SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 45
HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:
SUMMARYSUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA)(CAPTURING THE IDEA)
QUOTEQUOTE (USING(USING NUGGETSNUGGETS OF TEXT)OF TEXT)
PARAPHRASEPARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)(BORROWING LANGUAGE)
HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOPHOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOP
This workshop is an introduction to how writers useThis workshop is an introduction to how writers use
summary/quotes/paraphrases.summary/quotes/paraphrases.
Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that youRead each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you
will need later on—so read purposefully.will need later on—so read purposefully.
Complete all the activities.Complete all the activities.
Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshopPlease apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop
targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.
Please ask your instructor if you have any questions.Please ask your instructor if you have any questions.
Also visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a greatAlso visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a great
resource.resource.
WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES INWE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN
OUR EVERY DAY LIVESOUR EVERY DAY LIVES
Let's consider music-Let's consider music---
In many songs, writers will:In many songs, writers will:
Reduce/nutshellReduce/nutshell what story/event is about:what story/event is about: SummarySummary
Restate exactlyRestate exactly a cool group of words:a cool group of words: QuoteQuote
Rearrange/borrowRearrange/borrow language:language: ParaphraseParaphrase
Look at next slide for example:Look at next slide for example:
EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE:
RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEERRUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=enhttp://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en
You know Dasher, and Dancer, andYou know Dasher, and Dancer, and
Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, andPrancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and
Donner and BlitzenDonner and Blitzen
But do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of allBut do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all
Rudolph, the red nosed reindeerRudolph, the red nosed reindeer
Had a very shiny noseHad a very shiny nose
and if you ever saw itand if you ever saw it
you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows
All of the other reindeerAll of the other reindeer
used to laugh and call him namesused to laugh and call him names Summary (nutshell 5 year event)Summary (nutshell 5 year event)
they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph
join in any reindeer games.join in any reindeer games.
Then one foggy Christmas eveThen one foggy Christmas eve
Santa came to say:Santa came to say:
““Rudolph with your nose so bright,Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa)quote (directly from Santa)
won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”
Then all the reindeer loved himThen all the reindeer loved him
as they shouted out with glee,as they shouted out with glee,
Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,
you’ll go down in history!you’ll go down in history! Paraphrase (some words are original andParaphrase (some words are original and
some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)
Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice Summary
What are the Main ideas here?What are the Main ideas here?
SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THESUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE
BIG PICTUREBIG PICTURE
Many writers include a summary of theirMany writers include a summary of their
sources before adding a quote or parphrase.sources before adding a quote or parphrase.
 The author “nutshells ” the information:The author “nutshells ” the information:
– He has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he hasHe has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he has
read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes.read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes.
Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader,Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader,
and he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume anand he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume an
intelligent audience, but never assume your audience hasintelligent audience, but never assume your audience has
taken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-worldtaken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-world
audience. In the introduction (background info), the writeraudience. In the introduction (background info), the writer
summarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previoussummarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previous
song example, he summarizes the story:song example, he summarizes the story:
– (Summary of 5 year event)(Summary of 5 year event)
Rudolph, the red nosed reindeerRudolph, the red nosed reindeer
Had a very shiny noseHad a very shiny nose
and if you ever saw itand if you ever saw it
you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows
All of the other reindeerAll of the other reindeer
used to laugh and call him names ofused to laugh and call him names of
they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph
join in any reindeer gamesjoin in any reindeer games..
Summary helps the reader understand how theSummary helps the reader understand how the
source fits into the research.source fits into the research.
Readers better understand the text.Readers better understand the text.
Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.
Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.
A writerA writer pickspicks only theonly the main pointsmain points for a summary.for a summary.
He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’
is aboutis about beforebefore he jumps into the meat of hishe jumps into the meat of his
writing.writing.
When summarizing, the writerWhen summarizing, the writer
explains theexplains the main pointsmain points of a text inof a text in
his/her own words. We use these sohis/her own words. We use these so
the readerthe reader never asks the question:never asks the question:
““Does this writer know whatDoes this writer know what
he/she is talking about?”he/she is talking about?”
EXAMPLEEXAMPLE
Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in theBelow is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLACLA
JournalJournal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in
a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes abouta nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about mainmain
ideas the article explores.ideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points ofThe summary has only the main points of
the article, and it is written in the student’s own words:the article, and it is written in the student’s own words:
Diana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of BiblicalDiana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of Biblical
passages in Alexander Pope’spassages in Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock.Rape of the Lock. She explains how theseShe explains how these
passages help keep women in a lower position in society and how thesepassages help keep women in a lower position in society and how these
women contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset iswomen contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset is
still active today (Agy).still active today (Agy).
Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at
the end. All summaries are cited.
Here is aHere is a beforebefore andand afterafter look:look:
Example #1: Writing without summary of source:Example #1: Writing without summary of source:
In aIn a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author states “ten out of everyjournal article, the author states “ten out of every
11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).
Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader isWithout a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is
concerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, andconcerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, and
how the quote relates to the topic.how the quote relates to the topic.
Example#2: Same piece with a summary:Example#2: Same piece with a summary:
In aIn a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author explores researchjournal article, the author explores research
concerning tick fever.concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks thatHer article explains the types of ticks that
transmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. Shetransmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. She
talks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a hightalks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a high
infestation rate.infestation rate. The author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer inThe author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer in
Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).
Summary allows the readerSummary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the; it allows the text to bettertext to better
developdevelop; and, equally importantly,; and, equally importantly, it sets up theit sets up the quote.quote.
Summary descriptionSummary description
Writers alsoWriters also use summaryuse summary to describe ato describe a
person or an event for the readerperson or an event for the reader beforebefore
they continue on with their narrative.they continue on with their narrative.
Summary description helps develop theSummary description helps develop the
story, and it helps the reader betterstory, and it helps the reader better
connect to the characters.connect to the characters.
With summary description,With summary description,
We move from barely seeing the characterWe move from barely seeing the character
toto
a better understanding of who she isa better understanding of who she is..
Here is aHere is a beforebefore andand afterafter look:look:
Example #1: Writing without summary description:Example #1: Writing without summary description:
My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I feltMy sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt
ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to sufferashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer
from anorexia.from anorexia.
Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the readerWithout a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader
see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.
Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:
My sister came into the room and all eyes were on herMy sister came into the room and all eyes were on her.. Leisa was 21 yearsLeisa was 21 years
old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia andold, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and
anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure ofanorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of
competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition.competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition.
She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knewShe did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew
stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth asstood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as
they scanned the room.they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends didAfter we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did
not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.
Summary allows the readerSummary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the; it allows the text to bettertext to better
developdevelop; and, equally importantly,; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.it helps us see the character.
Some writers leave summary out of theirSome writers leave summary out of their
text for a variety of reasons:text for a variety of reasons:
1. They did not read the entire source.1. They did not read the entire source.
2. They do not understand the entire source.2. They do not understand the entire source.
3. They have learned to string along quotes—so3. They have learned to string along quotes—so
they only look for quotes they might use when reading.they only look for quotes they might use when reading.
When we first learn how to write, we might think we have toWhen we first learn how to write, we might think we have to
use many quotes, or we might believe research is whenuse many quotes, or we might believe research is when
we change a word here and there.we change a word here and there.
Summarizing helps prepare the audience.Summarizing helps prepare the audience.
If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused.If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused.
Summary is something we use in everyday life.Summary is something we use in everyday life.
When we don’t understand our sources, weWhen we don’t understand our sources, we
don’t have confidence in our writing:don’t have confidence in our writing:
Confident Writer:Confident Writer:
I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you.I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you.
I understand how my source fits into my paper.I understand how my source fits into my paper.
I have read and re-read my source; I know it.I have read and re-read my source; I know it.
I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own wordsI can tell my reader what my source is about in my own words
I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.
Non-Confident Writer:Non-Confident Writer:
I have only read my source once.I have only read my source once.
I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.
I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it.I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it.
I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.
I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking atI can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at
Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice Summary
Activity # 1Activity # 1
Summarize the following inSummarize the following in two-three sentences eachtwo-three sentences each::
Summarize your favorite song. For example:Summarize your favorite song. For example:
““Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song aboutRudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song about
the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventuallythe struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually
turned his disability into an asset, and his peersturned his disability into an asset, and his peers
learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”).learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”).
Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:
Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved
from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this
change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the
Empire’s faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).
Activity #2Activity #2
Let's look at your paper:Let's look at your paper:
Take the paper you are working on now and addTake the paper you are working on now and add
summary.summary.
If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two mainIf you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main
characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can thecharacters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the
reader see them and understand who they are because of yourreader see them and understand who they are because of your
summary?summary?
On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and addOn your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add
2-4 sentences of summary description for each.2-4 sentences of summary description for each.
If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure toIf you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to
summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use yoursummarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your
targeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are antargeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are an
expert with that one source.expert with that one source.
On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2-On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2-
4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite
it at the endit at the end..
Let's Practice QuotingLet's Practice Quoting
(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)
Let's Revisit RudolphLet's Revisit Rudolph
Santa came to say:Santa came to say:
““Rudolph with your nose so bright,Rudolph with your nose so bright,
won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”
In the song,In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed ReindeerRudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer, the writer
quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?
DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTEDETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTE
 When we take notes from movies, films, books,When we take notes from movies, films, books,
or the internet, we will gather quotes that seemor the internet, we will gather quotes that seem
important to us at that time.important to us at that time.
 Sift through these.Sift through these.
 You are looking for only thoseYou are looking for only those nuggetsnuggets that willthat will
drive home your main point.drive home your main point.
The next few activities will help usThe next few activities will help us
better understand when and when not to quotebetter understand when and when not to quote
QUOTEQUOTE
WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?
Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:
1.1. When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it willWhen the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will helphelp
develop a particulardevelop a particular point.point.
2.2. When using an important statistic that isWhen using an important statistic that is absolutely necessaryabsolutely necessary to make ato make a
strong point.strong point.
3.3. When quotingWhen quoting necessarynecessary dialogue.dialogue.
4.4. When quoting fromWhen quoting from an authorityan authority —again, this quote must be—again, this quote must be absolutelyabsolutely
necessarynecessary in the development of the paper.in the development of the paper.
5.5. When quoting a text that seems toWhen quoting a text that seems to create tension or conflictcreate tension or conflict with yourwith your
own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they areown research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are
allowing the opposite side to speak directly.allowing the opposite side to speak directly.
6.6. There are other general rules;There are other general rules; ask your instructor if you have anyask your instructor if you have any
questions.questions.
Let's look at the list:Let's look at the list:
ACTIVITY # 4ACTIVITY # 4
Copy the three examples below.Copy the three examples below.
Use quotation marks (“ ”)when using theUse quotation marks (“ ”)when using the
exact wordingexact wording from another text:from another text:
InterviewInterview: Joe said,: Joe said, “JCC is a great college.”“JCC is a great college.”
Literature analysis:Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls theWhen talking to the priest, Serafina calls the
neighborhood womenneighborhood women “hens”“hens” whowho “like water“like water
thrown on them!”thrown on them!” (Agy 84).(Agy 84).
DefinitionDefinition:: The Encyclopedia of Religion and EthicsThe Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a,defines Carnival as a,
““recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestrictedrecognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted
freedom”freedom” (Rademacher 229).(Rademacher 229).
USING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINEUSING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINE
WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREEWHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE
EXAMPLES ABOVE.EXAMPLES ABOVE.
Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule?Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule?
Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?
Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?
Why write all that down?Why write all that down?
PRACTICEPRACTICE
PRACTICEPRACTICE
PRACTICEPRACTICE
• As writers,As writers,
we mustwe must get into the habitget into the habit of organizingof organizing
and sorting informationand sorting information as we gather itas we gather it..
You are practicing how to use quotes, asYou are practicing how to use quotes, as
well as how to introduce them into texts.well as how to introduce them into texts.
STRINGING ALONG QUOTESSTRINGING ALONG QUOTES
CREATES PROBLEMS:CREATES PROBLEMS:
For example:For example:
 The New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is aThe New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is a
reindeer”(67).reindeer”(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is inDr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is in
the reindeer classification”(78).the reindeer classification”(78). Some researchers believeSome researchers believe
that his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew outthat his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew out
of control (Smith 12).of control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation isOthers say that the malformation is
a result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78).a result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78).
WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE?WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE?
ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTESARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES
NECESSARY?NECESSARY?
NONO
STRINGING ALONG QUOTESSTRINGING ALONG QUOTES
WEAKENSWEAKENS OUR WRITINGOUR WRITING
How do we choose which to keepHow do we choose which to keep
and which to ‘cut out’?and which to ‘cut out’?
GENERAL RULE OF THUMBGENERAL RULE OF THUMB
USEUSE
QUOTESQUOTES
SPARINGLYSPARINGLY
Consider this example:Consider this example:
YellowYellow text highlights quotes.text highlights quotes.
Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For
exampleexample, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,
researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form ofresearchers believe that girls who try to practice some form of
expression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hairexpression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hair
styles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challengestyles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challenge
their culture’s notions of the ideal womantheir culture’s notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this study(Jones 14). I think that this study
is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so selfis interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self
conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isconscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is
allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have
such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with
a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara statesa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara states::
““High school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles IHigh school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles I
wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow”wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow” (Smith) I(Smith) I
remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the
article and the interview…article and the interview…
YIKES!!!!!YIKES!!!!!
THE WRITING HASTHE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANYWAY TOO MANY
QUOTES.QUOTES.
IT WEAKENS THE TEXTIT WEAKENS THE TEXT
IT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READIT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READ
WE WALK AWAY UNCLEARWE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR
WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?
Here is a revision of the previous slide:Here is a revision of the previous slide:
Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For
exampleexample,, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,
researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girlsresearchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girls
will laterwill later “challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal”“challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal” (Jones 14). I think(Jones 14). I think
this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who arethis study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are
so self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isso self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is
allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have
such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with
a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara callsa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara calls
herselfherself “a shadow”“a shadow” and saw her high school experience asand saw her high school experience as “hell”“hell” (Smith) I(Smith) I
remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the
article and the interview…article and the interview…
Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rulesLook on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules
apply to theapply to the changes made to the first quotechanges made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules, and which of the quote rules
apply to theapply to the second quote changessecond quote changes..
ACTIVITYACTIVITY
Take the paper you are working onTake the paper you are working on
now, andnow, and highlighthighlight all of the placesall of the places
where you quote.where you quote.
HighlightHighlight from the beginning of thefrom the beginning of the
quote to the end of the quote.quote to the end of the quote.
Do this for every quote in yourDo this for every quote in your
paper.paper.
Activity continuedActivity continued ::
1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.
REMEMBER!!!REMEMBER!!!
There are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparinglyThere are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparingly
—less is best with quotes.—less is best with quotes.
2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes.2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes.
a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page.a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page.
b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eyeb. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye
toward weeding out unnecessary quotations.toward weeding out unnecessary quotations.
c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see thec. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the
difference.difference.
3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.
Let's Practice ParaphraseLet's Practice Paraphrase
Talking to the reader / Sharing the informationTalking to the reader / Sharing the information
WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?
A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audienceA paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audience
about what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowedabout what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowed
language or original tone—onlylanguage or original tone—only important informationimportant information is paraphrased.is paraphrased.
Paraphrase isParaphrase is used more often than quotingused more often than quoting because it allows the reader tobecause it allows the reader to
hear the writer’s voice. Thehear the writer’s voice. The writer is talkingwriter is talking the research to his/her audience.the research to his/her audience.
Let's Review:Let's Review:
1.1. UseUse onlyonly important information.important information.
2.2. ParaphrasingParaphrasing is betteris better than quoting too much.than quoting too much.
3.3. WeWe must usemust use our own voice and words.our own voice and words.
Things to consider aboutThings to consider about
Paraphrasing:Paraphrasing:
1.1. We are allowedWe are allowed to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic.to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic.
No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.
1.1. If we borrow any necessary languageIf we borrow any necessary language,, wewe mustmust put it in quotationsput it in quotations..
1.1. We must box in the sourceWe must box in the source by introducing it first and thenby introducing it first and then
citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.
(PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)(PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)
USE THIS AS A MODEL:USE THIS AS A MODEL:
1.1. Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to useDoes the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to use
common terms without using quotes. For example, if you arecommon terms without using quotes. For example, if you are
paraphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the followingparaphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the following
common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc…common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc…
2.2. If you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must useIf you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must use
quotations marks!quotations marks!
3.3. You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example,You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example,
look at the following paraphrase:look at the following paraphrase:
In the book calledIn the book called Birds of the NortheastBirds of the Northeast, Joe Schmoe calls the, Joe Schmoe calls the
woodpecker the “most beautiful” bird in that region. He continueswoodpecker the “most beautiful” bird in that region. He continues
to say that nature gives us many examples of the “fluid motion”to say that nature gives us many examples of the “fluid motion”
the woodpecker allows artists (97).the woodpecker allows artists (97).
44. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE
TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH ATONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH A
SIMILAR WORD.SIMILAR WORD.
Let's look at the sampleLet's look at the sample
Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:
““And so, my fellow Americans: Ask notAnd so, my fellow Americans: Ask not
what your country can do for you-- askwhat your country can do for you-- ask
what you can do for your country.”what you can do for your country.”
Here is anHere is an incorrectincorrect paraphrase:paraphrase:
““So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you.So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you.
Instead, you should determine what you can give back to yourInstead, you should determine what you can give back to your
fellow Americans”fellow Americans”
Consider the reasons why theConsider the reasons why the
previous paraphrase is incorrect:previous paraphrase is incorrect:
ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you--ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you--
ask what you can do for your country.”ask what you can do for your country.”
INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation canINCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can
give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellowgive you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow
Americans”Americans”
1.1. Did the writer use common terms?Did the writer use common terms?
No. But that’s ok.No. But that’s ok.
1.1. Did the writer borrowDid the writer borrow necessarynecessary language and use quotationslanguage and use quotations correctly?correctly?
NoNo:: The writer borrowed unnecessary languageThe writer borrowed unnecessary language (ask, you, my)(ask, you, my)
NoNo:: The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language.The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. (ask, you, my)(ask, you, my)
1.1. Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?
NoNo.. We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends.We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends.
4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words?4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words?
YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITERYES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITER
STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.
Let's fix the previous example:Let's fix the previous example:
ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask whatORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what
you can do for your country.”you can do for your country.”
CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demandsCORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demands
they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith 19).they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith 19).
1.1. Does it use common terms?Does it use common terms?
Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary.Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary.
1.1. Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?
Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.”Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.”
1.1. Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?
Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends with (Smith19).Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends with (Smith19).
1.1. Does it steal the tone or simply replace words?Does it steal the tone or simply replace words?
No:No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.
MOST COMMON PROBLEMMOST COMMON PROBLEM
The main problem is using the original source as a mirror.The main problem is using the original source as a mirror.
Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. SomeMirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. Some
writers have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their ownwriters have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their own
language, then all is well.language, then all is well. But, they are mistaken!But, they are mistaken!
• When we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s informationWhen we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s information in our own sentencein our own sentence
patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also bepatterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be
our own.our own.
We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s sentences whileWe think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s sentences while
we keep their original sentence patterns,we keep their original sentence patterns, BUTBUT WE ARE NOTWE ARE NOT..
Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.
Consider another example:Consider another example:
Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarismIncorrect paraphrase--plagiarism
Original:Original:
Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask what you canAsk not what your country can do for you. But ask what you can
do for your country.do for your country.
Incorrect Paraphrase:Incorrect Paraphrase:
Don’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to doDon’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to do
for your country.for your country.
– Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.
Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example onlyNotice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only
mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.
Correct Paraphrase:Correct Paraphrase:
John Kennedy’s introduction stresses the importance of citizensJohn Kennedy’s introduction stresses the importance of citizens
becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs (67).becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs (67).
Copying sentence patternsCopying sentence patterns
ACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNSACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNS
ORIGINAL TEXTORIGINAL TEXT INCORRECT PARAPHRASEINCORRECT PARAPHRASE
Many children are brought up inMany children are brought up in oraloral
traditions,traditions, rich inrich in metaphor, imagery,metaphor, imagery,
and voice.and voice. These students bringThese students bring richrich
description and comparisondescription and comparison
techniques to the academia.techniques to the academia. SomeSome
literacy experts sayliteracy experts say these children arethese children are
behind inbehind in structure, analysis, andstructure, analysis, and
understandingunderstanding. But a careful. But a careful
consideration of the ways theseconsideration of the ways these
students approach writing show theirstudents approach writing show their
deep understanding ofdeep understanding of culture, socialculture, social
ideology, and politicsideology, and politics — each— each
stemming fromstemming from rich storytellingrich storytelling
foundations(Agy)foundations(Agy)
According to Agy, many young peopleAccording to Agy, many young people
are raised withare raised with storytellingstorytelling
backgrounds, complete withbackgrounds, complete with
comparisons, icons, and soundcomparisons, icons, and sound. These. These
writers know how towriters know how to help us seehelp us see theirtheir
characters.characters. Some people saySome people say thesethese
students don’t know how tostudents don’t know how to formform
paragraphs, make connections, orparagraphs, make connections, or
comprehend.comprehend. But these writers knowBut these writers know
aboutabout people, society, and thepeople, society, and the
governmentgovernment —all come from their—all come from their
Oral traditionOral tradition (Agy)(Agy)
ACTIVITYACTIVITY
LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPERLOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER
HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASEHIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASE
YOUR SOURCE.YOUR SOURCE.
HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THISHIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS
INFORMATION COMES FROM.INFORMATION COMES FROM.
ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCEARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE
PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.
YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROMYES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM
ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISINGACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING
ACTIVITYACTIVITY
PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
1.1. List four reasons why we would quote.List four reasons why we would quote.
2.2. Why should we quote sparingly?Why should we quote sparingly?
3.3. What does a summary do for our text?What does a summary do for our text?
4.4. What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing?What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing?
5.5. What is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to understand whenWhat is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to understand when
paraphrasing?paraphrasing?

More Related Content

What's hot

Quoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing, And SummarizingQuoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizingguest7f12cc5
 
Research Paper Quotations
Research Paper  QuotationsResearch Paper  Quotations
Research Paper QuotationsGatorJohn
 
Summary, paraphrase, quotation
Summary, paraphrase, quotationSummary, paraphrase, quotation
Summary, paraphrase, quotationAmanda Licastro
 
701 week 2
701 week 2701 week 2
701 week 2reidal42
 
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdf
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdfNote types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdf
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdfRanzel Sheila Chu
 
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & SummarizingWeek 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & SummarizingDr. Russell Rodrigo
 
Essay and thesis development 2011
Essay and thesis development 2011Essay and thesis development 2011
Essay and thesis development 2011Msjwaller
 
Advice on academic writing
Advice on academic writingAdvice on academic writing
Advice on academic writingJohanna Luján
 
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012Cristy Bolton
 

What's hot (18)

Quoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing, And SummarizingQuoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing, And Summarizing
 
Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing and SummarizingQuoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
 
Paraphrasing
ParaphrasingParaphrasing
Paraphrasing
 
Research Paper Quotations
Research Paper  QuotationsResearch Paper  Quotations
Research Paper Quotations
 
Paraphrasing
ParaphrasingParaphrasing
Paraphrasing
 
Summary, paraphrase, quotation
Summary, paraphrase, quotationSummary, paraphrase, quotation
Summary, paraphrase, quotation
 
Context clues
Context cluesContext clues
Context clues
 
Paraphrasing skills
Paraphrasing skillsParaphrasing skills
Paraphrasing skills
 
Essay Map
Essay MapEssay Map
Essay Map
 
701 week 2
701 week 2701 week 2
701 week 2
 
Quotation
 Quotation Quotation
Quotation
 
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdf
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdfNote types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdf
Note types of context clue (restatement, definition, synonyms, antonyms) pdf
 
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & SummarizingWeek 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing
Week 1 Quoting, Paraphrasing & Summarizing
 
Essay and thesis development 2011
Essay and thesis development 2011Essay and thesis development 2011
Essay and thesis development 2011
 
Advice on academic writing
Advice on academic writingAdvice on academic writing
Advice on academic writing
 
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012
Modern Day "Witch-Hunt" 2012
 
Citation
CitationCitation
Citation
 
Qps
QpsQps
Qps
 

Viewers also liked

Summary, paraphrase, quote
Summary, paraphrase, quoteSummary, paraphrase, quote
Summary, paraphrase, quotealisaulferts1
 
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to Inspire
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to InspireKeep Learning: 10 Quotes to Inspire
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to InspireSandy Piderit
 
Four parts to an effective paraphrase
Four parts to an effective paraphraseFour parts to an effective paraphrase
Four parts to an effective paraphrasePilgrim Library
 
100 quotes on Talent Management
100 quotes on Talent Management100 quotes on Talent Management
100 quotes on Talent ManagementVijay Bankar
 
Training, learning and development quotes
Training, learning and development quotesTraining, learning and development quotes
Training, learning and development quotesAlesandra Blakeston
 
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industryLearning Pool Ltd
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Summary, paraphrase, quote
Summary, paraphrase, quoteSummary, paraphrase, quote
Summary, paraphrase, quote
 
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to Inspire
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to InspireKeep Learning: 10 Quotes to Inspire
Keep Learning: 10 Quotes to Inspire
 
Four parts to an effective paraphrase
Four parts to an effective paraphraseFour parts to an effective paraphrase
Four parts to an effective paraphrase
 
Career Development Quotes
Career Development QuotesCareer Development Quotes
Career Development Quotes
 
100 quotes on Talent Management
100 quotes on Talent Management100 quotes on Talent Management
100 quotes on Talent Management
 
Training, learning and development quotes
Training, learning and development quotesTraining, learning and development quotes
Training, learning and development quotes
 
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry
101 inspirational learning quotes for the hospitality industry
 

Similar to Summary quote paraphrase workshop

Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essay
Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essayAlexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essay
Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essayAlexisJohn5
 
Lecture in Feature Writing
Lecture in Feature WritingLecture in Feature Writing
Lecture in Feature WritingNoel Ortega
 
E10 Feb17 2010
E10 Feb17 2010E10 Feb17 2010
E10 Feb17 2010mlsteacher
 
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fiction
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fictionUsing didls to_analyze_tone_in_fiction
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fictionjpennabaker
 
копия How to teach vocabulary
копия How  to teach vocabularyкопия How  to teach vocabulary
копия How to teach vocabularyIryna Grusha
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionnjprentice
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionnjprentice
 
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediate
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediateSummarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediate
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediatelihab
 
Personal Essay
Personal EssayPersonal Essay
Personal EssayMr. Woock
 
E10 feb16 2011
E10 feb16 2011E10 feb16 2011
E10 feb16 2011mlsteacher
 
10 ways to build your vocabulary
10 ways to build your vocabulary10 ways to build your vocabulary
10 ways to build your vocabularyPrince Tayyab
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionnjprentice
 
English Language Exam Revision PowerPoint
English Language Exam Revision PowerPointEnglish Language Exam Revision PowerPoint
English Language Exam Revision PowerPointMrMorrisSWA
 
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docx
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docxDQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docx
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docxelinoraudley582231
 
How to Analyze a Model Essay for Imitation
How to Analyze a Model Essay for ImitationHow to Analyze a Model Essay for Imitation
How to Analyze a Model Essay for ImitationJodie Nicotra
 

Similar to Summary quote paraphrase workshop (20)

Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essay
Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essayAlexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essay
Alexis John B. Benedicto-Writing an essay
 
The Magical Art of Clear Writing
The Magical Art of Clear WritingThe Magical Art of Clear Writing
The Magical Art of Clear Writing
 
Lecture in Feature Writing
Lecture in Feature WritingLecture in Feature Writing
Lecture in Feature Writing
 
Context clues
Context cluesContext clues
Context clues
 
Context clues
Context cluesContext clues
Context clues
 
E10 Feb17 2010
E10 Feb17 2010E10 Feb17 2010
E10 Feb17 2010
 
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fiction
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fictionUsing didls to_analyze_tone_in_fiction
Using didls to_analyze_tone_in_fiction
 
копия How to teach vocabulary
копия How  to teach vocabularyкопия How  to teach vocabulary
копия How to teach vocabulary
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla version
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla version
 
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediate
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediateSummarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediate
Summarize dont-plagiarize how-to-take-notes-intermediate
 
Personal Essay
Personal EssayPersonal Essay
Personal Essay
 
E10 feb16 2011
E10 feb16 2011E10 feb16 2011
E10 feb16 2011
 
10 ways to build your vocabulary
10 ways to build your vocabulary10 ways to build your vocabulary
10 ways to build your vocabulary
 
Academic Writing {Aw}
Academic Writing {Aw}Academic Writing {Aw}
Academic Writing {Aw}
 
Passive voice
Passive voicePassive voice
Passive voice
 
Reference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla versionReference lists and citations mla version
Reference lists and citations mla version
 
English Language Exam Revision PowerPoint
English Language Exam Revision PowerPointEnglish Language Exam Revision PowerPoint
English Language Exam Revision PowerPoint
 
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docx
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docxDQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docx
DQ 5 Please write at least 250 words for each question. Also, .docx
 
How to Analyze a Model Essay for Imitation
How to Analyze a Model Essay for ImitationHow to Analyze a Model Essay for Imitation
How to Analyze a Model Essay for Imitation
 

More from kb615

Iqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionIqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionkb615
 
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audioEthos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audiokb615
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonkb615
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonkb615
 
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)kb615
 
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007kb615
 
Transitions
TransitionsTransitions
Transitionskb615
 
Iqe power point
Iqe power pointIqe power point
Iqe power pointkb615
 
Eng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointEng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointkb615
 

More from kb615 (9)

Iqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionIqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online section
 
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audioEthos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
 
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
 
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
 
Transitions
TransitionsTransitions
Transitions
 
Iqe power point
Iqe power pointIqe power point
Iqe power point
 
Eng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointEng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpoint
 

Recently uploaded

ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataBabyAnnMotar
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4MiaBumagat1
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptx
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptxProduction of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptx
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4JOYLYNSAMANIEGO
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped dataMeasures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
Measures of Position DECILES for ungrouped data
 
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptx
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptxProduction of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptx
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.pptx
 
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
Daily Lesson Plan in Mathematics Quarter 4
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
How to Manage Engineering to Order in Odoo 17
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 

Summary quote paraphrase workshop

  • 1. HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE: SUMMARYSUMMARY (CAPTURING THE IDEA)(CAPTURING THE IDEA) QUOTEQUOTE (USING(USING NUGGETSNUGGETS OF TEXT)OF TEXT) PARAPHRASEPARAPHRASE (BORROWING LANGUAGE)(BORROWING LANGUAGE)
  • 2. HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOPHOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOP This workshop is an introduction to how writers useThis workshop is an introduction to how writers use summary/quotes/paraphrases.summary/quotes/paraphrases. Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that youRead each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks that you will need later on—so read purposefully.will need later on—so read purposefully. Complete all the activities.Complete all the activities. Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshopPlease apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing. Please ask your instructor if you have any questions.Please ask your instructor if you have any questions. Also visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a greatAlso visit the Writing Center in Shima 201 for more help. It is a great resource.resource.
  • 3. WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES INWE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN OUR EVERY DAY LIVESOUR EVERY DAY LIVES Let's consider music-Let's consider music--- In many songs, writers will:In many songs, writers will: Reduce/nutshellReduce/nutshell what story/event is about:what story/event is about: SummarySummary Restate exactlyRestate exactly a cool group of words:a cool group of words: QuoteQuote Rearrange/borrowRearrange/borrow language:language: ParaphraseParaphrase Look at next slide for example:Look at next slide for example:
  • 4. EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE: RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEERRUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=enhttp://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en You know Dasher, and Dancer, andYou know Dasher, and Dancer, and Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, andPrancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and Donner and BlitzenDonner and Blitzen But do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of allBut do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all Rudolph, the red nosed reindeerRudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny noseHad a very shiny nose and if you ever saw itand if you ever saw it you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows All of the other reindeerAll of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him namesused to laugh and call him names Summary (nutshell 5 year event)Summary (nutshell 5 year event) they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer games.join in any reindeer games. Then one foggy Christmas eveThen one foggy Christmas eve Santa came to say:Santa came to say: ““Rudolph with your nose so bright,Rudolph with your nose so bright, quote (directly from Santa)quote (directly from Santa) won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?” Then all the reindeer loved himThen all the reindeer loved him as they shouted out with glee,as they shouted out with glee, Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer, you’ll go down in history!you’ll go down in history! Paraphrase (some words are original andParaphrase (some words are original and some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)some are borrowed from ‘fellas’)
  • 5. Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice Summary What are the Main ideas here?What are the Main ideas here?
  • 6. SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THESUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE BIG PICTUREBIG PICTURE
  • 7. Many writers include a summary of theirMany writers include a summary of their sources before adding a quote or parphrase.sources before adding a quote or parphrase.  The author “nutshells ” the information:The author “nutshells ” the information: – He has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he hasHe has done his homework; he understands the ‘thing’ he has read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes.read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes. Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader,Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader, and he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume anand he explains what the ‘thing’ is in a nutshell. Assume an intelligent audience, but never assume your audience hasintelligent audience, but never assume your audience has taken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-worldtaken the same course as you. Write for a bigger, real-world audience. In the introduction (background info), the writeraudience. In the introduction (background info), the writer summarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previoussummarizes the “thing” he is writing about-- in the previous song example, he summarizes the story:song example, he summarizes the story: – (Summary of 5 year event)(Summary of 5 year event) Rudolph, the red nosed reindeerRudolph, the red nosed reindeer Had a very shiny noseHad a very shiny nose and if you ever saw itand if you ever saw it you would even say it glowsyou would even say it glows All of the other reindeerAll of the other reindeer used to laugh and call him names ofused to laugh and call him names of they never let poor Rudolphthey never let poor Rudolph join in any reindeer gamesjoin in any reindeer games..
  • 8. Summary helps the reader understand how theSummary helps the reader understand how the source fits into the research.source fits into the research. Readers better understand the text.Readers better understand the text. Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic. Readers better trust the writer as a researcher.Readers better trust the writer as a researcher. A writerA writer pickspicks only theonly the main pointsmain points for a summary.for a summary.
  • 9. He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’He uses his own words to explain what the ‘thing’ is aboutis about beforebefore he jumps into the meat of hishe jumps into the meat of his writing.writing. When summarizing, the writerWhen summarizing, the writer explains theexplains the main pointsmain points of a text inof a text in his/her own words. We use these sohis/her own words. We use these so the readerthe reader never asks the question:never asks the question: ““Does this writer know whatDoes this writer know what he/she is talking about?”he/she is talking about?”
  • 10. EXAMPLEEXAMPLE Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in theBelow is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLACLA JournalJournal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages in a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes abouta nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes about mainmain ideas the article explores.ideas the article explores. The summary has only the main points ofThe summary has only the main points of the article, and it is written in the student’s own words:the article, and it is written in the student’s own words: Diana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of BiblicalDiana Agy’s text, “Belinda, Another Eve” examines the use of Biblical passages in Alexander Pope’spassages in Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock.Rape of the Lock. She explains how theseShe explains how these passages help keep women in a lower position in society and how thesepassages help keep women in a lower position in society and how these women contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset iswomen contribute to their own low self image. She argues this mindset is still active today (Agy).still active today (Agy). Notice the writer introduces the source and cites it at the end. All summaries are cited.
  • 11. Here is aHere is a beforebefore andand afterafter look:look: Example #1: Writing without summary of source:Example #1: Writing without summary of source: In aIn a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author states “ten out of everyjournal article, the author states “ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57). Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader isWithout a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is concerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, andconcerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, and how the quote relates to the topic.how the quote relates to the topic. Example#2: Same piece with a summary:Example#2: Same piece with a summary: In aIn a Nature TodayNature Today journal article, the author explores researchjournal article, the author explores research concerning tick fever.concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks thatHer article explains the types of ticks that transmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. Shetransmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. She talks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a hightalks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a high infestation rate.infestation rate. The author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer inThe author states, “Ten out of every 11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57).Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year”(57). Summary allows the readerSummary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the; it allows the text to bettertext to better developdevelop; and, equally importantly,; and, equally importantly, it sets up theit sets up the quote.quote.
  • 12. Summary descriptionSummary description Writers alsoWriters also use summaryuse summary to describe ato describe a person or an event for the readerperson or an event for the reader beforebefore they continue on with their narrative.they continue on with their narrative. Summary description helps develop theSummary description helps develop the story, and it helps the reader betterstory, and it helps the reader better connect to the characters.connect to the characters. With summary description,With summary description, We move from barely seeing the characterWe move from barely seeing the character toto a better understanding of who she isa better understanding of who she is..
  • 13. Here is aHere is a beforebefore andand afterafter look:look: Example #1: Writing without summary description:Example #1: Writing without summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I feltMy sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to sufferashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.from anorexia. Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the readerWithout a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward. Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:Example#2: Same piece with a summary description: My sister came into the room and all eyes were on herMy sister came into the room and all eyes were on her.. Leisa was 21 yearsLeisa was 21 years old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia andold, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure ofanorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition.competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition. She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knewShe did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth asstood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as they scanned the room.they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends didAfter we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia. Summary allows the readerSummary allows the reader to trust the writerto trust the writer; it allows the; it allows the text to bettertext to better developdevelop; and, equally importantly,; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.it helps us see the character.
  • 14. Some writers leave summary out of theirSome writers leave summary out of their text for a variety of reasons:text for a variety of reasons: 1. They did not read the entire source.1. They did not read the entire source. 2. They do not understand the entire source.2. They do not understand the entire source. 3. They have learned to string along quotes—so3. They have learned to string along quotes—so they only look for quotes they might use when reading.they only look for quotes they might use when reading. When we first learn how to write, we might think we have toWhen we first learn how to write, we might think we have to use many quotes, or we might believe research is whenuse many quotes, or we might believe research is when we change a word here and there.we change a word here and there. Summarizing helps prepare the audience.Summarizing helps prepare the audience. If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused.If you don’t summarize, your audience may not stay focused. Summary is something we use in everyday life.Summary is something we use in everyday life.
  • 15. When we don’t understand our sources, weWhen we don’t understand our sources, we don’t have confidence in our writing:don’t have confidence in our writing: Confident Writer:Confident Writer: I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you.I understand my source—I’ll talk it to you. I understand how my source fits into my paper.I understand how my source fits into my paper. I have read and re-read my source; I know it.I have read and re-read my source; I know it. I can tell my reader what my source is about in my own wordsI can tell my reader what my source is about in my own words I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.I can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking. Non-Confident Writer:Non-Confident Writer: I have only read my source once.I have only read my source once. I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.I do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper. I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it.I think my source is good—but I don’t understand it. I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.I will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page. I can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking atI can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at
  • 16. Let's Practice SummaryLet's Practice Summary Activity # 1Activity # 1 Summarize the following inSummarize the following in two-three sentences eachtwo-three sentences each:: Summarize your favorite song. For example:Summarize your favorite song. For example: ““Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song aboutRudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song about the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventuallythe struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually turned his disability into an asset, and his peersturned his disability into an asset, and his peers learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”).learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”). Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example:Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences. For example: Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the Empire’s faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator).
  • 17. Activity #2Activity #2 Let's look at your paper:Let's look at your paper: Take the paper you are working on now and addTake the paper you are working on now and add summary.summary. If you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two mainIf you are working on a narrative, circle/highlight the two main characters. Do you use summary description with them? Can thecharacters. Do you use summary description with them? Can the reader see them and understand who they are because of yourreader see them and understand who they are because of your summary?summary? On your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and addOn your worksheet paper, write the two characters down and add 2-4 sentences of summary description for each.2-4 sentences of summary description for each. If you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure toIf you are working on a research paper and are using sources, be sure to summarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use yoursummarize what the entire text or chapter is about before you use your targeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are antargeted information. Hold the reader’s hand and show that you are an expert with that one source.expert with that one source. On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2-On your worksheet paper, introduce your source, summarize it in 2- 4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite4 sentences, then add your targeted information. Make sure to cite it at the endit at the end..
  • 18. Let's Practice QuotingLet's Practice Quoting (CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)
  • 19. Let's Revisit RudolphLet's Revisit Rudolph Santa came to say:Santa came to say: ““Rudolph with your nose so bright,Rudolph with your nose so bright, won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?”won’t you guide my sleigh tonight?” In the song,In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed ReindeerRudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer, the writer quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?
  • 20. DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTEDETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTE  When we take notes from movies, films, books,When we take notes from movies, films, books, or the internet, we will gather quotes that seemor the internet, we will gather quotes that seem important to us at that time.important to us at that time.  Sift through these.Sift through these.  You are looking for only thoseYou are looking for only those nuggetsnuggets that willthat will drive home your main point.drive home your main point. The next few activities will help usThe next few activities will help us better understand when and when not to quotebetter understand when and when not to quote
  • 21. QUOTEQUOTE WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?WHEN DO WE USE QUOTES?
  • 22. Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes:Here are some reasons why writers choose to use quotes: 1.1. When the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it willWhen the language is unusual or biased, and the writer thinks it will helphelp develop a particulardevelop a particular point.point. 2.2. When using an important statistic that isWhen using an important statistic that is absolutely necessaryabsolutely necessary to make ato make a strong point.strong point. 3.3. When quotingWhen quoting necessarynecessary dialogue.dialogue. 4.4. When quoting fromWhen quoting from an authorityan authority —again, this quote must be—again, this quote must be absolutelyabsolutely necessarynecessary in the development of the paper.in the development of the paper. 5.5. When quoting a text that seems toWhen quoting a text that seems to create tension or conflictcreate tension or conflict with yourwith your own research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they areown research. Writers quote these small texts to make sure they are allowing the opposite side to speak directly.allowing the opposite side to speak directly. 6.6. There are other general rules;There are other general rules; ask your instructor if you have anyask your instructor if you have any questions.questions. Let's look at the list:Let's look at the list:
  • 23. ACTIVITY # 4ACTIVITY # 4 Copy the three examples below.Copy the three examples below. Use quotation marks (“ ”)when using theUse quotation marks (“ ”)when using the exact wordingexact wording from another text:from another text: InterviewInterview: Joe said,: Joe said, “JCC is a great college.”“JCC is a great college.” Literature analysis:Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls theWhen talking to the priest, Serafina calls the neighborhood womenneighborhood women “hens”“hens” whowho “like water“like water thrown on them!”thrown on them!” (Agy 84).(Agy 84). DefinitionDefinition:: The Encyclopedia of Religion and EthicsThe Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a,defines Carnival as a, ““recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestrictedrecognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted freedom”freedom” (Rademacher 229).(Rademacher 229). USING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINEUSING the rules from the previous slide, DETERMINE WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREEWHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE EXAMPLES ABOVE.EXAMPLES ABOVE. Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule?Why are we using Joe’s quote? Which rule? Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule? Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?
  • 24. Why write all that down?Why write all that down? PRACTICEPRACTICE PRACTICEPRACTICE PRACTICEPRACTICE • As writers,As writers, we mustwe must get into the habitget into the habit of organizingof organizing and sorting informationand sorting information as we gather itas we gather it.. You are practicing how to use quotes, asYou are practicing how to use quotes, as well as how to introduce them into texts.well as how to introduce them into texts.
  • 25. STRINGING ALONG QUOTESSTRINGING ALONG QUOTES CREATES PROBLEMS:CREATES PROBLEMS: For example:For example:  The New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is aThe New World Encyclopedia says “Rudolph is a reindeer”(67).reindeer”(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is inDr. Schmoe agrees with “the animal is in the reindeer classification”(78).the reindeer classification”(78). Some researchers believeSome researchers believe that his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew outthat his nose “was a result of extra neurons that grew out of control (Smith 12).of control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation isOthers say that the malformation is a result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78).a result of “drinking too much”(Agy 78). WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE?WHERE IS THE WRITER’S VOICE?
  • 26. ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTESARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES NECESSARY?NECESSARY? NONO STRINGING ALONG QUOTESSTRINGING ALONG QUOTES WEAKENSWEAKENS OUR WRITINGOUR WRITING
  • 27. How do we choose which to keepHow do we choose which to keep and which to ‘cut out’?and which to ‘cut out’?
  • 28. GENERAL RULE OF THUMBGENERAL RULE OF THUMB USEUSE QUOTESQUOTES SPARINGLYSPARINGLY
  • 29. Consider this example:Consider this example: YellowYellow text highlights quotes.text highlights quotes. Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For exampleexample, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,, “in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska, researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form ofresearchers believe that girls who try to practice some form of expression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hairexpression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hair styles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challengestyles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal womantheir culture’s notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this study(Jones 14). I think that this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so selfis interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isconscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara statesa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara states:: ““High school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles IHigh school was hell, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles I wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow”wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow” (Smith) I(Smith) I remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the article and the interview…article and the interview…
  • 30. YIKES!!!!!YIKES!!!!! THE WRITING HASTHE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANYWAY TOO MANY QUOTES.QUOTES. IT WEAKENS THE TEXTIT WEAKENS THE TEXT IT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READIT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READ WE WALK AWAY UNCLEARWE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?
  • 31. Here is a revision of the previous slide:Here is a revision of the previous slide: Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. ForIndividuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For exampleexample,, in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska,in a recent study conducted by the University of Alaska, researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girlsresearchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girls will laterwill later “challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal”“challenge their culture’s notions of the ideal” (Jones 14). I think(Jones 14). I think this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who arethis study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl isso self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not haveallowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview withsuch a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with a student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara callsa student at Jackson Community College, I found this to be true. Sara calls herselfherself “a shadow”“a shadow” and saw her high school experience asand saw her high school experience as “hell”“hell” (Smith) I(Smith) I remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both theremember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the article and the interview…article and the interview… Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rulesLook on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules apply to theapply to the changes made to the first quotechanges made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules, and which of the quote rules apply to theapply to the second quote changessecond quote changes..
  • 32. ACTIVITYACTIVITY Take the paper you are working onTake the paper you are working on now, andnow, and highlighthighlight all of the placesall of the places where you quote.where you quote. HighlightHighlight from the beginning of thefrom the beginning of the quote to the end of the quote.quote to the end of the quote. Do this for every quote in yourDo this for every quote in your paper.paper.
  • 33. Activity continuedActivity continued :: 1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies.1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think applies. REMEMBER!!!REMEMBER!!! There are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparinglyThere are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote sparingly —less is best with quotes.—less is best with quotes. 2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes.2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page.a. Copy the paragraph on a clean page. b. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eyeb. Under the copied paragraph, rewrite the paragraph with an eye toward weeding out unnecessary quotations.toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. c. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see thec. Highlight areas that you change so your instructor can see the difference.difference. 3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.3. Next, write 3-4 sentences about the revisions you made.
  • 34. Let's Practice ParaphraseLet's Practice Paraphrase Talking to the reader / Sharing the informationTalking to the reader / Sharing the information
  • 35. WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?WHAT IS PARAPHRASE? A paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audienceA paraphrase is similar to quoting. This skill involves talking to the audience about what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowedabout what the original writer has said in the text while using some borrowed language or original tone—onlylanguage or original tone—only important informationimportant information is paraphrased.is paraphrased. Paraphrase isParaphrase is used more often than quotingused more often than quoting because it allows the reader tobecause it allows the reader to hear the writer’s voice. Thehear the writer’s voice. The writer is talkingwriter is talking the research to his/her audience.the research to his/her audience. Let's Review:Let's Review: 1.1. UseUse onlyonly important information.important information. 2.2. ParaphrasingParaphrasing is betteris better than quoting too much.than quoting too much. 3.3. WeWe must usemust use our own voice and words.our own voice and words.
  • 36. Things to consider aboutThings to consider about Paraphrasing:Paraphrasing: 1.1. We are allowedWe are allowed to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic.to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic. No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.No quotation marks are necessary when we use these. 1.1. If we borrow any necessary languageIf we borrow any necessary language,, wewe mustmust put it in quotationsput it in quotations.. 1.1. We must box in the sourceWe must box in the source by introducing it first and thenby introducing it first and then citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.citing the source at the end of the paraphrase. (PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)(PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)
  • 37. USE THIS AS A MODEL:USE THIS AS A MODEL: 1.1. Does the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to useDoes the paraphrase use common terms? You are allowed to use common terms without using quotes. For example, if you arecommon terms without using quotes. For example, if you are paraphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the followingparaphrasing a text about dentistry, you can use the following common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc…common words: dentist, tooth, filling, etc… 2.2. If you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must useIf you borrow necessary language or key terms, you must use quotations marks!quotations marks! 3.3. You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example,You must introduce your paraphrase and end cite it. For example, look at the following paraphrase:look at the following paraphrase: In the book calledIn the book called Birds of the NortheastBirds of the Northeast, Joe Schmoe calls the, Joe Schmoe calls the woodpecker the “most beautiful” bird in that region. He continueswoodpecker the “most beautiful” bird in that region. He continues to say that nature gives us many examples of the “fluid motion”to say that nature gives us many examples of the “fluid motion” the woodpecker allows artists (97).the woodpecker allows artists (97). 44. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE. MAKE SURE THE PARAPHRASE DOES NOT COPY THE TONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH ATONE OR SIMPLY REPLACE ONE WORD WITH A SIMILAR WORD.SIMILAR WORD.
  • 38. Let's look at the sampleLet's look at the sample Here is a common quote from President Kennedy:Here is a common quote from President Kennedy: ““And so, my fellow Americans: Ask notAnd so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- askwhat your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”what you can do for your country.” Here is anHere is an incorrectincorrect paraphrase:paraphrase: ““So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you.So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to yourInstead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans”fellow Americans”
  • 39. Consider the reasons why theConsider the reasons why the previous paraphrase is incorrect:previous paraphrase is incorrect: ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you--ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”ask what you can do for your country.” INCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation canINCORRECT PARAPHGRASE: “So, my countrymen: Don’t ask what your nation can give you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellowgive you. Instead, you should determine what you can give back to your fellow Americans”Americans” 1.1. Did the writer use common terms?Did the writer use common terms? No. But that’s ok.No. But that’s ok. 1.1. Did the writer borrowDid the writer borrow necessarynecessary language and use quotationslanguage and use quotations correctly?correctly? NoNo:: The writer borrowed unnecessary languageThe writer borrowed unnecessary language (ask, you, my)(ask, you, my) NoNo:: The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language.The writer did not use quotations with borrowed language. (ask, you, my)(ask, you, my) 1.1. Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end?Did the writer introduce the source and cite it at then end? NoNo.. We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends.We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the source begins and ends. 4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words?4. Did the writer steal the tone or the rhythm or simply replace words? YES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITERYES, AND THIS IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PLAGIARISM. THE WRITER STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.STOLE THE ORIGINAL TONE AND SIMPLY REPLACED WORDS.
  • 40. Let's fix the previous example:Let's fix the previous example: ORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask whatORIGINAL: “And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you-- ask what you can do for your country.”you can do for your country.” CORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demandsCORRECT PARAPHRASE: In John Kennedy’s speech, he challenges Americans to contribute to their country as he boldly demands they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith 19).they do not sit back and “ask what [their] nation can do” (Smith 19). 1.1. Does it use common terms?Does it use common terms? Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary.Yes: Americans.—no quotes necessary. 1.1. Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations? Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.”Yes: “Ask what [their] nations can do.” 1.1. Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?Does it introduce and cite the source correctly? Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends with (Smith19).Yes: He introduces the paraphrase with “In John Kennedy’s speech” and ends with (Smith19). 1.1. Does it steal the tone or simply replace words?Does it steal the tone or simply replace words? No:No: This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.This is a solid paraphrase, and we can hear the student writer talking/paraphrasing the original text.
  • 41. MOST COMMON PROBLEMMOST COMMON PROBLEM The main problem is using the original source as a mirror.The main problem is using the original source as a mirror. Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. SomeMirroring occurs when the writer imitates the original sentence patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their ownwriters have learned that as long as they replace the original text with their own language, then all is well.language, then all is well. But, they are mistaken!But, they are mistaken! • When we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s informationWhen we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s information in our own sentencein our own sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also bepatterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must also be our own.our own. We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s sentences whileWe think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s sentences while we keep their original sentence patterns,we keep their original sentence patterns, BUTBUT WE ARE NOTWE ARE NOT.. Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.
  • 42. Consider another example:Consider another example: Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarismIncorrect paraphrase--plagiarism Original:Original: Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask what you canAsk not what your country can do for you. But ask what you can do for your country.do for your country. Incorrect Paraphrase:Incorrect Paraphrase: Don’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to doDon’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to do for your country.for your country. – Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same. Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example onlyNotice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first. Correct Paraphrase:Correct Paraphrase: John Kennedy’s introduction stresses the importance of citizensJohn Kennedy’s introduction stresses the importance of citizens becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs (67).becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs (67).
  • 43. Copying sentence patternsCopying sentence patterns ACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNSACTIVITY #7 READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE PATTERNS ORIGINAL TEXTORIGINAL TEXT INCORRECT PARAPHRASEINCORRECT PARAPHRASE Many children are brought up inMany children are brought up in oraloral traditions,traditions, rich inrich in metaphor, imagery,metaphor, imagery, and voice.and voice. These students bringThese students bring richrich description and comparisondescription and comparison techniques to the academia.techniques to the academia. SomeSome literacy experts sayliteracy experts say these children arethese children are behind inbehind in structure, analysis, andstructure, analysis, and understandingunderstanding. But a careful. But a careful consideration of the ways theseconsideration of the ways these students approach writing show theirstudents approach writing show their deep understanding ofdeep understanding of culture, socialculture, social ideology, and politicsideology, and politics — each— each stemming fromstemming from rich storytellingrich storytelling foundations(Agy)foundations(Agy) According to Agy, many young peopleAccording to Agy, many young people are raised withare raised with storytellingstorytelling backgrounds, complete withbackgrounds, complete with comparisons, icons, and soundcomparisons, icons, and sound. These. These writers know how towriters know how to help us seehelp us see theirtheir characters.characters. Some people saySome people say thesethese students don’t know how tostudents don’t know how to formform paragraphs, make connections, orparagraphs, make connections, or comprehend.comprehend. But these writers knowBut these writers know aboutabout people, society, and thepeople, society, and the governmentgovernment —all come from their—all come from their Oral traditionOral tradition (Agy)(Agy)
  • 44. ACTIVITYACTIVITY LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPERLOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASEHIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR ESSAY WHERE YOU PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE.YOUR SOURCE. HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THISHIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS INFORMATION COMES FROM.INFORMATION COMES FROM. ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCEARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH. YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROMYES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISINGACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING
  • 45. ACTIVITYACTIVITY PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1.1. List four reasons why we would quote.List four reasons why we would quote. 2.2. Why should we quote sparingly?Why should we quote sparingly? 3.3. What does a summary do for our text?What does a summary do for our text? 4.4. What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing?What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing? 5.5. What is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to understand whenWhat is a “sentence pattern,” and why is it important to understand when paraphrasing?paraphrasing?