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Christine Lee 9 The Universe and the Stars
Contents <ul><li>3 The Universe
4 Gravity
5 Galaxy
6 Constellations
7 Stars
8 Nebula
9 Planets
10 How are stars born?
11 How do stars die?
12 Blue Giants
13 Red Dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>14 Our Sun
15 Similarities & Differences
16 Main Sequence
17 Nuclear Fusion
18 Sun Spots, Solar Winds
19 Solar Prominences, Solar Flares
20 Death of our Sun
21 Astronomy
22 Astronomer
23 Ptolemy
24 Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>25 Galileo
26 Comets, Asteroids and Meteoroids
27 How was solar system created?
28 Earth
29 Jupiter
30 References </li></ul>
The Universe <ul><li>The Universe is a big empty space
It's continuously expanding
Has black holes, planets, stars and everything! </li></ul>We still don't know  exactly  how and why the universe was creat...
Gravity <ul><li>Gravity  is a force that pulls something to a larger mass, which has a greater force of gravity.
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  1. 1. Christine Lee 9 The Universe and the Stars
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>3 The Universe
  3. 3. 4 Gravity
  4. 4. 5 Galaxy
  5. 5. 6 Constellations
  6. 6. 7 Stars
  7. 7. 8 Nebula
  8. 8. 9 Planets
  9. 9. 10 How are stars born?
  10. 10. 11 How do stars die?
  11. 11. 12 Blue Giants
  12. 12. 13 Red Dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>14 Our Sun
  13. 13. 15 Similarities & Differences
  14. 14. 16 Main Sequence
  15. 15. 17 Nuclear Fusion
  16. 16. 18 Sun Spots, Solar Winds
  17. 17. 19 Solar Prominences, Solar Flares
  18. 18. 20 Death of our Sun
  19. 19. 21 Astronomy
  20. 20. 22 Astronomer
  21. 21. 23 Ptolemy
  22. 22. 24 Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>25 Galileo
  23. 23. 26 Comets, Asteroids and Meteoroids
  24. 24. 27 How was solar system created?
  25. 25. 28 Earth
  26. 26. 29 Jupiter
  27. 27. 30 References </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Universe <ul><li>The Universe is a big empty space
  29. 29. It's continuously expanding
  30. 30. Has black holes, planets, stars and everything! </li></ul>We still don't know exactly how and why the universe was created. Many theories are being created by physicists and astronomers. One of the theory was that when equal amounts of antimatter and matter collided, it made big explosions. But if antimatter and matter was equal, how does matter exist in our world? Some people say that there was a little bit more matter than antimatter.
  31. 31. Gravity <ul><li>Gravity is a force that pulls something to a larger mass, which has a greater force of gravity.
  32. 32. This keeps the planets to orbit around the sun.
  33. 33. The more mass the objects have, the grater force of gravity! </li></ul>Few physicists believe that gravity is the weakest force in the universe . Gravity can destroy a star, but it's actually not a strong force at all! We can jump , despite the strong force that pulls us towards the ground. The clips will stick to a magnet, off the ground. Interesting, eh?
  34. 34. Galaxy <ul><li>Galaxy is composed of millions of stars pulled in by gravity.
  35. 35. We live in Milky Way Galaxy </li></ul>Milky Way spiral galaxy seen from top Our Solar System Milky Way Galaxy Diameter: 10 million light years approx Thickness: 1.5 million light years approx Our Solar System: 3 million light years away from the centre of galaxy. An elliptical galaxy An irregular galaxy
  36. 36. Galaxy <ul><li>Galaxy is composed of millions of stars pulled in by gravity.
  37. 37. We live in Milky Way Galaxy </li></ul>Milky Way spiral galaxy seen from top Our Solar System Milky Way Galaxy Diameter: 10 million light years approx Thickness: 1.5 million light years approx Our Solar System: 3 million light years away from the centre of galaxy. An elliptical galaxy An irregular galaxy
  38. 38. Constellations <ul><li>Constellations are stars joined together to make a mythical character or animals. </li></ul>Seasonal Constellations Old Greeks used constellations to guess what season it was. Constellations can be seen best towards Southern sky at 9pm. Constellations near Polaris can be seen throughout the whole seasons. Polaris doesn't change its location because it's on the linear extension of Earth's axis.
  39. 39. Stars <ul><li>Stars are luminous objects that are made of gas. </li></ul>Our Sun is a star! There are two kinds of star brightness: Absolute Rating and Magnitude. Absolute magnitude: Assuming that all stars are at 32.6 million light years away, the brightness measured from there. Apparent magnitude: Brightness seen in the night sky
  40. 40. Nebula <ul><li>Nebula : Gases (hydrogen, helium) and dusts between stars clustered in one area that looks like a cloud. </li></ul>Emission Nebula Reflection Nebula Dark Nebula Receives energy from a bright star in the nebula and is self-luminous. Reflects lights from nearby stars and looks bright. Dense clouds or dusts block the light from behind and looks dark. Types of Nebula Horsehead Nebula Orion Nebula Pleiades Nebula
  41. 41. Planet <ul><li>Planet : a celestial body in space that orbits around a star (Sun).
  42. 42. The word planet comes from the Greek word planetes , meaning wanderer. </li></ul>Name Pic Characteristics Physical Characteristics Mercury No atmosphere; big temperature differences Density is big, size and radius small -> Terrestrial Planets Venus The brightest planet seen from Earth. Carbon dioxide atmosphere -> High temp. Mars Has two polar caps on each pole Jupiter Biggest planet in our solar system. Density is small, size and radius big. Has a ring. -> Jovian Planets Saturn Least dense planet -> Less than water Uranus Appears to be turquoise because of methane Neptune Has a black spot.
  43. 43. Nuclear Fusion <ul><li>Nuclear fusion is a collision of two hydrogen atoms that causes it to explode
  44. 44. It's an important source of energy for stars because it needs to push outward to keep an equal balance between gravity. </li></ul>Nothing could have existed without chemistry! Hydrogen and helium – the main components of a star, is a very explosive particle. If you put a fire near them, it will explode.
  45. 45. Main Sequence <ul><li>Main sequence : the equal balance between the force of gravity and an outward force created by nuclear fusion. </li></ul>
  46. 46. How are stars born? <ul><li>Stars are born from clusters of gas and dust (nebula).
  47. 47. A part of nebula with greater density (gravity) gathers other dust particles into one spot.
  48. 48. This causes pressure to go up and hydrogen atoms collide against each other -> temperature increases.
  49. 49. When the density reaches its limit, nuclear fusion starts and extraordinary amount of energy is released.
  50. 50. Protostar </li></ul>A protostar : like a pre-star Our universe is mostly made of the fundamental chemical, 'hydrogen'. But we don't know where it came from.
  51. 51. How do stars die? <ul><li>If nuclear fusion stop, the gravity takes over and the main sequence brakes down . The star starts to decrease.
  52. 52. Stars with 8~30 times of our Sun's mass slowly die by creating heavier elements such as oxygen and iron...then it explodes when the pressure is too high for a star.
  53. 53. Stars with 30+ time s of our Sun's mass becomes a black hole when it dies. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Blue Giants <ul><li>Blue giants are huge stars with high temperature
  55. 55. Burns up hydrogen quicker than red dwarfs -> dies earlier than red dwarfs. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Red Dwarfs <ul><li>Red dwarfs are small stars with lower temperature.
  57. 57. Lasts longer than blue giants. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Our Sun <ul><li>Our Sun is in between a blue giant and red dwarf.
  59. 59. Orange and medium-hot temperature. </li></ul>The Sun's core can be as hot as 15 million degrees Celsius ! The surface temperature is about 6000 degrees Celsius. The Sun uses more than 30 million truck loads of fuel every second!
  60. 60. Similarities & Differences Blue Giants Red Dwarfs Our Sun Pic Temp 20 000 – 40 000 º C 2000 – 5000 º C 6000 º C Magn. -6 +16 +5 Other facts <ul><li>A star
  61. 61. Lifespan is short
  62. 62. Blue
  63. 63. Humongous
  64. 64. A lot of gas </li></ul><ul><li>A star
  65. 65. Lifespan is long
  66. 66. Red
  67. 67. Small
  68. 68. Less gas </li></ul><ul><li>A star
  69. 69. Lifespan is medium long
  70. 70. Orange
  71. 71. Medium
  72. 72. In the middle </li></ul>
  73. 73. Sun Spots, Solar Winds <ul><li>Sun spots are cool, dark spots on Sun.
  74. 74. Solar winds are caused by electrically charged particles called ions, emitted into space. </li></ul>Solar Wind. SHhhhhhh~~~ Can you see the little dots on here? It's about 10 times bigger than the earth!
  75. 75. Solar Prominences, Solar Flares <ul><li>Solar prominences : a gas loop on Sun's surface.
  76. 76. Solar flares are 'magnetic storm' on the Sun. It is the bright spots on the Sun and releases highly charged particles. That means its explosion is huge! </li></ul>Gigantic solar flares cause satellite and communication problems Solar prominence seen from an eclipse.
  77. 77. Death of our Sun <ul><li>Our sun is mostly likely to die by running out of helium and hydrogen.
  78. 78. Won't happen until next billion years </li></ul>
  79. 79. Astronomy <ul><li>Astronomy is the study of our universe, stars and things beyond our planet Earth. </li></ul>* Pluto is not in our solar system anymore.
  80. 80. Astronomer <ul><li>Astronomer is a person who studies astronomy. </li></ul>Being an astronomer is not easy. You have to handle complicated machines and telescopes. You also need to be accurate with math! Calculating distances and brightness takes a lot of time to calculate.
  81. 81. Ptolemy <ul><li>Ptolemy was a Greek astronomer. In AD 150, he published an encyclopedia of ancient science with details of the movements of the planets.
  82. 82. He believed that the universe was geocentric , therefore the Earth was centre of everything and the universe. </li></ul>The Church liked his geocentric idea. Science and religion seemed to fit perfectly well together- the fact that the God created 'us' and that the Earth was the centre of our universe.
  83. 83. Copernicus <ul><li>Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer.
  84. 84. He published De revolutionibus orbium coelestium – 'On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres', which claimed that the sun was at the centre of the universe.
  85. 85. Heliocentric </li></ul>Copernicus, however, suggested that the Sun was in the centre. The church disliked this because this theory would break apart science and religion.
  86. 86. Galileo <ul><li>Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist who took a telescope in 1609 and discovered that Jupiter had 4 moons revolv ing around Jupiter.
  87. 87. In 1632 he published Dialogue Concerning the Two Great World System s, criticizing the Ptolemaic system.
  88. 88. He was warned by the Church to stop spre ading his heliocentric ideas. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Comets, Asteroids and Meteoroids Asteroids Comets Meteoroids Small rocks between Mars and Jupiter. Shape and sizes are irregular. Ice melts near Sun and the long 'tail' faces the opposite of the Sun. Rocks that burn and produce light because of friction on Earth's atmosphere.
  90. 90. How was solar system created? <ul>The Rotating Nebula Theory: <li>A supernova : birth of our Sun
  91. 91. Dusts and gases circles around the sun, which has the most gravity
  92. 92. Heavier elements circles closely to the sun and lighter elements (gases) is pushed to the outer part of the solar system. </li><ul><li>Heavier elements collide onto each other and they kept getting bigger </li><ul><li>Terrestrial Planets </li></ul><li>Lighter elements orbited around from far distance </li><ul><li>Gaseous Planets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Earth <ul><li>Terrestrial Planet
  94. 94. One day Is not 24 hours... it's actually 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds
  95. 95. Is mostly made of iron, oxygen and sillicon
  96. 96. The only planet that... </li><ul><li>Organisms can live
  97. 97. Has water and land
  98. 98. Ozone layer / atmosphere </li></ul></ul>This information must be sealed from aliens – incase they try to invade the Earth!
  99. 99. Jupiter <ul><li>Gaseous Planet
  100. 100. Biggest planet in the solar system
  101. 101. One day in Jupiter is 9 hours 55 minutes and 30 seconds
  102. 102. Has 4 big moons </li></ul>Callisto Ganymede Europa Io
  103. 103. References <ul><li>O2 (a Korean Science Workbook), Middle School Grade 2 first semester. ISBN 978-89-6416-023-7
  104. 104. Wikipedia : definition of 'Planet'
  105. 105. Read and Understand Science: Grades 4-6+. Heidrich, Delana.
  106. 106. </li><ul><li>Viewed on December 22 nd , 2010 </li></ul><li>The Dangerous Book for Boys. Iggulden, Gonn and Hal.
  107. 107. B.C Science Probe 9. Ledrew, Barry.
  108. 108. I Wonder Why : Big Book Of Knowledge. ISBN 0-7534-1187-3
  109. 109. George's Secret Key To The Universe. Hawking, Lucy and Stephen.
  110. 110. The Live Science Textbook 2 (Korean). ISBN 89-5862-092-7
  111. 111. .
  112. 112.
  113. 113.
  114. 114. Viewed on December 13, 2010. </li></ul>
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