1. Click me to hear the oral presentation for each slide! “Article Review:Reading Assessment” KELLY BANES ENGLISH 6170 LINGUISTIC ABILITY ASSESSMENT T H U R S D A Y , J U N E 2 1 ST, 2 0 1 2
2. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentLenski, Susan; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin (2006). Assessing English- language learners in mainstream classrooms. The Reading Teacher. 60:1, 24-36. http://www.madison.k12.in.us/MCSWeb/CSSU/ELL%20 Resources/For%20ELL%20teachers/Assessing%20English-language%20learners.pdf “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms” 1. Learn about ELLs’ literacy backgrounds Understanding that ELLs come from different types of literacy backgrounds can help teachers develop appropriate reading assessments.Newly arrived students with adequate formal schooling Students exposed to two languages simultaneously• Have been in the country for fewer than five years,• Have • Were born in the United States but have grown up inhad an adequate degree of schooling in their native households where a language other than English is spoken,•country,• Perform in reading and writing at grade level,• Live in communities of speakers who primarilyFind it relatively easy to catch up with their native–English- communicate in their L1 or go back and forth betweenspeaking peers,• Have difficulty with standardized tests,• languages,• Have grown up being exposed to two languagesHave parents who are educated speakers of their L1(native simultaneously,• May have not developed academic literacylanguage),• Developed a strong foundation in their L1,• in eitherL1 or L2 (second language),• Often engageDemonstrate the potential to make fast progress in English, in extensive code-switching, thus making use ofand• Have found it easy to acquire a second or third both linguistic systems to communicate, and• Havelanguage. acquired oral proficiency in a language other than EnglishNewly arrived students with limited formal schooling first but may not have learned to read or write in that• Have recently arrived in an English-speaking school(fewer language.than five years),• Have experienced interrupted schooling,• Long-term English-language learnersHave limited native-language and literacy skills,• Perform • Have already spent more than five years in an English-poorly on achievement tasks,• May not have had previous speaking school,• Have literacy skills that are below gradeschooling,• May experience feelings of loss of emotional and level,• Have had some English as a second language classessocial networks,• Have parents who have low literacy levels, or bilingual support, and• Require substantial and ongoingand• Could have difficulty learning English. language and literacy support.
3. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… “Assessing English-language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms” Alternative Assessment Practices2. “Adopt a multidimensional approach includingalternative assessments.” Assessments can be modifiedtraditional or completely non-traditional. They should bemultidimensional and authentic.3. “Encourage self-assessment.” Teach students thatThey are in control and can direct their own learning.Promote intrinsic motivation for learning. Model self-assessment tasks and provide practice in group, pair, andindependent environments.4. “Effective teaching means effective assessments.”The best assessments are longitudinal and assess progressover a period of time. Teachers should use a variety ofauthentic assessment tools and materials (rubrics, checklists,Observed data, portfolios).
4. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentOpitz, Michael, F. and Guzzione, Lindsey, M. (2009). Comprehension and English Language Learners. Heinemann: Porstmouth, NH. http://www.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources %5CE02678%5COpitzE02678Sample.pdf Comprehension and English Language Learners1. Idea for beginning language learners: “Say it with the puppet” Use puppets to make the reading assessment feel safe for students. Puppets can lower a students affective filter (Krashen, 1982). Model puppet use first; then encourage students to practice with voices to develop characterization.2. Idea for early-intermediate language learners: “Shared reading” When students share the reading experience they are exposed to both literature and socialization (Holdaway, 1979). Choral response can turn reading assessment in to a participatory game. Read the story to the students first (or even multiple times over the course of a few days); then have students chime in and read along with you. This works especially well with easy-to-memorize text features such as rhyme, rhythm, and repetition.
5. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Comprehension and English Language Learners3. Idea for level intermediate language learners: “Find the signs” “Typographical cues are similar to road signs. The reader, like a driver, must be able to read the signs to navigate their way through the roads or pages of text” (96). Introduce typographical signs and their meaning (comma, period, question mark, etc). Read sample sentences from the text twice, once using the typographical signs in your reading and once without. Discuss the difference. Have students read aloud “find the signs” themselves.4. Idea for early-advanced language learners: “Get the picture” Proficient readers use their imagination to help with comprehension (Irwin , 1991). Teachers can encourage the use of mental imagining while reading. Read a short passage and have students draw what they imagined. They can share and explain their drawings with each other. Encourage them to pinpoint the written descriptors and mental connections that lead to their imaginings.5. Idea for advanced language learners: “Directed reading thinking activity (DRTA)” Teachers can use the DRTA method to help students connect to their prior knowledge and “improve reading comprehension, schema, and thinking skills” (Stauffer, 1975). Mark logical stopping points in a text. Have students read to each stopping point before asking them to make connections, form predictions, and answer discussion questions, or summarize what they are reading. The teacher guides students through the text to assess and aid in comprehension.
6. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentWoolley, Gary (2010). Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading difficulties for reading intervention. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 15:1, 81-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19404150903524564 “Issues in the identification and ongoing assessment of ESL students with reading difficulties for reading intervention”1. Identify students with reading difficulties. Assessment of reading difficulties in English learners can be a difficult and complex process. Identify students with word-level difficulties, dyslexia, lacking vocabulary exposure/knowledge, poor comprehension skills, specific language impairments, or limited memory/metacogniction.2. Provide ongoing assessment to prevent at-risk students from falling further behind. With quality ongoing assessment, students identified with reading difficulties can be successfully remediated over time. The most reliable assessment comes from teacher observation (not standardized testing) in the form of “formal testing as well as information obtained from an array of informal student-centered assessment procedures such as portfolios, curriculum-based measures, instructional rubrics, student journals, learning logs and self-assessment” (88). Reading assessment also must specific reading skills such as “phonological skill, word recognition ability, rapid naming speed, phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, listening and reading comprehension” (88).3. Provide explicit support in language and literacy and ensure that students receive effective instruction. Teachers should use assessment to guide their instruction. Discovering that students have reading difficulties should be followed by intervention, response to intervention, and further assessment of progress. Students with reading difficulties re often disengaged and lack effective reading strategies. These students need a different type of reading instruction. They need to build skills in metacognition (goal-directed reading, comprehension strategies, self-awareness and self-motivation). Collaborative opportunities to read and discuss reading with other students can increase motivation. Student responses in reading groups can be valuable assessment data.
7. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentBrown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13- 814931-4 Chapter 9: Assessing Reading4 types of reading Perceptive : perception of the components – letters, words, punctuation. Bottom-up processing is implied Selective : to check recognition of lexical, grammatical, or discourse features, within very short stretches of language. Interactive : longer stretches of language where reader must interact (psycho linguistically) with text. Checking for comprehension. Top-down processing required. Extensive : lengthy reading texts (more than 1 page). listening to develop top-down, global understanding1. Best idea for perceptive reading assessment task: Picture-cued reading assessments. For beginning ESL readers pictures can be used to assess students ability to comprehend the meaning of words. This can inform a teacher of the student’s ability to recognize letters, words, sentences, and grammatical cues.
8. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Chapter 9 Example of picture-cued sentence identificationPoint to the part of the picture that you read about in the sentence.1.The woman is holding a cat.2.It is snowing outside.3.The man is reading the newspaper. 2. Best idea for selective reading assessment task: Fill-in-the-blank assessments. These assessments are basically text with missing words that students have to fill in. There should be enough context in the remaining text that a student can use his/her linguistic schemata, content schemata, and strategic competence to make calculated guesses.
9. Literature Review- Reading Assessment Continued… Chapter 93. Best idea for interactive reading assessment task: ordering or sequencing tasks.Example of ordering assessmentPut the following sentences in orderA it was called “The Last Waltz”B the street was in total darknessC because it was one he and Richard had learnt at schoolD Peter looked outsideE he recognized the tuneF and it seemed desertedG he thought he heard someone whistling4. Best idea for extensive reading assessment task: scanning and skimming tasks. Students practice reading to look for some particular information. This helps with standardized test-taking strategies as well. Students look for main idea, purpose, evidence of genre, evidence of style, etc. These assessments are usually informal and formative.
10. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentBrown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13-814931-4 Chapter 11: Assessing Grammar and Vocabulary1. Defining Grammatical Knowledge for Reading: Students need knowledge of basic grammatical forms and functions to comprehend reading effectively. Word order and syntax carries meaning and knowledge of grammar should be assessed regularly and frequently.2. Defining Lexical Knowledge for Reading: Lexical knowledge is knowledge of word meanings and relationships between words. A student’s lexical knowledge can be assessed through context or word mapping and other vocabulary-based assessment (Receptive and productive vocabulary).3. Considerations for Designing Assessment Tasks for Reading: Make assessment an ongoing part of instruction. Every time a student reads, a formative assessment can be conducted to gain information about a student’s progress (selected response, limited production, extended production).
11. Literature Review- Reading AssessmentBrown, H. D., and Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principlesand classroom practices (2nd). White Plains, NY: Pearson education, Inc. ISBN: 978-0-13-814931-4 Chapter 12: Linguistic Skill Grading and Evaluation1.Guidelines for grading criteria should: be consistent with the philosophy/regulationof the educational institution, be clearly and explicitly stated at the beginning of the term(syllabus and rubrics), be observable and measurable (proof) even for subjective gradingcomponents, and be primarily focused on achievement with the more subjective areascontributing to only 5-10%.2. Letter grades over-generalize student achievement/performance. Teachers needto understand that a letter grade is just one interpretation of a students learning experience. Aletter grading system needs to be carefully designed, clearly and explicitly stated, and based onthe main objectives of the course.3. Alternatives to letter grading can include: teacher notes and comments, self-assessment, peer-assessment, student-teacher conferences, checklists, and narrativeevaluations. Because letter grades are a necessary part of most educational institutions, Irecommend using these alternatives methods for feedback in addition to traditional lettergrading.
12. Classroom Assessment Techniques For Reading Development1. Assessment technique: checklists From: Reading Teachers Book of Lists. Checklists for reading progress can be completed by both teachers and students. Checklists can be used by teachers to assess word/letter knowledge, or a student’s ability to retell or analyze a text. First develop a list of concepts/skills to be assessed, and clearly ask students to demonstrate understanding of these concepts/skills in reading. Then use a simple checklist to identify which concepts/skills have been mastered and which need further work. Students can also use the checklists strategy as self-assessment or to review their own work. Teachers and students can work together to prepare a list of concepts/skills to be the focus of future goals/objectives and this can provide feedback to the students and wash back to the teacher for future lesson planning.2. Assessment technique: personal reactions and connections to text One way to help students record their reactions and connections to text is to have students keep a log of all their independent reading at school and at home. Teacher observation of regular discussions of these logs with peers, groups, or whole class can provide insight on how the student is developing as an independent reader and at this point teachers can provide encouragement, feedback, or suggest additional reading strategies. Reading logs can be used in students portfolios. Reading logs can also be more directed by the teacher. This can make it easier for students just starting out. Teacher’s can provide sample prompts to helps students generate ideas and focus their thoughts. Or, I think it might be helpful for students to begin with a rubric to help them make decisions about the text, and then write the reading log in response to their rubric scores.3. Assessment technique: retelling / summarizing Have students tell the story in their words after they have heard it once or twice. They can practice telling the story to a partner before sharing with a bigger group. Prepare a rubric or checklist for this activity so students can be more quantitatively assessed and so students know what is expected of them before the story begins. To assess on qualitative levels, focus on a students overall ability to comprehend and make inferences about the story. For non-fiction texts, have students summarize the main points and details in their own “retelling” of the text. These can be oral and/or written and teachers should provide feedback to students to let them know how they are progressing.
13. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment From: “Assessing English Learners…” and Kate Kinsella 1. Sample checklist for longitudinal reading assessment (K-3) ESL Goal, ESL Standard: Goal 1, Standard 3“To use English to communicate in social settings: Students will use learning strategies to extend their communicative competence” (TESOL, 1997, p.39). Progress indicator Performed independently Performed with help Unable to perform Understands new vocab. (√) Retells stories (√) Uses new vocabulary (√) Formulates inferences (√)Sample checklist for vocabulary self-assessment and word recognition 3 I am familiar with the word __. It means __. 2 I recognize the word __. It has something to do with __. 1 I am unfamiliar with the word __. Do you know what it means? How do you assess student ability?
14. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment 2.From:Read,Write,Think.
15. Classroom Materials For Reading Assessment3. Sentence frames for quick summary assessments of reading comprehension.Q & A for Main Idea and Supporting Details of a non-fiction textQ: What is the topic of this article/report/paragraph/section?A: The topic of this __________________ is ___________________.Q: What is this paragraph/section/selection/article/report mainly about?A: It is mainly about __________________.A: This _________________ focuses on ___________________.A: This ______________ is primarily about ________________.A: This ______________ addresses the topic of/reasons for _________.Q: What is the author’s main idea/point?A: The author’s main idea/point is that __________________.Q: What is/are the most important detail(s) in this paragraph/section?A: One important detail in this paragraph/section is _______________.A: An essential detail in this paragraph/section is .A: Another significant detail in this paragraph/section is ____________. From:A: The most critical/vital detail in this paragraph/section is __________. KateA: An interesting but nonessential detail in this paragraph/section is ___ Kinsella
16. Recommendations for Assessment and Closing Remarks All of the readings seem to agree on several points about readingassessment. Assessment should be varied, authentic, andmultidimensional. It should be frequent, regular, and ongoing.Assessment should be collaborative, shared, and reflective. Assessmentshould help students set goals, guide instruction and pacing, anddemonstrate student growth and achievement. It should bedevelopmentally and culturally appropriate. To summarize, we know thereare many types of assessment to choose from, and it’s our job as teachersto pick the assessments that will be the most meaningful to our students,will provide us with the most accurate details of student development, andwill help students identify their strengths.
17. Recommendations for Assessment Materials and Closing Remarks Assessment materials are necessary for turning any readingdevelopment task into a reading assessment. Checklists and rubrics help makeexpectations clear to students from the start. These materials can also helpstudents get a more tangible grasp on their own progress, help with goalsetting, and help with developing metacognitive skills and strategies.Assessment materials should be varied and easily understood by students.They should be appropriate for the age and acquisition level for the students.Pair assessment rubrics and checklists with clearly written directions and thenkeep track of student growth through longitudinal records, charts, andportfolios.
18. “The end of all education should surely be service to others.” -Cesar Chavez
19. Thank you for your attention! Questions, comments, ideas…