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tudor Social Structure Monarch Church Nobility Archbishops Bishops Clergymen Gentry Yeoman Labourers Citizens Vagrants / Beggars Gentry Commoners Nobilitas major Nobilitas minor
  17. 17. How was this social structure maintained? <ul><li>Social and Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Government Authority Factors – Formal / Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Duty and deference </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Chain of Being </li></ul>Deference – to comply with the wishes of another
  18. 18. The Great Chain of Being <ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Angel </li></ul><ul><li>King </li></ul><ul><li>Nobleman </li></ul><ul><li>Gentleman </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul>
  19. 19. How did the governments of the country work in the 16 th Century?
  20. 20. Henry VII visiting Parliament 1517
  21. 22. Government under Henry VII The King The Royal Household Justices of the Peace The Court Parliament The Privy Council The Privy Chamber The Groom Of the Stool
  22. 23. Government under Henry VIII The King The Court Parliament The Privy Council The Privy Chamber Justices of the Peace
  23. 24. Henry VIII’s plans for government after the accession of his son <ul><li>Concern about minority of Edward </li></ul><ul><li>Concern Privy council will become dominated by nobility who wish to make government changes and gaining too much power generally </li></ul><ul><li>Created a Regency Council – 16 members mix of conservative and reforming (radicals/reformers) nobles to support Edward – no government change until 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Council had issues immediately as Duke of Norfolk fell out of favour he had been leader of conservatives. Radicals take charge – Edward Seymour able to delay announcement of Henry’s death for three days and take Edward into his household ‘ Control of the King’s Person’ made Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector and dominates next two years. </li></ul>Regent – ruler of a country during the illness, childhood or absence of a monarch
  24. 25. Government at the end of Henry VIII reign The King The Court Parliament The Privy Council The Privy Chamber Justices of the Peace The Regency Council
  25. 26. Aims <ul><li>Revisit Tudor Family and Period – Brief Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Understand Social Structure in Tudor Period </li></ul><ul><li>View government in Tudor Period and changes up until Edward VI’s reign </li></ul>
  26. 27. Tudor Parliament <ul><li>In Tudor times most important decisions concerning government were made by the king or queen and a small group of advisers called the Privy Council. However, before these decisions became law, they had to be passed by Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament was the House of Lords and the House of Commons . The House of Lords was made up of about sixty Bishops, Dukes, Earls and Barons. It was unusual for members of the House of Lords to criticise the king's policies. If they did so, they were in danger of being stripped of their titles. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the House of Commons were more independent as they were sometimes elected by the people who lived in the area they represented. However, very few people had the vote and in many cases the largest landowner in the area decided who went to Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII was in favour of holding regular Parliaments. When Henry was in conflict with the Pope in Rome, he claimed that the votes taken in Parliament showed he enjoyed the support of the English people. </li></ul><ul><li>When Mary Tudor became queen she tried very hard to make sure she had a pro-Catholic House of Commons . Mary sent out instructions to the sheriffs (they organised the elections) pointing out who she wanted to be elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth held fewer Parliaments than her father. On average, she held a Parliament once every four years. Elizabeth made it clear that members of the House of Commons had complete freedom of speech. However, she believed that certain issues such as religion or foreign policy were best left to her and her Privy Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth became angry when Parliament asked her to get married. In 1571 Elizabeth made a speech to Parliament in which she told them they had no right to discuss issues that directly affected her. </li></ul><ul><li>On thirty-six occasions Elizabeth vetoed laws passed by Parliament. For example, in 1585 Parliament passed a bill that banned hunting, cock-fighting and bear-baiting from taking place on Sunday. Elizabeth believed that people had the right to enjoy themselves on their one day of rest and refused to allow the bill to become law. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Was there a crisis in Government? Minority Rule Regency Council Dominated by Somerset Edward – educated/protestant Somerset Too Weak Alienated higher orders Proclamations Chantries Act Treason Act – criticised Act of Uniformity Sheep Tax Anti-enclosure Vagrancy Act Failure in Scotland Widespread disorder 1549 Northumberland Ambitious PC 33 in number – why? Parliament used Enclosure commissions lapsed Devise - LJG Affair Recoinage Ended war in Scotland Crisis only with Edward’s illness? Mary I Restore Catholicism Phillip of Spain Habsburgs Too much religious conflict Use of favourites? War with France and loss of Calais Bloody Mary Elizabeth I 11 PC’s served Mary Act of Supremacy Ended war with France Reform of currency Legacy of Henry VIII Expense of war Frequent changes Factions Minority RC
  28. 31. Crisis in Government? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Minority - factions </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellions of 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Religious change </li></ul><ul><li>LJG affair </li></ul><ul><li>Wyatt Rebellion of 1554 </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Survived – both a minor and a woman </li></ul><ul><li>Authority remained intact </li></ul><ul><li>Other reigns faced civil disorder </li></ul>
  29. 32. How did economic factors cause discontent in Tudor England?
  30. 33. Tudors 1485-1603 (Mid Tudor Crisis?) Henry VII Edward VI Henry VII Mary I Elizabeth I Background Political / Social / Economic Government Ineffectiveness Malthusian Crisis? Enclosure Break Down of Feudalism Population Increase Tudor Govt Social Structure Difficulties in agriculture Difficulties in Industry
  31. 34. Economic Factors <ul><li>Demographic changes </li></ul><ul><li>developments and difficulties in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>developments in industry </li></ul>
  32. 35. Demographic Changes - Population Increase and Impact <ul><li>Population increase 1500- 2.3m 1547 - 3 m </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in demand leading to increase in prices (inflation) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower wages and increased rents </li></ul><ul><li>Government problems- Malthusian crisis?, migration to cities/towns (reducing production and increasing inflation), vagrants and beggars (Parliament passed 3 vagrancy Acts during Henry VIII’s reign), poor harvests in 1544-5, 1549-51, 1554-6, 1586-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict in agriculture between self-sufficient farming and commercial farming </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of enclosure and governments ineffective attempts to resolve situation. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Developments and difficulties in agriculture <ul><li>Development of specialised farming e.g. Wiltshire - diary farming.However led to shortages of grain </li></ul><ul><li>Main shift towards sheep and cattle due to demand for wool and leather. A move away from grain production, due to profits available. Impact on feed growing population and inflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuels trend towards enclosure. Plenty of land e.g. available by purchase of monastic land. Due to the dissolution of the monasteries. </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Enclosure seen by contemporaries as the cause of all the problems of agriculture, explain high grain prices, increased vagrancy and periodic food shortages. 1549 ‘throwing down of the hedges’ first acts of rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>However other factors such as population densities and bad weather leading to poor harvests should not be ignored. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Crisis? Factors that may suggest there was a crisis Population Increasing Pressure on Food Supplies Moves towards Enclosure Specialised farming Changes in economic climate e.g. Cloth Industry Inflation Lower wages Population did not starve Malthusian Crisis avoided Tudor dynastic survived Rebellion 1549
  36. 39. Developments and difficulties in industry <ul><li>Some historians argue the period saw a marked change from Subsistence economy to advanced industrial economy. </li></ul><ul><li>This however brought problems given the concentration of resources towards a particular type of agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>As example Cloth Industry. </li></ul>
  37. 40. Background to a key industry Cloth Making Pre 1500 <ul><li>Towns centre of medieval industry controlled by craft guilds </li></ul><ul><li>Cloth making largest industry, most sold locally. Wool main export to Netherlands and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>End of 13th century merchants/industrials leaving due to restrictive guild regulations and high cost of urban overheads. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Result - increase in rural cloth industry using ‘putting out system’ - semi manufactured cloth finished in Netherlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Largely based in East Anglia and West Country. </li></ul><ul><li>Arable land becoming pasture (less food production). </li></ul><ul><li>Pre 1500 reduction in city/town populations and migration from countryside. </li></ul>
  39. 42. 16 th Century Situation <ul><li>Increased population in 16th Century </li></ul><ul><li>In cities the problem of feeding them, housing them or employing them </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Countryside textile industry declines due to foreign competition </li></ul><ul><li>1520’s frequent slumps in demand increased unemployment - migration </li></ul><ul><li>1550 Antwerp Market began to decline </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Widespread unemployment among English cloth workers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased migration to cities/towns </li></ul><ul><li>Urban problem of feeding and housing them. Unskilled, little investment in cities to create new jobs. </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Countryside - Discontent because enclosure and increased rents. Increased unemployment due to cloth trade. </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-16th Century government threatened by rising discontent in both town and country. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore not surprising Somerset faced widespread popular risings in 1549 </li></ul>
  43. 46. Economic Factors Increased Population Malthusian Crisis Migration/Vagrancy Inflation Lower wages Higher Rents Agricultural Changes Specialise Farming Problems for grain production and distribution Movement towards enclosure Poor Harvests Moves towards industrial economy implications for food production and unemployment
  44. 47. Tudors 1485-1603 (Mid Tudor Crisis?) Henry VII Edward VI Henry VII Mary I Elizabeth I Background Political / Social / Economic Government Ineffectiveness Malthusian Crisis? Enclosure Break Down of Feudalism Population Increase Tudor Govt Social Structure Difficulties in agriculture Difficulties in Industry
  45. 48. How did economic factors cause a potential crisis in Tudor England? Part 2
  46. 49. Mind Map crisis? Pressures of population growth Changes in agriculture Changes in industry Increase in demand Increase in prices, lower wages Increase in rents due To demand. Hardship Discontent Specialised Farming Increase in enclosure Profitable farming Failure of governments People forced off land Key industry Cloth Trade Less land for arable Slumps in demand Unemployment Migration to towns Lack of policy Increase in vagrants
  47. 50. Economic Factors <ul><li>Demographic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Developments and difficulties in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in industry </li></ul><ul><li>issues in finance and taxation </li></ul><ul><li>commerce and overseas trade </li></ul>
  48. 51. Issues in finance and taxation
  49. 52. Main cost for Tudor Governments? <ul><li>Main cost war </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII, Edward Vi and Mary I wars against France, Scotland and France again. </li></ul>
  50. 53. Methods of raising revenue? Revenue Options Taxation Debasement Loans Crown Lands Sell and rent Reform and cut expenditure Potential problems Inflation
  51. 54. Debasement <ul><li>Coinage collected and melted down </li></ul><ul><li>Precious metal extracted </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed with ‘base’ metals </li></ul><ul><li>Increase number of coins </li></ul><ul><li>Initial profit as coins cost less and produce more </li></ul><ul><li>However reduces confidence in coins value causing inflation . </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Germany in 1923 with bank notes </li></ul>
  52. 55. Debasement under the Tudors <ul><li>Henry VIII - debasement and melted monastic treasures - serious effect </li></ul><ul><li>Mary I - advisers planned recoining 1556-1558 however war against France prevented this </li></ul><ul><li>1st Acts of Elizabeth was to restore coins true value - stabilised prices and slowed inflation </li></ul>
  53. 56. Loans under the Tudors <ul><li>Henry VIII and Edward VI borrowed heavily </li></ul><ul><li>1551 near bankruptcy - averted by loans from London Community </li></ul><ul><li>Under Mary I - Sir Thomas Gresham secured lower interest rates and paid foreign loans back. </li></ul>
  54. 57. Inflation - Impact <ul><li>400 % over 16th Century </li></ul><ul><li>1540-1560 prices doubled and rents at similar rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Alarming after previous century recession and deflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Set against wages which remained at best stable </li></ul><ul><li>Real wages declined 1540-1560 by 50% </li></ul>
  55. 58. Causes of Inflation <ul><li>Poor harvests 1520 start process </li></ul><ul><li>Producers of other goods who need grain forced to increase prices to meet high grain prices </li></ul><ul><li>Population increases, increase demand </li></ul><ul><li>Moves towards specialised farming methods - wool, meat and leather grain production </li></ul><ul><li>Debasement </li></ul>
  56. 59. Summary – Crisis of finance? <ul><li>Crisis – YES </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly financial issues </li></ul><ul><li>Tudors increased problems by series of expedients e.g. Debasement / Loans </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis? NO </li></ul><ul><li>All governments have faced financial worries </li></ul><ul><li>Never forced into bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties did not result in prolonged crisis </li></ul>
  57. 60. Recap Crisis? Pressures of population growth Changes in agriculture Changes in industry Finance and Taxation Inflation
  58. 61. How did commerce and overseas trade cause a possible economic crisis?
  59. 62. New developments in foreign trade <ul><li>Slump - standard did not meet European markets and decline of Antwerp market particularly cloth trade </li></ul><ul><li>Results in unemployment and migration to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to find new trade routes - however under Mary I respected Papal Grant Monopolies over Americas, Africa and Far East to Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>London merchants attempts at discovering new lands showed urgent desire </li></ul><ul><li>Not until hostility between England and Spain developed under Elizabeth did English traders bring back significant wealth </li></ul>
  60. 63. Overall Economic Crisis? <ul><li>Crisis - Yes - For the people - sustained inflation and competition for employment resulted with wage rates being at best stable </li></ul><ul><li>Near Crisis - Argue - Government had little action available for rapid inflation and still needed to raise revenue in times of war </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis - No - argue only a minority relied solely on money wages - labourers as an example often fed by employers or grew their own food, thus being able to barter for other produce and thus feed themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis - Yes - in the Urban areas - urban poor faced pressures on existing food supply and price increases. </li></ul>
  61. 64. A peak in the Economic Crisis? <ul><li>Social distress - yes </li></ul><ul><li>End of Mary I’s reign at a peak with bad weather and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Plus inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in people facing malnutrition and disease </li></ul>
  62. 65. Recap Crisis? Pressures of population growth Changes in agriculture Changes in industry Finance and Inflation Foreign Trade Slump
  63. 66. To what extent can the problems of the Mid-Tudors be attributed to Henry VIII’s legacy?
  64. 67. Henry’s Problems <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Anxieties about succession </li></ul><ul><li>Economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Religious change </li></ul>
  65. 68. Succession <ul><li>6 Wives 3 children </li></ul><ul><li>2 daughters illegitimate </li></ul><ul><li>Will 1546 est succession – if childless then pass to Lady Frances Grey daughter of Mary – why? (Page 6) </li></ul>
  66. 69. Plans for minority government <ul><li>Regency council </li></ul><ul><li>No head of RC unlike PC </li></ul><ul><li>Henry concerned about nobles dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Rc – mixture of radicals and conservatives </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of some conservatives swung balance to reformists </li></ul>
  67. 70. Religion <ul><li>Considered when RC formed </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries closed – chantries remained open </li></ul><ul><li>Services still in Latin but Litany in English </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Commandments taught to children in English and bible in English, however access restricted – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers to saints allowed, but pilgrimages to shines forbidden </li></ul>
  68. 71. Foreign Policy <ul><li>Affected by religion </li></ul><ul><li>French – treat to cloth trade. French war until 1546 stretched resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland war of attrition – Battle of Solway Scots defeated after broader raids. After death of James Treaty forced marriage of MQOS to Edward VI. </li></ul>
  69. 72. Economy and taxes <ul><li>Wars – France and Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Finances from monastic lands and taxation (granted by parliament - subsidy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VII in 24 years £282k </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII in last 7 years £656k </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII 1 st 31 years £520k </li></ul><ul><li>Shows? </li></ul><ul><li>1542 Coinage debased for 1 st time, by 1551 silver content down to a quarter. </li></ul>
  70. 73. Agriculture <ul><li>Landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Fodder crops </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive farming profitable, however less labour intensive and therefore rural unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage industries faced competition from urban workshops </li></ul>
  71. 74. To what extent can the problems of the Mid-Tudors be attributed to Henry VIII’s legacy?
  72. 75. What were the potential problems Henry leaves for his children? His legacy <ul><li>Succession - Will 1546 est succession – if childless then pass to Lady Frances Grey daughter of Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for minority Government – Regency Council </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Finance and taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Economy - agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul>
  73. 76. What were the religious aspects of Henry VIII’s reign? <ul><li>Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Break from Rome </li></ul>
  74. 77. Separate Reformation 1517 onwards Break from Rome Divorce
  75. 78. Key Events <ul><li>1509 Henry VIII marries COA </li></ul><ul><li>1516 Mary born </li></ul><ul><li>1524 stops sleeping with COA </li></ul><ul><li>1527 COA too old to have many more children. </li></ul><ul><li>1527 Secret proceedings for annulment </li></ul><ul><li>1527 Wolsey attempts to gain annulment from Pope </li></ul><ul><li>1530 Wolsey replaced by Thomas More as Chancellor – Wolsey accused of high treason (Pope rather than the King) </li></ul><ul><li>1533 Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>1533 Jan Henry marries Anne Boleyn in secret </li></ul><ul><li>1533 April Cranmer rules marriage to COA invalid, marriage to Anne legal. </li></ul><ul><li>1533 May Anne crowned Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>1533 Sept Elizabeth born </li></ul><ul><li>1534 Act of Supremacy – King declared head of the English Church. </li></ul><ul><li>1536 Anne Boleyn executed </li></ul>
  76. 79. Causes of the break from Rome Break from Rome Anne Boleyn Reformist ideas Henry’s desire for power and revenue Henry’s conscience Desire for a male heir State of the Church
  77. 80. Henry’s conscience <ul><li>Marriage against Gods will </li></ul><ul><li>Leviticus – ‘ If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an unclean thing…….they shall be without children.’ </li></ul><ul><li>However Mary I – turned to original Hebrew which specified sons – did not want to offend God </li></ul><ul><li>NEEDED AN HEIR </li></ul><ul><li>Consulted Thomas Wolsey (Chancellor and Cardinal) and his lawyers </li></ul>
  78. 81. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>Did the temptation of Anne push Henry into something that would not otherwise have happened? </li></ul><ul><li>Love letters / Lust </li></ul>
  79. 82. Reformist Ideas <ul><li>Two groups – </li></ul><ul><li>1) Anti-clericalism – reform / change – not necessarily a break from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>2) Protestantism – free from Papal control, free from churches abuses </li></ul>
  80. 83. Causes of the break from Rome Break from Rome Anne Boleyn Reformist ideas Henry’s desire for power and revenue Henry’s conscience Desire for a male heir State of the Church
  81. 84. <ul><li>Was the Church healthy or unhealthy before the reformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Would an unhealthy church influencing Henry VIII to break from Rome as their would be substantial support for it? </li></ul>
  82. 85. Robert Whiting <ul><li>‘ On the eve of the Henrician Reformation, traditional religion continued to attract a substantial and often impressive degree of popular support. This support, however, was markedly higher for some components (like parish churches) than for others (like monasteries). In general…….it seems also to have been higher in the north and west than in the south-east.’ </li></ul>
  83. 86. Causes of the break from Rome Break from Rome Anne Boleyn Divorce Reformist ideas Reformation Henry’s desire for power and Revenue War/France/Scotland Henry’s Conscience Religious Desire for a male heir Dynasty State of the Church Support for break
  84. 87. Summary - Push and Pull Factors <ul><li>Push factors are what forced Henry into annulling his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. </li></ul><ul><li>Pull factors are what attracted him to the annulment and subsequent break with Rome. </li></ul>
  85. 88. <ul><li>Henry’s conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s desire for a male heir </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s love for Anne Boleyn </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s need to increase his revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s desire for power </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine’s miscarriages and three still born babies </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Boleyn’s refusal to be Henry’s mistress </li></ul><ul><li>the death of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury; replaced by Thomas Cranmer (sympathetic to Henry’s annulment attempts) </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Boleyn’s becoming pregnant in December 1532 </li></ul><ul><li>State of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for reform </li></ul>
  86. 89. Causes of the break from Rome Break from Rome Anne Boleyn Divorce Reformist ideas Reformation Henry’s desire for power and Revenue War/France/Scotland Henry’s Conscience Religious Desire for a male heir Dynasty State of the Church Support for break
  87. 90. Impact <ul><li>Papal and foreign threat </li></ul><ul><li>Moves towards Protestantism? Beginnings of a religious rollercoaster </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed views of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Break down of social order </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits – Heir, power, revenue </li></ul>
  88. 91. Why did Edward VI face unrest in the early years of his reign?
  89. 93. Henry VII 1485-1509 Henry VIII 1509-1547 Edward VI 1547-1553
  90. 94. Problems for Edward VI Legacy of Henry VIII Minor Religion Social Pop Increase Enclosure Inflation Unemployment
  91. 95. Mid Tudor Issues – Social and Economic Change <ul><li>Rising population 1525 2.3m 1551 3m </li></ul><ul><li>Demand outstripping production </li></ul><ul><li>Increase prices </li></ul><ul><li>Creates employment however slumps (e.g. Antwerp Wool Market 1550-1) leads to unemployment - no other form of income dependent on charity/poor relief -therefore increase in vagrancy and threat to Law & Order. </li></ul><ul><li>Evident with 1547 Vagrancy Act </li></ul>
  92. 96. Other Factors <ul><li>Moves towards enclosure profits from cloth trade </li></ul><ul><li>Less common land and land dedicated to food production </li></ul><ul><li>Grain increase in price - staple part of mass diet </li></ul><ul><li>Wages did not keep up with prices increases </li></ul><ul><li>War - Debasement 1543 for war against Scots – inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor harvests </li></ul>
  93. 98. Henry VIII’s Legacy <ul><li>Succession – will 1546 </li></ul><ul><li>Debasement </li></ul><ul><li>Regency Council </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul>
  94. 99. Impact of Henrician Reformation <ul><li>Undermined churches authority </li></ul><ul><li>Role of priest declined </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolution of monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>Purgatory may not exists </li></ul><ul><li>Church had previous helped keep social hierarchy – now a void – unable to impose order from pulpit </li></ul><ul><li>Set of contradictions </li></ul>
  95. 100. Edward VI’s early years <ul><li>1) Minority </li></ul><ul><li>Faction struggle in last years of Henry VIII between Seymour and Norfolk faction. Seymour faction under Edward Seymour (brother of Jane) ,Earl of Hereford, later Duke of Somerset able to secure role as Protector. Protestant sympathies </li></ul><ul><li>Entwined with religious divide– less likely would be politically stable. </li></ul>
  96. 101. <ul><li>2) Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII left situation confused. Contradictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility split between more protestant or remain essentially Catholic. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant direction – Seymour Faction, protestant tutors and survival of Thomas Cranmer able now to implement change </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Norfolk and Bishop Gardiner against </li></ul><ul><li>1548 Dec - First Prayer Book – manual outlining form of worship </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Jan – Act of Uniformity – enforced Prayer Book </li></ul>
  97. 102. <ul><li>3) Social problems </li></ul><ul><li>War continued with Scotland and France – government already bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Debasement therefore continued </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to tackle enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Seen by contemporaries as main cause of hardship </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset took action issued proclamation to force landowners to reverse process of enclosure </li></ul>
  98. 103. <ul><li>Two Effects – 1) Alienated nobles and gentry too much sympathy with lower orders 2) Encouraged lower orders to take law into own lands as they saw they had support </li></ul>
  99. 104. Problems for Edward VI Legacy of Henry VIII Minor Religion Social Social and Economic Change Pop increase / Moves towards enclosure Inflation / Unemployment / Static wages Western Rebellion 1549 Ket’s Rebellion 1549
  100. 105. Western Rebellion 1549
  101. 106. Background <ul><li>1548 First Prayer Book </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Act of Uniformity </li></ul><ul><li>Rising starts in Corwall </li></ul><ul><li>Prelude to large rising in Devon against changes May 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Joined forces at Credition June 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Offered pardon to disperse </li></ul><ul><li>Moved eventually to Exeter 6000 in siege </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually after delay in Oxfordshire Lord Russell destroyed rebels 3000 killed </li></ul>
  102. 109. Demands = Causes? <ul><li>Drawn up by clergy – absence of local/economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Religious – calling for stop to change, restoration of old practices e.g. Six Articles </li></ul>
  103. 110. However rebellions usually have a variety of interconnect parts <ul><li>Yes religion key factor </li></ul><ul><li>Political – call for Lord Cardinal Pole to be allowed into Kings Council -Yorkist connections therefore Tudor succession not accepted by everyone </li></ul>
  104. 111. Actions – Causes? <ul><li>Highlight social aspects </li></ul><ul><li>1 st act was to attack gentry at St Michael Mount </li></ul><ul><li>Shouting ‘kill the gentlemen’ </li></ul><ul><li>Articles called for limiting number of servants </li></ul><ul><li>Return of monastic lands – religious yet gentry had benefited most </li></ul>
  105. 112. Economic <ul><li>Taxes on sheep and cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Rumours of further taxes </li></ul>
  106. 113. Threat <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of local authority </li></ul><ul><li>Sizable force with siege of Exeter </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread – Oxfordshire, Midlands, East at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Other distractions war against France Aug 1549, Scotland </li></ul>
  107. 114. Threat <ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Aims – protest </li></ul><ul><li>Easily defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of leadership from higher orders </li></ul><ul><li>Not mobile </li></ul>
  108. 115. Impact <ul><li>Step towards undermined Somerset's position eventually lost power in 1549 </li></ul>
  109. 116. Western 1549 Background to 1549 Edward VI Minority Legacy of Henry VIII Events Causes Demands Threat Impact
  110. 117. The year of the many headed monster – how dangerous were the rebellions of 1549 for Edward’s government?
  111. 118. Problems for Edward VI Legacy of Henry VIII Minor Religion Social Social and Economic Change Pop increase / Moves towards enclosure Inflation / Unemployment / Static wages Western Rebellion 1549 May/June Ket’s Rebellion 1549
  112. 119. To what extent was the government threatened by the Ket rebellion 1549?
  113. 120. Background <ul><li>Robert Ket in dispute with Sir John Flowerdew </li></ul><ul><li>Attached Norfolk towns </li></ul><ul><li>16000 men marched towards Norwich </li></ul><ul><li>Offered pardon </li></ul><ul><li>Marquis of Northampton sent with 14000 troops </li></ul>
  114. 121. <ul><li>Northampton takes city and abandoned next day </li></ul><ul><li>Dudley Earl of Warwick – battle of Dussindale, 3000 rebels killed </li></ul><ul><li>Ket captured and hanged for sedition </li></ul>
  115. 122. Source Analysis Compare source A, B and C as explanations for the cause of the Ket Rebellion of 1549 (20 Marks)
  116. 123. Causes <ul><li>Enclosure – throwing down of hedges </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – far reaching and diverse – from rack renting to fishing rights – price increases </li></ul><ul><li>Religious – 7 articles – reign of Elizabeth – new prayer book being used </li></ul><ul><li>Social class – unhappy with local government/JP’s, breakdown in trust, rich getting richer </li></ul><ul><li>Actions of Somerset – attempted ACT against enclosure fuels rebels, inaction offering pardon and summoning of some nobles/gentry to Windsor in July </li></ul><ul><li>Spark of Sir John Flowerdew hostility to enclosure and church </li></ul>
  117. 124. Threat? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>National context </li></ul><ul><li>Sizable organised and well led force </li></ul><ul><li>Seized Norwich </li></ul><ul><li>Military force needed </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of foreign invasion and war with Scotland stretched govt </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of local authority </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset had to bring back troops from Scotland </li></ul>
  118. 126. Threat? <ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Protest </li></ul><ul><li>‘ camping time’ </li></ul><ul><li>Not directed at the King </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of gentry and nobility support </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of co-ordination of rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Did not march on London unlike 1381 and 1497 </li></ul><ul><li>Always maintained control of armed forces </li></ul>
  119. 127. To what extent did the rebellions of 1549 impact on Tudor government policy?
  120. 128. Impact – Western and Ket’s <ul><li>Indirectly fatal to Somerset – blamed for being slow/weak </li></ul><ul><li>Minor risings continued </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1549 Statue of Merton allowed fencing but leaving sufficient for tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Death penalty for bringing down fences </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick’s (later Northumberland) success added to his political credibility and status </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in foreign policy – Somerset withdrew troops from Scotland needed to suppress uprisings, scaled down favoured policy of garrisoning Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>French took advantage and declared war and besieged Boulogne summer 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Northumberland ended both conflicts 1551 </li></ul>
  121. 129. How did Northumberland come to power in 1549?
  122. 130. Fall of Somerset <ul><li>Arrogance </li></ul><ul><li>Aloofness </li></ul><ul><li>Favouritism </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as a humanitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathised with lower orders ? – ‘Good Duke’ </li></ul><ul><li>Policies – Treason act allowed discussion of previously censored material </li></ul><ul><li>Vagrancy Act 1547 very unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep Tax – very unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Enclosure proclamations </li></ul><ul><li>Religious reforms alienated moderates </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Indecisive action </li></ul><ul><li>Inept </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to act seen as sympathy with rebels </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctant to withdraw troops from Scotland and France </li></ul><ul><li>French use opportunity Aug 1549 to declare war and besiege Boulogne </li></ul><ul><li>Only privy council action ends disorder – Russell (Western) and Warwick (Ket’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Continued War with Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>No reform of govt finances, taxation or customs </li></ul><ul><li>By-passed PC </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of Parlit / use of proclamations </li></ul><ul><li>Economic situation – bankrupt and continued war </li></ul>Abandoned by supporters Power struggle led by Robert Dudley , Earl of Warwick Final Straw
  123. 131. Events <ul><li>Somerset losing support </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick control of main army, ends Ket’s rebellion, control of Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Gains support of Conservatives – Lord Arundel and Wriothesley </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset issues proclamations for army to head back to S and F, general array of loyalty and moves to Windsor Castle. </li></ul><ul><li>Privy Council issues proclamation blaming Somerset for unrest </li></ul><ul><li>All wanted to avoid civil war so negotiations start ending with Somerset’s arrest Oct 1549. </li></ul><ul><li>Later released. </li></ul>
  124. 132. A well-informed Londoner recalls the moves by councillors and nobles in October 1549 to overthrow Lord Protector Somerset <ul><li>After the rebellions were crushed, many of the lords and councillors secretly plotted to overthrow the Lord Protector. Each lord and councillor went through London armed, and had their servants likewise armed. They published a proclamation against him containing the following charges. First, that through his malicious and evil government, the Lord Protector has caused all the recent unrest in the country. Second, he was ambitious and sought his own glory. Third, that he had ignored the advice of the councillors. Fourth, that he told untruths about the council to the King. </li></ul>Richard Grafton, Chronicle, written in 1568 <ul><li>What does the source mean when it says ‘ The Lord Protector has caused all the recent unrest in the country’? </li></ul><ul><li>Secretly plotted? Who? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored the advice of councillors? </li></ul>
  125. 133. How did Northumberland manage to gain support of Privy council? <ul><li>Gained Conservative support against Somerset – later removed once in power. </li></ul><ul><li>Gained access to Edward VI and Royal household. Edward’s confidence gained. </li></ul><ul><li>Gain support of reformists such as Archbishop Cranmer </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 1550 Conservatives expelled </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 1551 Somerset rearrested </li></ul><ul><li>Warwick – Duke of Northumberland </li></ul><ul><li>Later Lord President </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset executed Jan 1552 </li></ul>
  126. 134. How did Northumberland tackle government?
  127. 135. Maintaining Control <ul><li>Saw Council as key </li></ul><ul><li>Resorted able Somerset supporters such as Pagnet and William Cecil </li></ul><ul><li>Increased authority by increasing PC to 33. Many military? </li></ul><ul><li>Used PC and Parliament avoided proclamations </li></ul>
  128. 136. Problems Abroad <ul><li>War costly </li></ul><ul><li>Ended war with France and withdrew from Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>However Charles V of Spain unhappy with England's neutrality. </li></ul><ul><li>Also Northumberland's alliance with extreme protestant reformists to consolidate position further antagonised Charles V. </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT – England left isolated. </li></ul>
  129. 137. Financial Problems <ul><li>Serious – bankrupt in 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Somerset spent 1.3 m on war, sold crown lands and borrowed </li></ul><ul><li>However War ended reduced expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Debasement continued in 1551 but made 114K </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation Increased </li></ul><ul><li>Still borrowed 243K </li></ul><ul><li>Yet </li></ul><ul><li>Cecil placed in charge of financial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Sold Chantry lands and church plate </li></ul><ul><li>March 1552 coinage called in – restored to 1527 value – slowed inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Govt spending reduced </li></ul><ul><li>1553 financial situation stabilised and reform of customs / excise rated due </li></ul>
  130. 138. Still poor social and economic situation why no unrest like 1549? <ul><li>Pop inc – inflation inc – living standards dec </li></ul><ul><li>1550 Antwerp Cloth market collapses – widespread unemploy amongst textile workers </li></ul><ul><li>1551 Debasement - inflation </li></ul><ul><li>However No serious widespread unrest why? </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order more united after 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Vagrancy Act and Sheep Tax repealed </li></ul><ul><li>New Treason Act – restored censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation of coinage 1552 </li></ul>
  131. 139. Was Northumberland more successful that his predecessor in tackling the major problems of the period 1547-1553? <ul><li>Look at the major problems of the period – FP/Economy and finance/Social order/religion </li></ul><ul><li>Why were they a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What did each man attempt to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Which proved more successful? Why were they more successful? </li></ul>
  132. 140. Was there a religious crisis?
  133. 141. Henry VIII <ul><li>1521 ‘fidei defensor’ Defender of the faith </li></ul><ul><li>1534 Act of Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>1539 Six Articles – transubstantiation / clerical celibacy / confession </li></ul><ul><li>Persecuted both Protestants and Catholics e.g. William Tyndale executed for translating the bible into English </li></ul><ul><li>1547 Situation confused </li></ul>
  134. 142. Edward VI - Somerset <ul><li>Protestant Tutored </li></ul><ul><li>Services in English July 1547 </li></ul><ul><li>Chantries ended 1547 – financial rather than doctrinal </li></ul><ul><li>Treason Act 1547 – ended heresy laws and censorship exploited by protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Act of Uniformity 1549 – New Prayer book translated by Archbishop Cranmer </li></ul>
  135. 143. Reaction <ul><li>Western Rebellion 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Gardiner removed and eventually Somerset </li></ul><ul><li>Reform accelerated the accelerated </li></ul>
  136. 144. Edward VI - Northumberland <ul><li>Altars replaced by tables </li></ul><ul><li>1552 New Prayer book more radical and penalties for not attending church </li></ul><ul><li>New Treason Act prevented questioning of Royal supremacy </li></ul>
  137. 145. Reaction <ul><li>Little direct opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Why – fear after crushing 1549 rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Or – started to accept changes taking place – less fear of change </li></ul>
  138. 146. Results <ul><li>Difficult to measure public reaction </li></ul><ul><li>West against e.g. Western Rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Areas close to London supported </li></ul><ul><li>Definitely unacceptable to Mary I </li></ul><ul><li>She would restore Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>People chose Tudor rather than LJG </li></ul><ul><li>Thus secured a reversal, however would return to Protestantism </li></ul>
  139. 147. Mary I <ul><li>No understanding of country </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted counter-reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to 1) imprison reformist ringleaders 2) welcome back Reginald Pole 3) improve calibre of clergy 4) Latin missals (contains all the mass details) and other service books available </li></ul>
  140. 148. Legislation <ul><li>1 st Parliament (1553) – 1 st Statue of Repeal – restored heresy laws, Latin service, prohibited clerical marriages. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Parliament (1555) – restored papal authority </li></ul><ul><li>Monastic and Chantry lands were not restored to the Catholic Church </li></ul>
  141. 149. Persecution <ul><li>1555 onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of Protestant leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Earn her the nickname ‘Bloody Mary’ </li></ul><ul><li>Total 298 burnings </li></ul><ul><li>Many protestants exiled </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison – Henry VIII had executed many and Elizabeth was to execute 150 Catholic priests </li></ul>
  142. 150. Reaction <ul><li>Mary may have believe that following the burning of Laitmer, Ridley and Cranmer that others would earn from the example. </li></ul><ul><li>However became martyrs </li></ul><ul><li>As illustrated in John Foxe’s ‘Acts and Monuments’ 1563 often known as the ‘Book of Martyrs. </li></ul>
  143. 151. Success of Mary <ul><li>Too brief a reign </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure as she did not involve herself in the debates and propaganda of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Mary failed to understand how far England had come </li></ul><ul><li>Methods caused great harm </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism associated with foreign powers </li></ul><ul><li>Argue England remained Catholic in North and West so nothing to change </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of money at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Need to keep support of PC and Parliament – many of which against restoring monastic lands </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to moderate protestant worship under Elizabeth </li></ul>
  144. 152. How successful was Mary I?
  145. 153. <ul><li>Mary Mary quite contrary </li></ul><ul><li>How does your garden grow? </li></ul><ul><li>With Silver bells </li></ul><ul><li>And cockle shells </li></ul><ul><li>And pretty maids all in a row. </li></ul>
  146. 154. <ul><li>Mary was going against her father and brother. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary could not get pregnant. Nothing would grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary is alleged to have liked church music and bells. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip of Spain was supposed to have been having affairs – cuckolding. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary has a series of miscarriages and it was alleged she buried them all in a row. </li></ul>
  147. 155. Aims and problems? <ul><li>Aims – </li></ul><ul><li>1) restoration of Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>2) alliance with Habsburgs to maintain national security </li></ul>
  148. 156. Aims and problems? Religious divisions foreign policy System of government Succession heir Social order Finance Economy Problems
  149. 157. System of Government? <ul><li>PC too big up to 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of choice led to lack of ability and experience at first – later Paget allowed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Faction/Rivalry – Gardiner (Conservative) vs Paget (Moderate) </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Council / Use of Simon Renard </li></ul><ul><li>Generally had support of Parliament – parliaments concerns centred on property rights and local affairs </li></ul>
  150. 158. Simon Renard – Imperial Ambassador William Paget Philip of Spain Stephen Gardiner
  151. 159. Marriage <ul><li>Goes against Parliament and marries Philip favoured by Paget. </li></ul><ul><li>Earl of Devon, Edward Courtney favoured by Gardiner. </li></ul><ul><li>Splits PC, upsets Parliament and France </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty drawn up – philip no legal power, heirless goes to Elizabeth, no foreign appointments in PC, England not pay towards Spanish wars. </li></ul><ul><li>However unpopular fear England be drawn into Spanish wars and Habsburg Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact – threat , postponed coronation of Philip, very little time in England thus no heir </li></ul>
  152. 160. Social Order <ul><li>Wyatt’s rebellion – anti-spanish/catholic – fear over loss of position </li></ul><ul><li>Plot to marry Elizabeth to Edward Courtney – rising in West Country, Midlands and Kent. </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to rise except in Kent, march on London, delays allowed Mary to fortify London, defeated and executed along with LJG and Guildford Dudley. </li></ul>
  153. 161. Catholicism <ul><li>Supported by Gardiner who had lost Mary’s favour after supporting Courtney marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed by Paget who believed parliamentary issue </li></ul><ul><li>Mary back down and gained parliaments support in exchange for guaranteeing property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution of heretics unpopular </li></ul>
  154. 162. Financial <ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Exchequer restored </li></ul><ul><li>Planned to restored silver content in coinage – delayed by Mary’s death </li></ul><ul><li>New book of rates increased customs duties </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of crown lands resulted in increase in entry fines </li></ul><ul><li>However death in 1558 meant Elizabeth main benefactor </li></ul>
  155. 163. Economy <ul><li>Serious problems – bad harvests, epidemics, sweating sickness, bubonic plague, influenza. </li></ul><ul><li>Hit urban areas, high mortality rates and food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Solution offered stop migration of textile industries – thus minimising unemployment – little impacts </li></ul><ul><li>New overseas markets not explored due to fear of offending Spain and Portugal. </li></ul>
  156. 164. What were the extent of the religious and ecclesiastical changes in the period 1542-1558? What were the results of these changes?
  157. 165. Key Dates <ul><li>1536 The Ten Articles </li></ul><ul><li>1539 The Great Bible in English circulated to churches </li></ul><ul><li>1539 The Six Articles restored full Catholic doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>1547 Repeal of the Six Articles </li></ul><ul><li>1548 Act for the dissolution of chantries </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Jan Act of Uniformity and the Book of Common Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Jun Introduction of the First Prayer Book </li></ul><ul><li>1552 Act of Uniformity. Second Book of Common Prayer – introduced some Calvinistic doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>1553 Catholic Mass re-introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1554 Nov Cardinal Pole came to England as papal legate and England was formally reconciled with the Church of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>1554 Dec Re-introduction of the heresy laws </li></ul><ul><li>1555 Oct Bishops Ridley and Latimer burnt at the stake </li></ul><ul><li>1556 Mar Archbishop Cranmer burnt at the stake </li></ul><ul><li>1558 Deaths of Mary and Pole </li></ul><ul><li>1559 May Act of Supremacy restored Henrican anti-papal laws </li></ul>
  158. 166. Religion may not have been the crisis area as certain level of compromise was achieved across England. However it had a considerable influence directly or indirectly on potential crises such as political, social and economic changes that occurred e.g. Western or Northumberland in 1553.
  159. 167. Compromise not a crisis <ul><li>Protestantism didn’t take firm hold in 1553 large areas particularly with lower orders remained catholic particularly away from London and East Anglia. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism restored – Mary allowed to take throne illustrates this. Heir over religion </li></ul><ul><li>General – moderate stance of people accepted doctrine of ruling regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore toleration – even Marian repression mild in comparison with the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously there were extremists e.g. Ridley. Latimer, Cranmer </li></ul>
  160. 168. European Diplomacy <ul><li>Religion complicated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign powers interested in succession </li></ul><ul><li>Treat of Catholic intervention promoted Henry to go to war with Scotland 1542 and France 1544 </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to united Scotland and England through marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate reforms under Somerset due to fear of alienating Charles V </li></ul><ul><li>Under Northumberland England became more Calvinist and Charles withdrew his support </li></ul><ul><li>Mary – Catholic-Habsburg alliance – drawn into war with France resulting in loss of Calais. </li></ul>
  161. 169. Motivation <ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Political – Act of Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Financial – monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>Keep both groups on side – balancing act and mixture of changes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves PC – dominated by reformists intention to safe guard succession and supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Edward – Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Northumberland allowed Conservatives back into PC only to expel them when secure </li></ul><ul><li>Devise and LJG to secure position more than religion </li></ul>
  162. 170. Henrician Church in 1547 <ul><li>Broke away from Rome – but how Protestant had it become? </li></ul>Reformists Wanting Change e.g. Cranmer Conservatives Catholic e.g. Gardiner 1536 Act of Ten Articles Moderate Lutheran doctrine 1539 Act of Six Articles – Restored some Catholic doctrine
  163. 171. 1547 <ul><li>Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Services in Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Transubstantiation </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Holy orders </li></ul><ul><li>Confession </li></ul><ul><li>Clergy - Unable to marry </li></ul><ul><li>Chantries </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings and statues remained </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers and responses in English </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Commandments taught in English </li></ul><ul><li>Great Bible of 1539 English </li></ul><ul><li>No pilgrimages </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Holy Days to 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries removed by 1539 </li></ul>Conflicted Held together by Treason and Heresy Laws
  164. 172. Edwardian Church 1547-1549 <ul><li>Somerset – moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Edward – inspired hope for protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Reformers in majority in PC </li></ul><ul><li>Balance over reform amongst Bishops - Gardiner vs Cranmer </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed support across country – lower clergy opposed reform away from East Anglia and London. Less educated. Form set of rituals helped explain way of life. London more educated Clergy, East Anglia settlement area for those fleeing persecution from continent </li></ul>
  165. 173. 1547-1549 Somerset <ul><li>Moderate reforms - government did not feel secure enough to make substantial change </li></ul><ul><li>Heresy and censorship laws not enforced </li></ul><ul><li>No lead from government / Limited reaction from government </li></ul><ul><li>Chantries (financial for war against Scots and France) </li></ul><ul><li>Treason Act effectively repealed heresy and censorship laws and escalated religious debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision continued </li></ul><ul><li>1548 felt stronger after success in Scotland – First Act of Uniformity Jan 1549 changes such as mass in English, marriage, singing mass for the dead stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>Alienated more radical reformists </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of Catholic backlash </li></ul><ul><li>Religious debate grew </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration resulted in outbreaks of iconoclasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion continued </li></ul><ul><li>Potential reaction in Western Rebellion </li></ul>
  166. 174. 1550-1553 Northumberland <ul><li>Increasingly radical </li></ul><ul><li>Result of PC infighting </li></ul><ul><li>Felt more secure? </li></ul><ul><li>Dec – 1549 removal of popish images and old service old from churches </li></ul><ul><li>Ridley became Bishop of London plus other bishops across the country </li></ul><ul><li>New Treason Act 1552 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Act of Uniformity Mar 1552 </li></ul><ul><li>Cranmer’s new Book of Common Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked wealth of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Forty Two Articles Drawn up </li></ul><ul><li>Gained Northumberland support </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Catholic opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Gardiner further imprisoned </li></ul><ul><li>London – removal of altars – replaced with communion tables </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to question the supremacy or articles of faith / officially limited Holy Days to 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Had to attend Church of England services </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the property transferred to the crown </li></ul><ul><li>Edward dies articles never become law </li></ul><ul><li>England – Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed acceptance – lukewarm? </li></ul>
  167. 175. Homework Read pages 93-101 <ul><li>What changes were made by each monarch? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact or results did they have? </li></ul><ul><li>Did they achieve what they wanted to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>What motives or considerations did they have? </li></ul>
  168. 176. Past Papers <ul><li>Jan 2006 Mary I </li></ul><ul><li>June 2005 Political Instability Edward </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 2004 Problems end of Henry / Beginning Edward </li></ul><ul><li>June 2004 Social Problems Edward </li></ul><ul><li>June 2003 Royal Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 2003 Reformation in Edwardian Church </li></ul><ul><li>June 2002 Popular Protests </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 2002 Economic Changes </li></ul><ul><li>June 2001 Mary I’s Restoration of Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Unrest in England </li></ul>
  169. 177. ‘ The Pendulum swings back a successful counter reformation – ‘By 1558 England had become a Catholic country once again’
  170. 188. Summary <ul><li>Mary succeeded in returning the English church to Rome in an organisation sense, but Protestant beliefs still existed in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary was helped chiefly by Cardinal Pole, but her actions had the support of the Council. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of proactive and reactive methods were used to restore Catholicism. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary successfully used Parliament to restore Catholicism in England, but she had to bow to pressure and recognise that monastic lands could not be restored to the Church. </li></ul>
  171. 189. Summary <ul><li>Emphasis on improving the quality of the clergy, through training and removing abuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Marian government did not maximise propaganda opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 300 protestants burnt as heretics, effectiveness for converting people back to Catholicism limited </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of ‘Bloody Mary’ largely created in Elizabethan period by propaganda and contemporaries such as John Foxe. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately did not last as she had no heirs and Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558. </li></ul>