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CHEMICAL BONDING  <ul><li>Category: Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Name:  Ms. Rashmi Bhatia </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Chemis...
<ul><li>The students will be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Define  Chemical Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate   between ...
Marriage Divorce Forming of a bond is like marriage <ul><li>More stable </li></ul><ul><li>Exothermic </li></ul>The breakin...
What is a Chemical Bond? <ul><li>A  Chemical Bond  may be defined as the force of attraction which holds various constitue...
STUDY OF CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><ul><ul><li>Linus Pauling, winner of two Nobel Prizes, developed innovative techniques to in...
Why  Are  Chemical Bonds Formed ? <ul><li>Chemical bonds are  formed  to lower the energy of the system, the components of...
Drawing Lewis Structures <ul><li>Sum the valence electrons from all atoms. Add one for each negative charge and subtract o...
WHY DO ATOMS BOND TOGETHER? <ul><li>TO ATTAIN  STABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>TO COMPLETE THE OCTET </li></ul><ul><li>TO FORM...
Electronic Configuration of first twenty elements.. Atoms tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a ‘full’ v...
Just as a summary to what each bond looks like…
Bonding by Analogy:  Dog - Bone Bonds <ul><li>One big greedy thief dog!  </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs of equal strength.  </li><...
<ul><li>The chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another is known as  ELECTROVALENT OR IONIC...
Characterstics of Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Metal atoms always lose their valence (outer) electron to form positive Ions or  cat...
FORMATION OF  IONIC BOND IN SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaCl): <ul><li>The electronic configuration of sodium (Na) is 2,8,1.The Na at...
Bond formation in NaCl
Examples of Ionic Bond
STRUCTURE OF NaCl CRYSTAL:-- <ul><ul><ul><li>The scanning electron micrograph shows pure salt, or sodium chloride, that ha...
COVALENT BONDING : <ul><li>The chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons between two atoms in such a way  that each ato...
TYPES OF COVALENT BONDS   <ul><li>Covalent Bonds are of  three  types  :------   </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Single Covalent Bon...
Examples of Covalent Bond
Lewis –Dot Structures of  some Covalent Compounds
FORMATION OF A SINGLE COVALENT BOND IN Cl 2 : <ul><li>A single covalent bond  is formed by the sharing of one pair of elec...
<ul><li>If the atoms participating in the covalent bond formation are the same, the molecules are called  Homoatomic Molec...
<ul><li>If the atoms participating in the Covalent bond formation are different, then these are called  Heteroatomic molec...
FORMATION OF DOUBLE COVALENT BOND IN CO 2  :-- <ul><li>A  double covalent bond  is formed by  the sharing of  2 pairs of e...
FORMATION OF TRIPLE COVALENT BOND IN NITROGEN (N 2 ) :--- <ul><li>A Triple Covalent bond  is formed by the sharing of thre...
We are going to look at  Polar Covalent  now… What is polar covalent bond? - Polar covalent  is a description of a bond th...
 
Polar Covalent Bond One atom is more electronegative than the other. Example:   water molecule
Properties of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Physical Nature :  Are solids which are in the form of crystals and relatively hard ...
<ul><li>For e.g.when sodium chloride is added in water .,each Na+ ion and Cl- ion is surrounded by a number of molecules o...
4 )   Electrical Conductivity : The conductance through metals is because of movement of valence electrons. Since movement...
Properties of Covalent Compounds <ul><li>Physical State :   Covalent compounds can exist as solids, liquids or gases (most...
generally low, as less energy is required to overcome these weak forces. 4)  Electrical Conductivity :   covalent compound...
THANK YOU  AND  HAVE A NICE DAY!!!
<ul><ul><ul><li>The  ionic bond  is a form of chemical linking of atoms in which electrons are transferred from one atom t...
IONIC BONDING IN POTASSIUM CHLORIDE( KCl )
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Chemical bonding by Ms Rashmi Bhatia

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  • i would like to request a copy too, please. :) here's my add lovelynacarnadua@gmail.com
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  • mam please share this ppt with me on akshaykharbanda.ak99@gmail.com . It would help me immensely. Thanks.
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  • Very nice presentation ma'am.....would you please share this presentation to me.It will help me a lot in my discussion.....noli_2340@yahoo.com is my yahoo account...please...Thank you and God bless you
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  • what a great ppt maam, would you share this presentation to me please? it will help me a lot in my discussion, adrianagunday@yahoo.com is my yahoo account......... thank you :)
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  • Ms. Rashmi Bhatia mam... awesome ppt. Would you share it with me, please? tabsnaidu@gmail.com thanku u !!!
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Transcript of "Chemical bonding by Ms Rashmi Bhatia"

  1. 1. CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>Category: Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Name: Ms. Rashmi Bhatia </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Topic of e-lesson: Chemical Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Class/Target Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Class 10 th </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The students will be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Define Chemical Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between Ionic and Covalent Bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of Chemical Bonds by relating it to everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw Lewis dot structures showing different type of bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain all the types of Bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>List the various properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate different diagrammatic representations of Bonds. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Marriage Divorce Forming of a bond is like marriage <ul><li>More stable </li></ul><ul><li>Exothermic </li></ul>The breaking of a bond relates to a divorce . <ul><li>Less stable </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a Chemical Bond? <ul><li>A Chemical Bond may be defined as the force of attraction which holds various constituents entities (atoms or ions) together in different chemical substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds are formed from chemically bound atoms or ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding involves only the valence electrons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. STUDY OF CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><ul><ul><li>Linus Pauling, winner of two Nobel Prizes, developed innovative techniques to investigate chemical bonding and molecular structure. He won his first Nobel Prize for his investigation of genetic chemistry, and the second for his dedicated efforts to stop nuclear weapons testing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why Are Chemical Bonds Formed ? <ul><li>Chemical bonds are formed to lower the energy of the system, the components of the system become more stable through the formation of bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything wants to be more stable - its easy to lie down than stand up, bonding is Nature's way of allowing the elements to lie down. </li></ul><ul><li>If we examine the periodic table, we find that the elements in Group VIII (or 18), helium, neon, argon and so on, are particularly stable, so much so that they were once labeled the &quot;inert gases&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>G. N. Lewis (1916) suggested that bonds (covalent) formed to enable elements to attain this &quot;noble gas configuration&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>We can see that in each case, sharing or transfer of electrons, results in a more stable system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Drawing Lewis Structures <ul><li>Sum the valence electrons from all atoms. Add one for each negative charge and subtract one for each positive charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a skeleton structure with atoms attached by single bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the octets of atoms bound to the central atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Place extra electrons on the central atom. </li></ul><ul><li>If the central atom doesn’t have an octet, try forming multiple bonds . </li></ul><ul><li>It was observed that the electron configuration of many substances after ion formation was that of an inert gas  octet rule. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The electron configuration of each reactant in the formation of NaCl gives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na+ is that of [Ne] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cl  is also that of [Ar ]. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. WHY DO ATOMS BOND TOGETHER? <ul><li>TO ATTAIN STABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>TO COMPLETE THE OCTET </li></ul><ul><li>TO FORM MOLECULES </li></ul><ul><li>TO ACHIEVE THE NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATION . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Electronic Configuration of first twenty elements.. Atoms tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a ‘full’ valence shell. INERT- GAS CONFIGURATION The outermost shell of the noble gas atoms are completely filled due to the presence of eight electrons (two in case of Helium).
  10. 10. Just as a summary to what each bond looks like…
  11. 11. Bonding by Analogy: Dog - Bone Bonds <ul><li>One big greedy thief dog! </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs of equal strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Unevenly matched but willing to share </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another is known as ELECTROVALENT OR IONIC BOND. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: NaCl,KCl,MgCl 2 ,MgO, CaO, NH 4 Cl, CaCl 2 , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When is an Ionic Bond Formed? </li></ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is formed when a cation (positive ion) transfers electrons to an anion (negative ion). </li></ul>IONIC BONDING
  13. 13. Characterstics of Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Metal atoms always lose their valence (outer) electron to form positive Ions or cations. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Metals atoms always gains electrons to form negative ions or anions. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus Ionic Bonds result from the attraction between the oppositely charged ions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. FORMATION OF IONIC BOND IN SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaCl): <ul><li>The electronic configuration of sodium (Na) is 2,8,1.The Na atom donates its outermost electron to attain the stable inert gas configuration and forms Na +. </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic configuration of Cl is 2,8,7. The Cl atom takes one electron (from Na atom) to form a negatively charged ion Cl - . </li></ul>Ionic bond has formed a Sodium Chloride molecule: - Structural formula: Na-Cl - Molecular formula: NaCl
  15. 15. Bond formation in NaCl
  16. 16. Examples of Ionic Bond
  17. 17. STRUCTURE OF NaCl CRYSTAL:-- <ul><ul><ul><li>The scanning electron micrograph shows pure salt, or sodium chloride, that has been recrystallized from distilled water. The crystal is built up from a cubic lattice of sodium and chloride ions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. COVALENT BONDING : <ul><li>The chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons between two atoms in such a way that each atom in the resulting molecule gets the stable electron arrangement of an inert gas. This is COVALENT BOND . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Cl 2 , HCl , CH 4 ,CO 2 , N 2 , C 2 H 2 , etc. </li></ul>What forms a Covalent Bond? A covalent bond is formed between two nonmetals. WATER OXYGEN METHANE
  19. 19. TYPES OF COVALENT BONDS <ul><li>Covalent Bonds are of three types :------ </li></ul><ul><li>1. Single Covalent Bond For eg; Cl 2 , H 2 , CH 4 ,HCl , NH 3 , H 2 o , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Double Covalent Bond For eg ; CO 2 , O 2 , </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 H 4 , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Triple Covalent Bond For eg ; N 2 , C 2 H 2 , etc. </li></ul>O 2 N 2 H 2 O
  20. 20. Examples of Covalent Bond
  21. 21. Lewis –Dot Structures of some Covalent Compounds
  22. 22. FORMATION OF A SINGLE COVALENT BOND IN Cl 2 : <ul><li>A single covalent bond is formed by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms . </li></ul><ul><li>Cl has electronic configuration of 2,8,7; has 7 valence electrons so it needs 1 more electron to achieve the 8- electron inert gas configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, both the Cl atoms will become stable by sharing 1 electron with each other. </li></ul>- Covalent bond has formed a chlorine molecule: - Structural formula: Cl-Cl - Molecular formula: Cl 2
  23. 23. <ul><li>If the atoms participating in the covalent bond formation are the same, the molecules are called Homoatomic Molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>H has electronic configuration of 1; has only one valence electrons so it needs 1 more electron to achieve the 2- electron inert gas configuration of Helium. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, both the H atoms will become stable by sharing 1 electron with each other. </li></ul>- Covalent bond has formed a hydrogen molecule: - Structural formula: H-H - Molecular formula: H 2 Indicates one covalent bond Covalent bond in Homoatomic Molecules
  24. 24. <ul><li>If the atoms participating in the Covalent bond formation are different, then these are called Heteroatomic molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron so it needs 1 more electron to get Helium gas electron structure and become stable. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons,so it needs 2 more electrons to achieve the 8- electron stable structure . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, both H & O will become stable by sharing 1 electron with each oxygen atom. </li></ul>H Covalent bonds give each atom a full complement of valence electrons ! A Water molecule O H Covalent bond in Hetero-atomic molecule …. Water !
  25. 25. FORMATION OF DOUBLE COVALENT BOND IN CO 2 :-- <ul><li>A double covalent bond is formed by the sharing of 2 pairs of electrons between 2 atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>C has electronic configuration of 2,4 , has 4 valence electrons so it needs 4 more electrons to achieve the 8- electron inert gas configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>O has electronic configuration of 2,6, has 6 valence electrons so it needs 2 more electrons to achieve the 8- electron inert gas configuration </li></ul><ul><li>So 2 Oxygen atoms combine together with C by sharing 2 electrons each to form a molecule of CO 2 gas . </li></ul>
  26. 26. FORMATION OF TRIPLE COVALENT BOND IN NITROGEN (N 2 ) :--- <ul><li>A Triple Covalent bond is formed by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic configuration of N is 2,5 has 5 valence electrons, so it needs 3 more electrons to achieve the 8- electron structure of an inert gas & attain stability. </li></ul><ul><li>So 2 Nitrogen atoms combine together by sharing 3 electrons each to form a molecule of Nitrogen gas. </li></ul>
  27. 27. We are going to look at Polar Covalent now… What is polar covalent bond? - Polar covalent is a description of a bond that has an uneven distribution of charge due to an unequal sharing of bonding electrons. The boy is not equally sharing with anyone else but rather taking all the food for himself.
  28. 29. Polar Covalent Bond One atom is more electronegative than the other. Example: water molecule
  29. 30. Properties of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Physical Nature : Are solids which are in the form of crystals and relatively hard because of strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions and consequent close packed structure. These compounds are generally brittle and break into pieces when subjected pressure and stress. eg.the crystal lattice of NaCl has been already shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Melting and Boiling Points : As the ions in the ionic compounds are closely held together by strong interionic attractions, the solid ionic compounds are generally crystalline. A considerable energy is required to break the close packed crystalline structure and hence both melting and boiling points are high. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>For e.g.when sodium chloride is added in water .,each Na+ ion and Cl- ion is surrounded by a number of molecules of water(H2O) which also carry charge. And are called Hydrated ions. </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl(s) +H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Na + (aq)+Cl - (aq) </li></ul>3) Solubility : Ionic compounds are generally soluble in polar solvents like water and insoluble in non-polar solvents, or less polar solvents like alcohol, ether, benzene, etc.
  31. 32. 4 ) Electrical Conductivity : The conductance through metals is because of movement of valence electrons. Since movement of ions and ionic solids is not possible due to the rigid structure, ionic compounds in the solid state either do not conduct electricity or are poor conductors. However, in the molten state or aqueous solution, ionic compounds conduct electricity due to mobility of ions.
  32. 33. Properties of Covalent Compounds <ul><li>Physical State : Covalent compounds can exist as solids, liquids or gases (mostly gases). </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility : Covalent compounds are generally soluble in non-polar solvents, or less polar solvents like alcohol, ether, benzene, etc. generally and insoluble in polar solvents like water. </li></ul><ul><li>Melting and Boiling Points : Molecules of an covalent compound are held together by relatively weaker forces as compared to that of ionic compounds. Therefore, melting and boiling points of covalent compounds are </li></ul>
  33. 34. generally low, as less energy is required to overcome these weak forces. 4) Electrical Conductivity : covalent compounds are poor conductors of electricity because they neither contain the ions nor the free electrons necessary for conduction. For example, Hydrogen Chloride gas i.e. HCl (g) is a poor conductor of electricity. But in water, it changes into hydrochloric acid i.e. HCl(aq). Since the acid can ionise in solution to form H+ and Cl- ions, it becomes a good conductor of electricity.
  34. 35. THANK YOU AND HAVE A NICE DAY!!!
  35. 36. <ul><ul><ul><li>The ionic bond is a form of chemical linking of atoms in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another so that both atoms end up with completely filled electron shells. The alkali metals, such as potassium, shown here, have a single electron occupying the outermost shell in the atom. This is readily lost to halogen atoms, which require a single electron to fill their outermost shells. When the electron, which has a negative electrical charge, has been transferred, the alkali metal atom has become a positively charged ion, while the halogen atom has become a negatively charged ion. The two ions are held together strongly by electrostatic attraction. </li></ul></ul></ul>IONIC BOND CONTD…..
  36. 37. IONIC BONDING IN POTASSIUM CHLORIDE( KCl )

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