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The glorious revolution ppt


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A Brief History of "The Glorious Revolution"

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The glorious revolution ppt

  1. 1. The Glorious Revolution ONE HELL OF A FAMILY FEUD! BY MICHAEL C. WHEELER (MA)
  2. 2. To Sum Up How William of Orange kicked the crap out of James II of England in 1688 and assumed the throne. OK, you can go home now… …except
  3. 3. No Conflict is Without It’s Beginnings All conflict is rooted in something earlier So, let’s discuss some of these family squabbles and a little history while we’re at it.
  4. 4. Absolute Monarch/Despotism des·pot·ism ˈdespəˌtizəm/ noun the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way. "the King's arbitrary despotism" a country or political system where the ruler holds absolute power. plural noun: despotisms
  5. 5. The Tudors – About as Close to Despots as Possible
  6. 6. Tudors (Continued) The family originally came to prominence in the 14th century with John Beaufort, an illegitimate child of the English Prince John of Gaunt. In 1455 John Beaufort’s granddaughter married Edmund Tudor (Henry VI’s half-brother) Edmund’s father Owen who took his grandfather’s family name originally “Tewdur” which in the Welsh language means “King of the Land.” King Henry VI and his son were murdered in 1471 and Richard III assumed the throne. Two years later Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and thus crowned himself Henry VII The most infamous member of the Tudor family was King Henry VIII
  7. 7. King Henry VIII Highlights Sought absolute power as a monarch Had his 2nd and 5th wife executed (Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard) Married a total of 6 times Started the Church of England After his death, his daughter Mary I, from his first marriage (a Catholic) assumed a kind of joint control with Elizabeth I and Edward VI (Henry’s son from his 3rd marriage – he was 9 at the time)
  8. 8. This takes us to James the VI of Scotland and James I of England (1567-1625)
  9. 9. A Tudor Relative and a Protestant
  10. 10. His Son was Charles I (1600 -1649) Created a rule of economic paternalism – ***men only could inherit wealth Did NOT get along with parliament, tried to undermine them practically his entire life ***All around shady fellow This got him executed in 1649 – the first execution of a king in modern history .
  11. 11. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) A Revolutionary in his own right – he was pro-parliamentarian meaning that he did not agree with absolute rule of monarchs. Was primarily responsible for the trial of Charles I Became something of a de-facto king – but had no real legitimacy
  12. 12. Charles II (1630-1685) Son of Charles I, assumed control of the throne after Oliver Cromwell’s son proved to be an inept leader Charles II ruled from 1660 to 1685
  13. 13. The NEXT King was James II Publically converted to Catholicism in 1672 Married an Italian Princess named Mary Granted Catholics ability to serve in military, parliament, And education Was not well liked, but tolerated The popular perception was that he was old …and would die soon Let’s listen to this guy talk about it
  14. 14. 7 Bishops Take a Stand
  15. 15. James II had them arrested and locked away For liable But they got out – good lawyers I guess
  16. 16. An Unexpected Problem James Francis Edward was borne in June 1688 – which meant that the British people would have to endure more from the family.
  17. 17. However, Mary II (James’s Daughter) was not a Catholic… and… She was married to a very charismatic young protestant leader in the Netherlands (William of Orange).
  18. 18. William was so popular that… Several Englishmen secretly wrote to him asking him to invade England Letters state that the king (James) is unworthy of the crown Also speculates that the infant child is not actually his liniage
  19. 19. The first paragraph We have great satisfaction to find by 35 [Russell], and since by Monsieur Zuylestein that your Highness is so ready and willing to give us such assistances as they have related to us. We have great reason to believe we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are, and less able to defend ourselves, and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance. But although these be our wishes, yet we will by no means put your Highness into any expectations which may misguide your own councils in this matter; so that the best advice we can give is to inform your Highness truly both of the state of things here at this time and of the difficulties which appear to us.
  20. 20. The Second As to the first, the people are so generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government in relation to their religion, liberties and properties (all which have been greatly invaded), and they are in such expectation of their prospects being daily worse, that your Highness may be assured there are nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom who are desirous of a change, and who, we believe, would willingly contribute to it, if they had such a protection to countenance their rising as would secure them from being destroyed before they could get to be in a posture able to defend themselves. It is no less certain that much the greatest part of the nobility and gentry are as much dissatisfied, although it be not safe to speak to many of them beforehand; and there is no doubt but that some of the most considerable of them would venture themselves with your Highness at your first landing, whose interests would be able to draw great numbers to them whenever they could protect them and the raising and drawing men together. And if such a strength could be landed as were able to defend itself and them till they could be got together into some order, we make no question but that strength would quickly be increased to a number double to the army here, although their army should all remain firm to them; whereas we do upon very good grounds believe that their army then would be very much divided among themselves, many of the officers being so discontented that they continue in their service only for a subsistence (besides that some of their minds are known already), and very many of the common soldiers do daily shew such an aversion to the popish religion that there is the greatest probability imaginable of great numbers of deserters which would come from them should there be such an occasion; and amongst the seamen it is almost certain there is not one in ten who would do them any service in such a war.
  21. 21. An Army Bankrolled A banker, Baron Francisco Lopes Suasso (1657-1710) raised 2 million Gilders – no clue how much money that is these days, but needless to say, he was able to raise an army of 25,000 soldiers. At the same time, King Louis XIV of France did nothing to help his friend James II James was squashed when many of his senior advisors and generals abandoned him for William’s side. James ran away to France William and Mary were crowned jointly as King and Queen by Parliament – for the first time, it was parliament that legitimized their rule as opposed to a church.
  22. 22. The Declaration of Bill of Rights 1689 Asserted the rights and responsibilities of Parliament Many principals such as freedom of speech, bearing of arms, and jury would later appear in USA documents Also, created an environment of religious liberty.