THE FIRST EMPIRESHanging Gardens Vocabulary 1:3 Nebuchadnezzar Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon into an imperial city
Assyria Militaristic empire in Mesopotamia 900- 610 BCTHE FIRST NinevahEMPIRES Capital city of the Assyrian EmpireAssyria’s military powerand well-organized Provincesgovernment helped it Political districtsbuild a vast empire inMesopotamia by 650 Hanging GardensB.C. An immense staircase of greenery in Babylon near king’s palace Caravans Groups of traveling merchants Astronomers People who study the heavenly bodies.
AssyriansASSYRIANS New empire in Mesopotamia—theWhat present day Assyrianscountry takes its namefrom the AncientAssyrians? Fertile valleys—attracted invaders. Large army was necessary for protection. 900 BC—begin taking over parts of Mesopotamia
Strength of Assyrian ArmyASSYRIANARMY Well organized armyWhy did the Assyrians Foot soldiers with spearsneed such a formidiblearmy presence? and daggers. Bowmen and chariot riders. First large army to use iron weapons—learned to smelt iron from Hittites. Anyone resisting Assyrians were destroyed
Assyrian GovernmentASSYRIANARMY Kings had to be strong toWhy did the Assyriansneed such a formidible rule large empirearmy presence? Very well organized Empire divided into provinces with officials to govern the provinces Roads were built with soldiers protecting them
Assyrian GovernmentASSYRIANPROVINCES Kings had to be strong toThe vastness of theAssyrian empire made rule large empireit necessary to divide itinto smaller units Very well organizedcalled provinces. Empire divided into provinces with officials to govern the provinces Roads were built with soldiers protecting them
LIBRARY OF Life in AssyriaASHURBANIPAL Lived much like BabyloniansThe library at Ninevah before theminspired Alexander theGreat to build libraries Were skilled buildersthroughout his empire. Produced and collected literature One of the world’s earliest libraries in Ninevah Epic of Gilgamesh-- oldest story in the history of the world.
Demise of AsyriaCIVIL WAR Cruel treatment of peopleIn history, Civil Warsare usually a catalyst led to rebellions 650 BC—Civil wars brokefor outside invasions.Why do you think theAmerican Civil War didnot lead to such outside out over who would beinterference? king Chaldeans captured the capital of Ninevah in 612 BC and empire crumbled.
Babylon was an empirefor 70 years andcontrolled nearly theentire Middle Eastduring this period.606 BC-536 BC Babylon
The ChaldeansNEBUCHADNEZZAR King Nebuchadnezzar—Nebuchadnezzarreigned for 45 of Chaldean king thatthe 70 years thatthe Babylonian led the Chaldeans toEmpire stood. greatness in Babylon Chaldean control 605 BC-562 BC
City of BabylonBABYLON World’s largest and richest cityThe city of Babylonwas massive with: during Nebuchadnezzar’s reign• Walls 60 miles Surrounded by a massive brickaround wall.• 15 miles on each side Large palaces and temples;• 300 feet high massive ziggurat at city center• 80 feet thick• Extending some 35 Hanging Gardens of Babylonfeet below the ground Along major trade routes; citizens acquired great wealth trading with caravans
Babylonian City of BabylonMedicine Major center of scienceSurgery was known Astronomers studied the moon andand even delicateoperations on the starseye were performed. One of the first sundialsThe Babylonianshad a superb First to make a seven day weekknowledge ofhuman and animal (Chaldeans)anatomy andphysiology andwere aware, forexample, of the Fall of the Chaldeanscirculation of theblood and the pulse. 539 BC- Persians captured Babylon
Reviewing the Main Ideas•U S I N G C A V A L R Y A N D F O O T S O L D I E R S A R M E DWITH IRON WEAPONS, THE ASSYRIANS CREATEDA LARGE EMPIRE THAT INCLUDED ALL OFMESOPOTAMIA AND EXTENDED INTO EGYPT.•T H E C H A L D E A N S B U I L T A L A R G E E M P I R E T H A TINCLUDED BABYLON, THE LARGEST ANDRICHEST CITY IN THE WORLD AT THE TIME.