Monarchy In England


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Monarchy In England

  1. 1. Preview <ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus
  2. 2. The Tudors and Parliament
  3. 3. The Stuarts and Parliament
  4. 4. The English Civil War
  5. 5. The Monarchy Returns </li></ul>Monarchy in England
  6. 6. Reading Focus <ul><li>How did the Tudors work with Parliament?
  7. 7. What led the first two Stuart kings to clash with Parliament?
  8. 8. What were the causes and results of the English Civil War?
  9. 9. What happened when monarchy returned to England? </li></ul>Main Idea In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarchy was limited by Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful. Monarchy in England
  10. 10. The Tudors and Parliament <ul><li>Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife </li></ul><ul><li>Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England </li></ul>Henry and Parliament <ul><li>Two prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continent </li></ul><ul><li>In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Both father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals </li></ul>Henry and Elizabeth
  11. 11. Tension <ul><li>Tension developed between Parliament, queen
  12. 12. Parliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throne
  13. 13. Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom
  14. 14. Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed </li></ul>Edward, Mary, Elizabeth <ul><li>After Henry’s death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queen
  15. 15. Often called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again
  16. 16. 1558, Mary died; Elizabeth crowned queen
  17. 17. Returned England to Anglican Church with Parliament’s help </li></ul>
  18. 18. Major reason for Elizabeth’s good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishment <ul><li>Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign
  19. 19. Elizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earl of Essex rebelled against authority
  20. 20. Asked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?”
  21. 21. Essex tried, executed as a traitor
  22. 22. Not the last to question Elizabeth’s authority </li></ul></ul>Elizabeth in Charge
  23. 23. Recall What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do? Answer(s): to pass laws to help the monarch achieve desired results
  24. 24. <ul><li>The Tudors’ success with Parliament not repeated
  25. 25. Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth </li></ul>The Stuarts and Parliament <ul><li>James I, first of Stuart dynasty to rule in England
  26. 26. View of absolute monarchy caused conflict with Parliament
  27. 27. Previous wars, own spending left him low on funds </li></ul>James I <ul><li>From Scotland, considered outsider
  28. 28. James rarely got all money he wanted from Parliament
  29. 29. Puritans wanted reform of Church of England </li></ul>Clashes with Parliament <ul><li>Seen as threat to James’s power; church leadership supported him
  30. 30. Refused to pass Puritans’ requests for reform
  31. 31. Did agree to publication of King James Bible </li></ul>Puritan Reform
  32. 32. When James I died in 1625, his younger son was crowned king as Charles I . Charles I Defies Parliament <ul><li>Popular at first, but married Catholic princess
  33. 33. Involved England in military adventures overseas
  34. 34. 1628, summoned Parliament to request money
  35. 35. Parliament refused until Charles signed Petition of Right
  36. 36. Petition of Right a direct challenge to absolute monarchy </li></ul>Issues of Money <ul><li>Placed limits on king’s power
  37. 37. Could not levy taxes without Parliamentary approval
  38. 38. Parliament later refused to give Charles money again
  39. 39. He taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him money
  40. 40. Parliament was furious
  41. 41. Charles dismissed Parliament
  42. 42. 1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament again </li></ul>Petition of Right
  43. 43. Find the Main Idea Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament? Answer(s): Both wanted to rule as absolute monarchs.
  44. 44. Conflict Continued <ul><li>Conflict continued between king who believed in absolute monarchy, Parliament that saw itself independent
  45. 45. Conflict led to war, king’s death </li></ul>Limited King’s Powers <ul><li>Having been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit king’s powers
  46. 46. Demanded Parliament be called at least every three years </li></ul>Parliament Reconvened <ul><li>1640, Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money
  47. 47. “ Long Parliament” did not disband for several years </li></ul>Grudging Acceptance <ul><li>Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament
  48. 48. Charles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn </li></ul>The English Civil War
  49. 49. Strategy <ul><li>Charles’ moment came when radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church
  50. 50. King, whose power connected to power of church, was outraged </li></ul>Civil War Begins <ul><li>Some members of Parliament decided to rise up against king
  51. 51. Charles I called for support of English people
  52. 52. 1642, English Civil War began </li></ul>Charles Tries Power Grab <ul><li>Charles decided to arrest Puritan leaders for treason
  53. 53. Led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped
  54. 54. Charles had tipped hand on intentions to take back power </li></ul>War with Parliament
  55. 55. <ul><li>Without Parliament’s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army
  56. 56. Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles
  57. 57. Parliament could back its army by voting for funding
  58. 58. Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircuts
  59. 59. Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes </li></ul>Royalists and Roundheads <ul><li>Parliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forces
  60. 60. Rose to leadership as army general
  61. 61. 1644, led victory in which 4,000 of king’s soldiers died
  62. 62. Cromwell soon became commander of Parliament’s army </li></ul>Roundhead Forces <ul><li>Royalist army outmatched by Cromwell’s troops
  63. 63. 1646, king surrendered
  64. 64. Cromwell dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with him
  65. 65. Those left made up what was called the Rump Parliament </li></ul>King Surrenders
  66. 66. Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial <ul><li>During trial, Charles defended self with great eloquence, refused to even recognize Parliament’s authority to try him
  67. 67. In the end, Charles sentenced to death for treason
  68. 68. January 30, 1649, publicly beheaded in front of own palace
  69. 69. To some he was martyr; to others tyrant who got what he deserved </li></ul>Trial and Execution
  70. 70. Commonwealth <ul><li>England’s government changed completely for the next 11 years
  71. 71. House of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchy
  72. 72. Became commonwealth , government based on common good of all people </li></ul>Foreign Issues <ul><li>Cromwell also had to deal with foreign issues
  73. 73. Led military expeditions to Scotland, Ireland
  74. 74. Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain </li></ul>Lord Protector <ul><li>1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland
  75. 75. Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience
  76. 76. Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment </li></ul>England under Cromwell
  77. 77. A Defender of Absolutism <ul><li>In Leviathan , Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live </li></ul><ul><li>Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government </li></ul>Leviathan <ul><li>Cromwell, the king’s death, war troubled many English people </li></ul><ul><li>One was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes wrote classic work of political science, Leviathan </li></ul>Questions of Rule
  78. 78. Identify Cause and Effect What were some effects of the English Civil War? Answer(s): temporarily ended monarchy and House of Lords, restricted English social life in certain ways
  79. 79. Pepys: “Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bells…every body seems to be very joyfull in the business…” Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible. The Monarchy Returns <ul><li>1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked father’s leadership abilities
  80. 80. His government collapsed
  81. 81. Eventually Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchy—event known as the Restoration </li></ul>The Restoration <ul><li>Spring 1660, Parliament invited son of Charles I to be new king
  82. 82. Parliament laid out certain conditions which Charles accepted
  83. 83. Was crowned as Charles II
  84. 84. People shouted their good wishes </li></ul>The New King
  85. 85. Positive and Negative <ul><li>Charles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resulted
  86. 86. Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released
  87. 87. 1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of London
  88. 88. After fire, Charles supported public construction projects </li></ul>The Reign of Charles II <ul><li>Charles had to address many issues—conflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developed
  89. 89. Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England
  90. 90. Restoration years, mixture of positive, negative events </li></ul>
  91. 91. Later in Charles’s reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic. James II <ul><li>James married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank James’s Protestant daughters from first marriage
  92. 92. 1685, Charles died, James crowned king
  93. 93. Many wondered if another destructive war would follow
  94. 94. James not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarch
  95. 95. English did not tolerate that belief </li></ul>Not Popular <ul><li>1688, group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queen
  96. 96. William and Mary both Protestants, lived in Netherlands
  97. 97. James fled to France
  98. 98. Parliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution </li></ul>Glorious Revolution
  99. 99. Changes in Government <ul><li>Bill of Rights central to England’s growth as Constitutional Monarchy , term for monarchy limited by law
  100. 100. Document’s approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English government
  101. 101. England had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by law </li></ul>Constitutional Monarchy <ul><li>With Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queen
  102. 102. More important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking throne—the English Bill of Rights
  103. 103. Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions
  104. 104. U.S. Bill of Rights based on this document </li></ul>Bill of Rights
  105. 105. Describe What happened during the Glorious Revolution? Answer(s): William and Mary were given the English throne by Parliament.