Tudor rebellions revision


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Tudor rebellions revision

  1. 1. Tudor Rebellions Summary Revision By Kenisha Browning
  2. 2. The Tudors 1603 1558 Elizabeth 1 1553 Mary I 1547 Edward VI 1509 Henry VIII 1485 Henry VII
  3. 3. Political factors as a cause of Tudor Rebellions Political causes Evil Advisers Factions Dynastic issues and succession Government intervention in England and Ireland
  4. 4. Religion as a cause of rebellion in England Year Name of rebellion Catholic or Protestant? Reason Local or regional? Religion – main or subsidiary cause? 1536 Pilgrimage of Grace Catholic Reaction to the closure of monasteries and other Protestant reforms Regional in seven northern counties Main 1549 Western Rebellion Catholic Reaction to a new English Prayer Book Local to Devon and Cornwall Main 1549 Kett’s Rebellion Protestant Demanded further Protestant reforms Local to Norfolk Subsidiary 1554 Wyatt’s rebellion Protestant Fear of Catholic reformation Local to Kent Subsidiary 1569 Northern Earls rebellion Catholic Reaction to Protestant reforms Regional in four northern counties Main
  5. 5. Social and economic causes Economic and Social Causes EnclosuresTaxation Inflation and social issuesFamine and disease Rebellions in 1489 1497 1525 1536 1549 Rebellion in 1596 Rebellions in 1536 1549 1596 Rebellion in 1536 1549
  6. 6. The causes of Tudor rebellions Dynastic issues and the succession Evil Advisers Factions Government intervention in England and Ireland Political Causes Religious Catholic reaction to Protestant reform Catholic reaction to Protestant reform Protestant reaction to slow and indequate Protestant reforms Economic and social Taxation Famine and disease Inflation and social issues Enclosures
  7. 7. Objectives, duration and location Objectives Duration Location •Overthrow the government •Remedy grievances •Increase Irish independence Hours Days Weeks Months Years Pro-Yorkists areas South-West England Customary practices Local magnates London, towns and cities
  8. 8. Leadership Leadership Royal claimants Clergy LawyersCommoners Nobility and gentry
  9. 9. Strategy and tactics Type of rebellion Strategy Tactics Dynastic rebellions Raise an army and overthrow the ruler Gather widespread support prior to fighting a battle Anti-Government protests in England Pressurise the authorities into remedying grievances Popular demonstrations and intimidation of officials and local leaders Irish rebellions Disrupt the Dublin administration Attack English landowners and officials through the use of violence and guerrilla warfare
  10. 10. Organisation Main organisation aims Unite disparate groups Enlist and pay troops Requisition food and equipment Maintain discipline Hold regular musters Keep rebels informed
  11. 11. Size, support and frequency of rebellions Range of support Nobles Foreigners Commoners Mixed Size of rebellion 1497: 15,000 Cornish 1536: 30,000+ Pilgrimage of Grace 1549: 16,000 Kett 1554: 3,000 Wyatt 1569: 6,000 Northern Earls 1595: 6,000 O’Neil 1601: 300 Essex Frequency of Rebellions in England and Ireland 1485-1509: Six rebellions 1509-1547: Three rebellions 1547-1553: Two rebellions 1553-1558: Two rebellions 1558-1603: Seven rebellions
  12. 12. Irish Rebellions Irish RebellionsKey features •Scale •Duration Turning points •Direct rule •Anglicisation •Reformation
  13. 13. Factors determining whether a rebellion was likely to succeed or fail Success of failure? Length of rebellion Proximity to London Degree of noble and gentry support Extent of a rebellion’s provincialism Military and financial backing Size of popular support Quality of leadership and organisation Governments’ determination to resist or suppress it quickly
  14. 14. How did Tudor Governments deal with rebellions? a) Buy Time b) Propaganda c) Pre-emptive measures d) Raise Troops a) Consult advisers b) Gather information c) Send out instructions Strategy Government responsesTactics a) Military casualties Fate of the rebels b) Trails and retribution
  15. 15. The effects of rebellion on government and society Effects on Tudor government and society Crown servants: under pressure to resign Ireland: serious political and financial cost Foreign affairs: the impact on wars and on European relations Religious developments: the crown resisted calls for reforms Policy changes: in taxation, uses, enclosures, social and economic reforms, the Council of the North
  16. 16. Were the Tudors ever seriously threatened by rebellions? Factors that increased a rebellion’s seriousness •Size, support, and backing of English nobles and foreign powers. •A rebellion’s objective, e.g. To overthrow the monarch •Its proximity Factors that weakened a rebellion’s seriousness •Governments held their nerve or made deals they had no intention of honouring. •Most rebellions were localised protests •Most of the English nobility and clergy supported the Crown.