City-States of Ancient Sumer Geography Influences the Fertile Crescent Civilization Within the Fertile Crescent lies an area that the ancient Greeks later named Mesopotamia, which means “between the rivers.” The world’s 1st civilization developed in an area called Sumer.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Iraq, Iran and Turkey are located where ancient Mesopotamia once was. Iraq makes up the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia; Iran makes up the eastern part of ancient Mesopotamia and Turkey makes up the western part. Today, this area is known as the Middle East.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Organizing for Floods and Irrigation Constant flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers The Epic of Gilgamesh Ancient Egyptians learned to build dikes and irrigation ditches to protect their farmland. Sumerians Built Thriving Cities They lacked building materials such as timber or stone, so they built with clay and water. Inventions made by the Sumerians
City-States of Ancient Sumer Notable Inventions Wheel Frying Pans Seeder Plow Razors Cosmetic Sets Writing Bricks and Pottery Glass Hammers and Axes The Arch, Column, and Dome A System of Mathematics based on the number 60 The Sail The Battery The Game of Checkers Ice Cubes Beer A Code of Law
HUMAN CHECKERS TOURNAMENTAll players on the winning team will receive 10 BONUS POINTS ! Select two checker players to call the shots as you set up your human checkerboard. Depending on the amount of time you have, you could create a tournament setting where players and "checkers" rotate through the game. Allow each player to select their "checkers" or fellow employees to wear their color- coordinated black or red t-shirts. Have each set of human checkers assemble on the board to begin play. The setup should resemble that of a traditional game of checkers with black on one side and red on the other. Begin play and continue until the board is empty of all but one players "checkers." If you are playing tournament style, this player would then be matched with the next player on the roster and the loser would become one of the checkers. Imitate the traditional checkers method of "crowning" checkers that reach the opponents side by having one of the eliminated checkers stand up and follow the crowned checker around the board as play continues. Use this game as an invigorating team building event by inviting those playing as checkers to offer their advice on the next move the player should make.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Complex Government Unfolds In each city-state there existed a ruler. He led its armies in war, enforced the laws, and employed many servants. The ruler was seen as the chief servant to the gods and led ceremonies meant to please them.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Sumerians Structure their Society Each Sumerian city-state had a distinct social hierarchy, or system of ranking groups. Ruling Family- Leading Officials- High Priests Lesser Priests-Scribes- Merchants-Artisans Peasant Farmers and Slaves
City-States of Ancient Sumer Sumerians Practice Religion Like most ancient peoples, the Sumerians were polytheistic, worshipping many gods. Gods were thought to control every aspect of life. Each city built a ziggurat, a large, stepped platform thought to have been topped by a temple dedicated to the city’s chief god or goddess. How did the Sumerians view the afterlife?
Date Palm Controversy This photo was supposedly taken on the day of Saddams capture. However, according to the story, any Iraqi would know that this picture was a fake, because date palms are usually harvested in the summer time. In any case, un-harvested dates fall off the tree before December, and even if they dont, they are brown and dry, not yellow, as they are in the photograph.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Sumerians Invent Writing Cuneiform becomes the earliest form of writing. Scribes wrote by making wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets. Scribe had to go through years of difficult schooling to acquire their skill. Many were punished by caning for bad behavior or failure.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Astrology in Mesopotamia CHECK OUT YOUR HOROSCOPE http://www.free-daily-horoscopes.com/
City-States in Ancient Sumer Lasting Legacy of Sumer Beginning around 2500 B.C., armies of conquering people swept across Mesopotamia and overwhelmed most of the Sumerian city-states. Legacy of Mathematics (Algebra, Geometry, 360 and 60) Legacy of Astrology (Accurate Calendars) Legacy of Writing (Cuneiform)
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders Through thousands of years of war and peace, the peoples of the Middle East built great empires and made long- lasting innovations. The region became a crossroads where warriors and traders met, clashed, and mingled.
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders Sargon Builds the First Empire Sargon was the ruler of Akkad Sargon built the world’s first empire The empire came to a quick demise and destruction
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders Hammurabi Brings Babylon to Power Hammurabi’s lasting contribution was his set of laws known as Hammurabi’s Code. Artisans carved nearly 300 laws onto a stone pillar. Developed the concept of civil law. Developed the concept of criminal law.In groups of 2-3, compose a list of ten laws that you feelwould be most appropriate for the ancient civilizationof Babylon. Pretend as though you are HAMMURABI !
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders Laws from Hammurabi If anyone ensnares another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. If anyone brings an accusation against a man, and the accused goes to the river and leaps into the river, if he sinks in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river proves that the accused is not guilty, and he escapes unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser. If anyone finds runaway male or female slaves in the open country and brings them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver. If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then the builder shall be put to death. (Another variant of this is: If the owners son dies, then the builders son shall be put to death.) If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off. If a man puts out the eye of a patrician, his eye shall be put out. If a man knocks the teeth out of another man, his own teeth will be knocked out.
Invader, Traders, and Empire Builders Hittites Learn the Secret of Ironworking Hittites Refine the Horse-Drawn Chariot Hittites learned how to extract iron from ore If you were a Hittite iron-maker would you remain with the empire, or migrate to a more lucrative civilization? Assyrian Warriors Expand Ancient Knowledge Reputation for being the most feared warriors in world history Built the world’s first library
Hanging Gardens of Babylon One of the Seven Wonders of the World
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders The Persians Establish a Huge Empire The Persian kings pursued a policy of tolerance, or acceptance, of the people they conquered. The Persians accepted differences in custom. Emperor Darius I, divided the empire into provinces, each called a satrapy and headed by a governor called a satrap. Repaired many of the empires roadways.
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders The Silk Road and its Significance
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders MONEY ECONOMY In this system, goods and services are paid for through the exchange of some token of an agreed value, such as a coin or a bill. Imagine the difficulty in getting this idea to take root in the ancient world. Would you have supported the proposal?
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders A New Religion Takes Hold Zoroaster taught the existence of a heaven and hell. On a final judgment, all individuals would be judged for their actions in life. The religion becomes known as Zoroastrianism.
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders Contributions of the Phoenician Sea Traders The Phoenicians dominated trade along the eastern Mediterranean. The Phoenicians established many colonies in their travels. Colony: a territory settled and ruled by people from another land. The Phoenician alphabet is later adopted by the Greeks. The Greeks were “HOOKED ON PHONICS”
Kingdom of the Nile Geography Helps Shape Egypt “Egypt,” said the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, “is wholly the gift of the Nile.” Without the Nile, Egypt would be just a barren desert. The difference between “Black Land” and “Red Land” Yearly floods deposit NATRON SILT
Kingdom of the Nile Scholars divide the history of Ancient Egypt into 3 main periods THE OLD KINGDOM THE MIDDLE KINGDOM THE NEW KINGDOM Although the power passed from one dynasty, or ruling family, to another, the land generally remained united.
Kingdom of the Nile The Old Kingdom Egyptian pharaohs were the supreme rulers. Established a bureaucracy. The Great Pyramids are Built
Kingdom of the Nile The Turbulent Middle Kingdom The Old Kingdom collapses due to financial burdens Change in governance in Egypt
Kingdom of the Nile New Kingdom gives Egypt a Renewed Strength Powerful Rulers Control Egypt Hatshepsut and Ramses II After 1100 B.C., Egyptian power slowly declined. The Assyrians conquered the Egyptians … then the Persians conquered the Assyrians … then the Greeks conquered the Persians … then the Romans conquered the Greeks.
Egyptian Civilization Religion Shapes Life in Ancient Egypt The chief god was the sun god, Amon-Re Most Egyptians related more to the god Osiris and the goddess Isis.
Egyptian Civilization Proving Oneself to Osiris The Egyptians believed that each soul had to pass a test to win eternal life. THE BOOK OF THE DEAD
Egyptian Civilization MUMMIFICATION The ancient Egyptians made a science out of mummifying the dead. Skilled embalmers extracted the brain of the dead person through the nostrils and removed most of the internal organs. They then filled the body cavity with linen and drying powder, sprinkled spices on the body, and rubbed a mixture that kept out moisure into the skin. Later they wrapped the body in strips of linen. This costly process took months to complete.
Egyptian Civilization Evidence Found in the Tomb of Tutankhamen Valley of the Kings Archeology in Egypt Burials amass great riches and wealth
Mummy Relay-Races In groups of 4-5, you will be wrapping one of your group members in toilet paper. You must use all the TP that is provided to your group and the actual wrapping must be completed with efficiency. Be sure to get everyone involved in your groups success . . . or failure. Your group mummy must hop 20 yards to the finish line once fully decorated with toilet paper. Each group will be judged on their mummy’s appearance along with their standing in the race. The race and the appearance of the mummy will each account for 10 points . . . 20 points in total. Good Luck !
Egyptian Civilization Egyptians Make Advances in Learning Hieroglyphics, a system in which symbols or pictures called hieroglyphs represent objects, concepts, or sounds. Egyptians learned to make papyrus paper, which is a plant that grows along the Nile. Medicinal Advances through Natures herbs and spices PRACTICES – SURGERY – MAGIC/RELIGION The Clues of the Rosetta Stone Furthering Science and Mathematics
Dilemma: Writing ResponseA very distinct caste system existed in ancient Egypt in which thehaves really had and the have-nots really had nothing. Themonuments to themselves that the famous leaders created and theriches they enjoyed were made possible solely through through theefforts and sacrifices of the common people. Common people hadvery little if no opportunity to advance within their society. It isspeculated that the people who participated in the robberies of thetombs of the Pharaohs did so to sell the items and be able to affordwhat they otherwise could not have.The dilemma: Were tomb raiders justified in using an availableresource to advance their life any more than a Pharaoh was justifiedin using the available people resource in advancing his/hers?
Egyptian Civilization Egyptians Develop Arts and Literature Egyptian Arts included statues, wall-paintings in tombs, and carvings on temples. Egyptian Literature The Egyptian Version of ________________.