The ZPD is the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task. WHAT IS IT? Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. WHY USE IT? Documented results include improved academic achievement, improved behavior and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, and increased liking of school and classmates. Cooperative learning is also relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive. WHAT IS IT? Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
Chapter 4: Middle Childhood Module 4.2 Intellectual Development in Middle Childhood
Memory in the information-processing model is the ability to encode, store, and retrieve information.
Memory capacity may shed light on another issue in cognitive development. Some developmental psychologists suggest that the difficulty children experience in solving conservation problems during the preschool period may stem from memory limitations.
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement.
Documented results include improved academic achievement, improved behavior and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, and increased liking of school and classmates. Cooperative learning is also relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive.
Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
In the United States, as in most developed countries, a primary school education is both a universal right and a legal requirement. Virtually all children are provided with a free education through the twelfth grade.
More than 160 million of the world’s children do not have access to even a primary school education. An additional 100 million children do not progress beyond a level comparable to our elementary-school education, and overall close to a billion individuals (two-thirds of them women) are illiterate throughout their lives.
No other task that is more fundamental to schooling than learning to read
Reading involves significant number of skills
Low-level cognitive skills (the identification of single letters and associating letters with sounds) to higher level skills (matching written words with meanings located in long-term memory and using context and background knowledge to determine the meaning of a sentence).
Disagreement about nature of mechanisms by which information is processed during reading:
Code-based approaches emphasize the components of reading, such as the sounds of letters and their combinations—phonics—and how letters and sounds are combined to make words. They suggest that reading consists of processing the individual components of words, combining them into words, and then using the words to derive the meaning of written sentences and passages.
Whole-language approaches - reading is viewed as a natural process, similar to the acquisition of oral language. According to this view, children should learn to read through exposure to complete writing—sentences, stories, poems, lists, charts, and other examples of actual uses of writing. Instead of being taught to sound out words, children are encouraged to make guesses about the meaning of words based on the context in which they appear. Through such a trial-and-error approach, children come to learn whole words and phrases at a time, gradually becoming proficient readers.
National Reading Panel and National Research Council support reading instruction using code-based approaches
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 aimed to ensure that all children would be able to read by the time they reached the third grade. The law requires school principals to meet this goal or risk losing their jobs and their school funding.
Frequent testing becoming commonplace
Student scores related to federal funding
Reading instruction sometimes replaces recess, social studies and music
Increase in amount of homework
Some schools’ reading programs have become so intense that some children are simply burning out.
Cultural assimilation model - in which the goal of education was to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture.
Pluralistic society model - suggests that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features.
Over the past decade or so, educators began to argue that the presence of students from diverse cultures enriched and broadened the educational experience of all students. Pupils and teachers exposed to people from different backgrounds could better understand the world and gain greater sensitivity to the values and practices of others.
Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges (Wechsler, 1975).
Has this definition changed over the years?
Part of the difficulty in defining intelligence stems from the many—and sometimes unsatisfactory—paths that have been followed over the years in the quest to distinguish more intelligent people from less intelligent ones.
Herrnstein and Murray contend: Average 15-point IQ difference between whites and African Americans is due primarily to heredity
IQ difference accounts for higher rates of poverty, lower employment, and higher use of welfare among minority groups as compared with majority groups.
Most experts in the area of IQ were not convinced by The Bell Curve contention that differences in group IQ scores are largely determined by genetic factors. Still, we cannot put the issue to rest, largely because it is impossible to design a definitive experiment that can determine the cause of differences in IQ scores between members of different groups. (Thinking about how such an experiment might be designed shows the futility of the enterprise: One cannot ethically assign children to different living conditions to find the effects of environment, nor would one wish to genetically control or alter intelligence levels in unborn children.)
Mental Retardation - (Legal definition determined by many factors, including IQ score)
Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act:
The intent of the law—an intent that has been largely realized—was to ensure that children with special needs received a full education in the least restrictive environment , the setting most similar to that of children without special needs.
This educational approach to special education, designed to end the segregation of exceptional students as much as possible, has come to be called mainstreaming. In mainstreaming , exceptional children are integrated as much as possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives.
Ensure that all persons, regardless of ability or disability, have access to full range of educational opportunities, and fair share of life’s rewards
Research that examined such factors as academic achievement, self-concept, social adjustment, and personality development generally failed to discern any advantages for special needs children placed in special, as opposed to regular, education classes.
Gifted - Little agreement exists among researchers on a single definition of this rather broad category of students.
Federal government guideline (P.L. 97-35 Sec 582) - include “children who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities” .
Research suggests that highly intelligent people tend to be outgoing, well adjusted, and popular
Some gifted children not well received by teachers and peers because of unique ways in which preciosity is manifested.