Early Civilizations in the Fertile Crescent

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Fertile Crescent Part 1

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Early Civilizations in the Fertile Crescent

  1. 1. Early Civilization<br />In the <br />Fertile Crescent<br />
  2. 2. Civilization<br />It refers to the society, culture<br />and way of life in a <br />particular area.<br />
  3. 3. Fertile Crescent<br />It is an area that is rich in <br />resources and is shaped like<br />a crescent as to why it is<br />called Fertile Crescent.<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Fertile Crescent<br />PROS<br /><ul><li>It is rich in natural resources.
  6. 6. It is on the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa therefore it is a good place for trade and commerce.
  7. 7. The contact among other people led to an exchange of ideas that brought about great achievements.</li></ul>CONS<br /><ul><li>It has few natural barriers making it often overrun by invaders.
  8. 8. There is a diversity of the people in the region, making it difficult to unite under one ruler.</li></li></ul><li>
  9. 9. Why is it called “The Cradle of Civilization”?<br />It is called the Cradle of Civilization because it is believed that Mesopotamia is the first place where civilized society truly began to take shape.<br />
  10. 10. MESOPOTAMIA<br /><ul><li>A part of the Fertile Crescent.
  11. 11. It is now known as Iraq.
  12. 12. Its terrain made it attractive to neighboring places and its lack of natural barriers made it easy for invaders to attack. </li></li></ul><li>MESOPOTAMIA<br /><ul><li>It is the land between the rivers of the Euphrates and the Tigris.
  13. 13. It is situated between Zagros and Anti-Taurus Mountains in the north, and the Arabian Plateau and the Persian Gulf in the south.</li></li></ul><li>SUMERIANS<br /><ul><li>People who lived in Southern Mesopotamia.
  14. 14. They were farmers and city builders.
  15. 15. They were highly creative people who made lasting contributions to humanity.</li></li></ul><li>SUMERIANS<br />INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES<br /><ul><li>The Sumerians were divided into the so-called “Independent City-States.”</li></li></ul><li>Reason:<br /><ul><li>Since rainfall is sparse, Sumerians dug canals: 1. To control the Spring Floods of the Tigris and Euphrates </li></ul> 2. And to irrigate the land<br /><ul><li>They built cities along the rivers and tributaries causing each city to be isolated and therefore becoming an independent city-state.</li></ul>INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES<br />
  16. 16. <ul><li>It is a name used to call the temple.
  17. 17. It is a massive tower that dominated the city.
  18. 18. It is built for the different gods of each city-state.
  19. 19. Although the priests owned a lot of territory, they did not rule over the city.</li></ul>SUMERIANS<br />ZIGGURATS<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Their ruler was called “King.”
  21. 21. Kings are also their war-leaders.
  22. 22. Originally, Kings are elected, but due to frequent wars between two city-states, it became hereditary.</li></ul>SUMERIANS<br />RULERS<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>It is their system of writing.
  24. 24. Cuneiform means “wedge-shaped” because of the shape and the marks made by the stylus.</li></ul>SUMERIANS<br />CUNEIFORM<br />
  25. 25. <ul><li>First people known to use a wheel.
  26. 26. First people to invent writing.
  27. 27. Invention of Mathematical Ideas such as “Sexagisimal”, which is the division of the hour to 60 min, and a minute into 60 seconds.
  28. 28. Invention of the plow.
  29. 29. They invented the 12 months Calendar.
  30. 30. They were the first to use arches, columns and inclined walls.</li></ul>SUMERIANS<br />ACHIEVEMENTS<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>Invader: Akkad City
  32. 32. Time: 2500 BCE
  33. 33. Ruler: Sargon
  34. 34. Effect: The Sumerian Civilization ceased to exist, but their achievements left a lasting contribution to human society.</li></ul>SUMERIANS<br />THE INVASION<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. <ul><li>A city North of Mesopotamia.
  37. 37. Sargon founded the empire.
  38. 38. It is the first empire to be recorded in history.</li></ul>Akkadian Empire<br />
  39. 39. Who is Sargon?<br /><ul><li>Sargon was once a soldier
  40. 40. He founded the Akkadian Empire.
  41. 41. He proclaimed himself as:</li></ul> “Lord of the Four Quarters of the World”<br />Akkadian Empire<br />
  42. 42. Accomplishments of King Sargon:<br /><ul><li>Extended the irrigation system.
  43. 43. Extended the flood control of Mesopotamia.
  44. 44. Protected trade caravans with his armies.</li></ul>Akkadian Empire<br />
  45. 45. Akkadian Empire<br /><ul><li>Way of Writing:</li></ul> Cuneiform<br /><ul><li>Same Religion
  46. 46. Sam Scientific Ideas
  47. 47. Same Political Ideas</li></ul>Sumerian Civilization<br /><ul><li>Way of Writing:</li></ul> Cuneiform<br /><ul><li>Same Religion
  48. 48. Same Scientific Ideas
  49. 49. Same Political Ideas</li></ul>Akkadian Empire<br />
  50. 50. REASON:<br />Akkadians and Sumerians<br />have the same ideas,<br />way of writing, and religion<br />because Akkadians adopted<br />the Sumerian Way of Life.<br />
  51. 51. Later rulers lacked <br />Good leading abilities<br />Causing the empire to<br />Fall into civil war.<br />
  52. 52. Accomplishments:<br /><ul><li>Reunited the Akkadian Empire</li></ul> for a brief period of time.<br /><ul><li>He compiled the First Known </li></ul> code of laws summarizing the<br /> Sumerian ideas of justice.<br />King Ur-Nammu<br />
  53. 53. INVASION OF<br />THE AKKADIAN EMPIRE:<br /><ul><li>INVADER: A group called the Amorites later known as the Babylonian Empire.
  54. 54. RULER: King Hammurabi
  55. 55. TIME: Around 2000 BCE</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Babylonian Empire was once a group called the Amorites.
  56. 56. They built a small village called Babylon.
  57. 57. Soon, the village grew magnificent and powerful.
  58. 58. They built a giant ziggurat for their Chief Babylonian god, Marduk.</li></ul>EARLY HISTORY<br />OF THE BABYLONIAN EMPIRE<br />
  59. 59. KING HAMMURABI<br /><ul><li>He came from Syria.
  60. 60. He united the Southern Mesopotamia under his rule.
  61. 61. He was one of the great rulers of ancient times.
  62. 62. He created the famous, </li></ul> CODE OF HAMMURABI.<br />BABYLONIAN EMPIRE<br />
  63. 63. KING HAMMURABI<br /><ul><li>He was an outstanding general.
  64. 64. He was the Patron of the Arts.
  65. 65. He was an able Administrator.</li></ul>BABYLONIAN EMPIRE<br />
  66. 66. BABYLONIAN EMPIRE<br />HAMMURABI’S<br />CODE OF LAWS<br /><ul><li>An Eight-foot column of black stone.
  67. 67. It is filled with writings of Code of Laws.
  68. 68. Contains: 282 Laws about trade, family labor, real estate, and personal property.
  69. 69. Principle: </li></ul>“An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.”<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. King Hammurabi’s goal<br />In creating the<br />Code of Laws:<br /> “To cause justice to prevail in<br /> the land, to destroy the wicked <br /> and the evil, to prevent the<br /> strong from oppressing <br /> the weak, and to further<br /> the welfare of the people.”<br />
  72. 72. After the death of Hammurabi,<br />Rebellions and Invasions<br />Weakened the Babylonian<br />Empire.<br />
  73. 73. BABYLONIAN EMPIRE<br />INAVDER: HITTITES<br />TIME: 1500 BCE<br />EFFECT: THE HITTITES ADOPTED THE BABYLONIAN WAY OF LIFE AND BROUGHT<br />IT BACK TO ASIA.<br />
  74. 74. HITTITE EMPIRE<br />
  75. 75. The Hittite Empire adopted the<br />Babylonian way of life<br />Such as the Babylonian Cuneiform, government and religion.<br />HITTITE EMPIRE<br />
  76. 76. HITTITE EMPIRE<br />Hittites were the first to use<br />Iron weapons.<br />They tried to guard the secret<br />Of Iron Working, however,<br />They still failed and the <br />Technology spread to other<br />Nations.<br />
  77. 77. DIFFERENT IRON TOOLS:<br />THE HITTITES BROUGHT<br />ABOUT THE IRON AGE<br />DUE TO THEIR<br />DISCOVERY OF<br />IRON SPEARS.<br />
  78. 78. INVADER: ASSYRIAN EMPIRE<br />TIME: AROUND 1200 BCE<br />EFFECT: THE MOST HATED AND BRUTAL INVADER OF MESOPOTAMIA CAME TO POWER.<br />FALL OF THE HITTITE EMPIRE<br />
  79. 79. <ul><li>It was once a city-state named after their chief god, Assur.
  80. 80. They invaded people after people until they had an empire that included the entire Fertile Crescent and Egypt.
  81. 81. They also possessed a highly disciplined army.</li></ul>Assyrian Empire<br />
  82. 82. “I CUT OFF THEIR HEADS,<br />AND LIKE HEAPS OF GRAIN,<br />I PILED THEM UP”<br />- Assyrian Ruler<br />Assyrian Empire<br />
  83. 83. <ul><li>The empire was divided into provinces each ruled by a Governor.</li></ul>Assyrian Empire<br />
  84. 84. They also<br />Built roads<br />To speed<br />The movement<br />Of the army<br />From province<br />To province.<br />
  85. 85. <ul><li>Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian Empire.
  86. 86. It is where the first library is located.
  87. 87. It was built with the taxes collected from the people.</li></ul>Assyrian Empire<br />Nineveh<br />
  88. 88. <ul><li>The Assyrian Empire was the one who built the first library in history.
  89. 89. It houses 22,000 clay tablets written in cuneiform.
  90. 90. The Library was tasked to organize and preserve valuable records.</li></ul>Assyrian Empire<br />Library<br />
  91. 91. Reasons as to why the Assyrian Empire declined:<br /><ul><li>The troublesome people were deported into the remote parts of the empire leading to an exchange of ideas among the oppressed and conquered people of the Fertile Crescent causing a rebellion to occur.</li></li></ul><li>The Fall of the<br />Assyrian Empire<br />TIME: Around 612 BCE<br />REBELS: Oppressed people<br />Medes and Chaldean Empire<br />

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