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YouYou can QUOTE me on thatcan QUOTE me on that
A quote is the exact wording of a statementA quote is the exact wording of a statement
from a source.from a source.
Quotes make an essay more believable; theyQuotes make an essay more believable; they
areare evidenceevidence that can support your thesis.that can support your thesis.
Opinions supported by quoted text areOpinions supported by quoted text are
evidence of good reading and thoughtfulevidence of good reading and thoughtful
responses.responses.
There are several types of quotes.There are several types of quotes.
Direct QuotesDirect Quotes
Quotes printed word for word exactlyQuotes printed word for word exactly
as the author wrote them areas the author wrote them are directdirect
quotes.quotes. These words appear insideThese words appear inside
quotation marks.quotation marks. The quote introductionThe quote introduction
appears outside the quotation marks.appears outside the quotation marks.
The attribution is the phrase that tellsThe attribution is the phrase that tells
who said itwho said it - where you got the- where you got the
information.information.
Examples of Direct QuotesExamples of Direct Quotes
• ““I am thrilled to be representing the greatI am thrilled to be representing the great
State of Texas at the Free Spirit Conference,”State of Texas at the Free Spirit Conference,”
Susan Trumpart, newspaper adviser said.Susan Trumpart, newspaper adviser said. “I“I
owe it all to my talented students.”owe it all to my talented students.”
• ““I’m just glad I didn’t have to spend any moreI’m just glad I didn’t have to spend any more
time with my adviser than I did,”time with my adviser than I did,” said Caseysaid Casey
Deeya, who added that she enjoyed riding theDeeya, who added that she enjoyed riding the
subways more than attending the conference.subways more than attending the conference.
Indirect QuotesIndirect Quotes
Information from a source which is not made up ofInformation from a source which is not made up of
the author’s exact words is not placed insidethe author’s exact words is not placed inside
quotation marks. This is an indirect quote, which is aquotation marks. This is an indirect quote, which is a
paraphrase or a summary of the meaning of theparaphrase or a summary of the meaning of the
direct quotation.direct quotation.
Indirect quotes are used to:Indirect quotes are used to:
• Express a fact stated by the sourceExpress a fact stated by the source
• Clarify a quote that is too long, confusing or dullClarify a quote that is too long, confusing or dull
• Condense the ideas of several direct quotesCondense the ideas of several direct quotes
Never change theNever change the
meaning of a quote whenmeaning of a quote when
you paraphrase!you paraphrase!
(And you will still need to(And you will still need to
cite your source.)cite your source.)
Partial QuotesPartial Quotes
Sometimes it might work better to use aSometimes it might work better to use a
portion of a quote to convey theportion of a quote to convey the
information than to use an entire quote. Toinformation than to use an entire quote. To
do this, put only the quoted words insidedo this, put only the quoted words inside
quotation marks.quotation marks.
Use partial quotes when you need to use aUse partial quotes when you need to use a
speaker’s exact words but the entire directspeaker’s exact words but the entire direct
quote might be too long or too confusingquote might be too long or too confusing
for the reader.for the reader.
Example of a Partial QuoteExample of a Partial Quote
In his novel,In his novel, Styles at LCCStyles at LCC, author, author
Harry Skaulp states that spiked hair is aHarry Skaulp states that spiked hair is a
“part of our cultural heritage, not“part of our cultural heritage, not
merely a symbol of rebellion,”merely a symbol of rebellion,” addingadding
that he thinks nose piercing should bethat he thinks nose piercing should be
mandatory.mandatory.
Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations
• The author’s exact words go inside the quotationThe author’s exact words go inside the quotation
marks:marks: “I am super, duper cool.”“I am super, duper cool.”
• The end punctuation (period, question mark,The end punctuation (period, question mark,
exclamation point) goes inside the last quotationexclamation point) goes inside the last quotation
mark.mark. “Give me the damn money!”“Give me the damn money!”
• When the introduction comes after a direct quote,When the introduction comes after a direct quote,
use a comma to separate the quote from theuse a comma to separate the quote from the
attribution.attribution. “Here it is,”“Here it is,” replied Bob.replied Bob.
• If a question mark relates to the sentence andIf a question mark relates to the sentence and
not the quote, place it at the end of the sentencenot the quote, place it at the end of the sentence
outside the quotation marks:outside the quotation marks: What kind of moronWhat kind of moron
says, “I am super, duper cool”?says, “I am super, duper cool”?
Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations
• Use single quotation marks to indicate aUse single quotation marks to indicate a
quote inside a quote.quote inside a quote. “And so I told her, ‘Fix“And so I told her, ‘Fix
your own tire, Grandma!’”your own tire, Grandma!’”
• Leave off the closing quotation marks atLeave off the closing quotation marks at
the end of a paragraph if the quotethe end of a paragraph if the quote
continues in the next paragraph.continues in the next paragraph.
• If a quote is a complete sentence, beginIf a quote is a complete sentence, begin
it with a capital letter. If it’s not, don’t.it with a capital letter. If it’s not, don’t.
Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations
• Use quotation marks to indicate the titleUse quotation marks to indicate the title
of a smaller work, such as an article, essay,of a smaller work, such as an article, essay,
short story, song, poem, or speech.short story, song, poem, or speech.
In his essay, “Potatoes are Yummy,” Joe Smith argues that…In his essay, “Potatoes are Yummy,” Joe Smith argues that…
• Use italics (or underline) for larger worksUse italics (or underline) for larger works
such as a book, magazine, album, play, film,such as a book, magazine, album, play, film,
or long poem.or long poem.
In her novel,In her novel, Potatoes are YuckyPotatoes are Yucky, Ann Smith argues that…, Ann Smith argues that…
In her novel,In her novel, Potatoes are YuckyPotatoes are Yucky, Ann Smith argues that…, Ann Smith argues that…
Using QuotesUsing Quotes
• If a direct quote is very long or boring, useIf a direct quote is very long or boring, use
an indirect quote or a partial quote instead.an indirect quote or a partial quote instead.
• To clarify or modify a phrase within a quote,To clarify or modify a phrase within a quote,
insert brackets.insert brackets. “Slowly, [Bob] reached for the“Slowly, [Bob] reached for the
meat cleaver.”meat cleaver.”
• Add the word “sic” (meaning thus) in italicsAdd the word “sic” (meaning thus) in italics
within brackets after words that are misspelledwithin brackets after words that are misspelled
or used incorrectly in a direct quote from aor used incorrectly in a direct quote from a
printed source. This indicates the quote isprinted source. This indicates the quote is
exactly like the original source.exactly like the original source. ““MacbethMacbeth is ais a
grate [grate [sicsic] play.”] play.”
Integrating QuotationsIntegrating Quotations
Never just drop a quotation intoNever just drop a quotation into
your paper. Alwaysyour paper. Always introduce itintroduce it
andand explain itexplain it with your ownwith your own
prose.prose.
There are three main ways toThere are three main ways to
introduce quotations. Theseintroduce quotations. These
include:include:
1.1. Incorporate the quotation into yourIncorporate the quotation into your
sentencesentence, punctuating it just as you, punctuating it just as you
would if it was not a quotation.would if it was not a quotation.
As Bob is being beaten, he hopes heAs Bob is being beaten, he hopes he “will“will
become unconscious but [he] can’t.”become unconscious but [he] can’t.”
Bob appraises Mrs. Harrison derisively,Bob appraises Mrs. Harrison derisively,
stating thatstating that “she looked so complacent,“she looked so complacent,
sitting there in her two-hundred dollar chairsitting there in her two-hundred dollar chair
[. . . ] bought with dough her husband had[. . . ] bought with dough her husband had
made overcharging poor hard-workingmade overcharging poor hard-working
colored people for his incompetent services,colored people for his incompetent services,
that I had a crazy impulse to needle her.”that I had a crazy impulse to needle her.”
2.2. Introduce the quotation by usingIntroduce the quotation by using
an attributive tagan attributive tag likelike he writeshe writes,, sheshe
claimsclaims, and so on., and so on.
To describe his childlike consciousness,To describe his childlike consciousness,
Wright explains,Wright explains, “Each event spoke with a“Each event spoke with a
cryptic tongue. And the moments of livingcryptic tongue. And the moments of living
slowly revealed their coded meanings.”slowly revealed their coded meanings.”
After going to Memphis and boarding withAfter going to Memphis and boarding with
Mrs. Moss, Wright wonders,Mrs. Moss, Wright wonders, “Was it wise“Was it wise
to remain here with a seventeen-year-oldto remain here with a seventeen-year-old
girl eager for marriage and a mothergirl eager for marriage and a mother
equally anxious to have her marry me?”equally anxious to have her marry me?”
3.3. Introduce the quotation by writing aIntroduce the quotation by writing a
full sentence and a colonfull sentence and a colon to introduceto introduce
the quotation, which should itself be athe quotation, which should itself be a
full sentence.full sentence.
Bob’s description of Madge emphasizes herBob’s description of Madge emphasizes her
fake appearance:fake appearance: “She was a peroxide blonde“She was a peroxide blonde
with a large-featured, overly made-up face, andwith a large-featured, overly made-up face, and
she had a large, bright-painted, fleshy mouth.”she had a large, bright-painted, fleshy mouth.”
Richard Wright explains his reasons for writing:Richard Wright explains his reasons for writing:
“I was striving for a level of expression that“I was striving for a level of expression that
matched those of the novels I read.”matched those of the novels I read.”
Block a quotation if it is four lines orBlock a quotation if it is four lines or
longerlonger. Indent the quotation one half of. Indent the quotation one half of
an inch on both sides, and punctuate itan inch on both sides, and punctuate it
like the following example.like the following example.
Wright describes how his mother’s illnessWright describes how his mother’s illness
affected him:affected him:
My mother’s suffering grew into aMy mother’s suffering grew into a
symbol in my mind, gathering to itselfsymbol in my mind, gathering to itself
all the poverty, the ignorance, theall the poverty, the ignorance, the
helplessness; the painful, baffling,helplessness; the painful, baffling,
hunger-ridden days and hours; thehunger-ridden days and hours; the
restless moving, the futile seeking, therestless moving, the futile seeking, the
uncertainty, the fear, the dread.uncertainty, the fear, the dread. (Wright 29)(Wright 29)
Quote Explanations
Your explanation for the quote must be much longer than the quote
itself. The longer your quote, the longer your explanation needs to be.
Explain the quote in your own words and state the significance.
Why is this quote important? How does it show what you’re trying to
prove in your thesis?
Example: IQE
Booker uses direct quotes from Mrs. Mobley as she reacts to her son’s
battered body: “and cried out, ‘Darling you have not died in vain. Your
life has been sacrificed for something’”(1). This quote from the Mrs.
Mobley demonstrates her pain and suffering from the loss of her son
and shows readers that Mrs. Mobley intended to take action. Booker
uses these words from Till’s mother to prove to his audience that
Emmet Till’s lynching caused change in society, the change for which
his mother says he was sacrificed.
IQE Rules
 Always connect back to your thesis. If
the quote doesn’t help prove your
thesis—don’t use it.
 Introduce (who’s talking, what’s happening, why is it important)
 Quote (only use the necessary words, someone’s argument/opinion,
evidence for thesis, use correct punctuation)
 Explain (explain the argument in the quote, why is it important,
connect to your thesis)
Handling Quotes in Your TextHandling Quotes in Your Text
Author’s last name and pageAuthor’s last name and page
number(s) of quote mustnumber(s) of quote must
appear in the textappear in the text
Romantic poetry is characterizedRomantic poetry is characterized
by theby the “spontaneous overflow of“spontaneous overflow of
powerful feelings”powerful feelings” (Wordsworth(Wordsworth
263).263).
Wordsworth stated that RomanticWordsworth stated that Romantic
poetry was marked by apoetry was marked by a
“spontaneous overflow of powerful“spontaneous overflow of powerful
feelings”feelings” (263).(263).

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Quotes and Their Uses

  • 1.
  • 2. YouYou can QUOTE me on thatcan QUOTE me on that A quote is the exact wording of a statementA quote is the exact wording of a statement from a source.from a source. Quotes make an essay more believable; theyQuotes make an essay more believable; they areare evidenceevidence that can support your thesis.that can support your thesis. Opinions supported by quoted text areOpinions supported by quoted text are evidence of good reading and thoughtfulevidence of good reading and thoughtful responses.responses. There are several types of quotes.There are several types of quotes.
  • 3. Direct QuotesDirect Quotes Quotes printed word for word exactlyQuotes printed word for word exactly as the author wrote them areas the author wrote them are directdirect quotes.quotes. These words appear insideThese words appear inside quotation marks.quotation marks. The quote introductionThe quote introduction appears outside the quotation marks.appears outside the quotation marks. The attribution is the phrase that tellsThe attribution is the phrase that tells who said itwho said it - where you got the- where you got the information.information.
  • 4. Examples of Direct QuotesExamples of Direct Quotes • ““I am thrilled to be representing the greatI am thrilled to be representing the great State of Texas at the Free Spirit Conference,”State of Texas at the Free Spirit Conference,” Susan Trumpart, newspaper adviser said.Susan Trumpart, newspaper adviser said. “I“I owe it all to my talented students.”owe it all to my talented students.” • ““I’m just glad I didn’t have to spend any moreI’m just glad I didn’t have to spend any more time with my adviser than I did,”time with my adviser than I did,” said Caseysaid Casey Deeya, who added that she enjoyed riding theDeeya, who added that she enjoyed riding the subways more than attending the conference.subways more than attending the conference.
  • 5. Indirect QuotesIndirect Quotes Information from a source which is not made up ofInformation from a source which is not made up of the author’s exact words is not placed insidethe author’s exact words is not placed inside quotation marks. This is an indirect quote, which is aquotation marks. This is an indirect quote, which is a paraphrase or a summary of the meaning of theparaphrase or a summary of the meaning of the direct quotation.direct quotation. Indirect quotes are used to:Indirect quotes are used to: • Express a fact stated by the sourceExpress a fact stated by the source • Clarify a quote that is too long, confusing or dullClarify a quote that is too long, confusing or dull • Condense the ideas of several direct quotesCondense the ideas of several direct quotes
  • 6. Never change theNever change the meaning of a quote whenmeaning of a quote when you paraphrase!you paraphrase! (And you will still need to(And you will still need to cite your source.)cite your source.)
  • 7. Partial QuotesPartial Quotes Sometimes it might work better to use aSometimes it might work better to use a portion of a quote to convey theportion of a quote to convey the information than to use an entire quote. Toinformation than to use an entire quote. To do this, put only the quoted words insidedo this, put only the quoted words inside quotation marks.quotation marks. Use partial quotes when you need to use aUse partial quotes when you need to use a speaker’s exact words but the entire directspeaker’s exact words but the entire direct quote might be too long or too confusingquote might be too long or too confusing for the reader.for the reader.
  • 8. Example of a Partial QuoteExample of a Partial Quote In his novel,In his novel, Styles at LCCStyles at LCC, author, author Harry Skaulp states that spiked hair is aHarry Skaulp states that spiked hair is a “part of our cultural heritage, not“part of our cultural heritage, not merely a symbol of rebellion,”merely a symbol of rebellion,” addingadding that he thinks nose piercing should bethat he thinks nose piercing should be mandatory.mandatory.
  • 9. Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations • The author’s exact words go inside the quotationThe author’s exact words go inside the quotation marks:marks: “I am super, duper cool.”“I am super, duper cool.” • The end punctuation (period, question mark,The end punctuation (period, question mark, exclamation point) goes inside the last quotationexclamation point) goes inside the last quotation mark.mark. “Give me the damn money!”“Give me the damn money!” • When the introduction comes after a direct quote,When the introduction comes after a direct quote, use a comma to separate the quote from theuse a comma to separate the quote from the attribution.attribution. “Here it is,”“Here it is,” replied Bob.replied Bob. • If a question mark relates to the sentence andIf a question mark relates to the sentence and not the quote, place it at the end of the sentencenot the quote, place it at the end of the sentence outside the quotation marks:outside the quotation marks: What kind of moronWhat kind of moron says, “I am super, duper cool”?says, “I am super, duper cool”?
  • 10. Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations • Use single quotation marks to indicate aUse single quotation marks to indicate a quote inside a quote.quote inside a quote. “And so I told her, ‘Fix“And so I told her, ‘Fix your own tire, Grandma!’”your own tire, Grandma!’” • Leave off the closing quotation marks atLeave off the closing quotation marks at the end of a paragraph if the quotethe end of a paragraph if the quote continues in the next paragraph.continues in the next paragraph. • If a quote is a complete sentence, beginIf a quote is a complete sentence, begin it with a capital letter. If it’s not, don’t.it with a capital letter. If it’s not, don’t.
  • 11. Punctuating QuotationsPunctuating Quotations • Use quotation marks to indicate the titleUse quotation marks to indicate the title of a smaller work, such as an article, essay,of a smaller work, such as an article, essay, short story, song, poem, or speech.short story, song, poem, or speech. In his essay, “Potatoes are Yummy,” Joe Smith argues that…In his essay, “Potatoes are Yummy,” Joe Smith argues that… • Use italics (or underline) for larger worksUse italics (or underline) for larger works such as a book, magazine, album, play, film,such as a book, magazine, album, play, film, or long poem.or long poem. In her novel,In her novel, Potatoes are YuckyPotatoes are Yucky, Ann Smith argues that…, Ann Smith argues that… In her novel,In her novel, Potatoes are YuckyPotatoes are Yucky, Ann Smith argues that…, Ann Smith argues that…
  • 12. Using QuotesUsing Quotes • If a direct quote is very long or boring, useIf a direct quote is very long or boring, use an indirect quote or a partial quote instead.an indirect quote or a partial quote instead. • To clarify or modify a phrase within a quote,To clarify or modify a phrase within a quote, insert brackets.insert brackets. “Slowly, [Bob] reached for the“Slowly, [Bob] reached for the meat cleaver.”meat cleaver.” • Add the word “sic” (meaning thus) in italicsAdd the word “sic” (meaning thus) in italics within brackets after words that are misspelledwithin brackets after words that are misspelled or used incorrectly in a direct quote from aor used incorrectly in a direct quote from a printed source. This indicates the quote isprinted source. This indicates the quote is exactly like the original source.exactly like the original source. ““MacbethMacbeth is ais a grate [grate [sicsic] play.”] play.”
  • 13. Integrating QuotationsIntegrating Quotations Never just drop a quotation intoNever just drop a quotation into your paper. Alwaysyour paper. Always introduce itintroduce it andand explain itexplain it with your ownwith your own prose.prose. There are three main ways toThere are three main ways to introduce quotations. Theseintroduce quotations. These include:include:
  • 14. 1.1. Incorporate the quotation into yourIncorporate the quotation into your sentencesentence, punctuating it just as you, punctuating it just as you would if it was not a quotation.would if it was not a quotation. As Bob is being beaten, he hopes heAs Bob is being beaten, he hopes he “will“will become unconscious but [he] can’t.”become unconscious but [he] can’t.” Bob appraises Mrs. Harrison derisively,Bob appraises Mrs. Harrison derisively, stating thatstating that “she looked so complacent,“she looked so complacent, sitting there in her two-hundred dollar chairsitting there in her two-hundred dollar chair [. . . ] bought with dough her husband had[. . . ] bought with dough her husband had made overcharging poor hard-workingmade overcharging poor hard-working colored people for his incompetent services,colored people for his incompetent services, that I had a crazy impulse to needle her.”that I had a crazy impulse to needle her.”
  • 15. 2.2. Introduce the quotation by usingIntroduce the quotation by using an attributive tagan attributive tag likelike he writeshe writes,, sheshe claimsclaims, and so on., and so on. To describe his childlike consciousness,To describe his childlike consciousness, Wright explains,Wright explains, “Each event spoke with a“Each event spoke with a cryptic tongue. And the moments of livingcryptic tongue. And the moments of living slowly revealed their coded meanings.”slowly revealed their coded meanings.” After going to Memphis and boarding withAfter going to Memphis and boarding with Mrs. Moss, Wright wonders,Mrs. Moss, Wright wonders, “Was it wise“Was it wise to remain here with a seventeen-year-oldto remain here with a seventeen-year-old girl eager for marriage and a mothergirl eager for marriage and a mother equally anxious to have her marry me?”equally anxious to have her marry me?”
  • 16. 3.3. Introduce the quotation by writing aIntroduce the quotation by writing a full sentence and a colonfull sentence and a colon to introduceto introduce the quotation, which should itself be athe quotation, which should itself be a full sentence.full sentence. Bob’s description of Madge emphasizes herBob’s description of Madge emphasizes her fake appearance:fake appearance: “She was a peroxide blonde“She was a peroxide blonde with a large-featured, overly made-up face, andwith a large-featured, overly made-up face, and she had a large, bright-painted, fleshy mouth.”she had a large, bright-painted, fleshy mouth.” Richard Wright explains his reasons for writing:Richard Wright explains his reasons for writing: “I was striving for a level of expression that“I was striving for a level of expression that matched those of the novels I read.”matched those of the novels I read.”
  • 17. Block a quotation if it is four lines orBlock a quotation if it is four lines or longerlonger. Indent the quotation one half of. Indent the quotation one half of an inch on both sides, and punctuate itan inch on both sides, and punctuate it like the following example.like the following example. Wright describes how his mother’s illnessWright describes how his mother’s illness affected him:affected him: My mother’s suffering grew into aMy mother’s suffering grew into a symbol in my mind, gathering to itselfsymbol in my mind, gathering to itself all the poverty, the ignorance, theall the poverty, the ignorance, the helplessness; the painful, baffling,helplessness; the painful, baffling, hunger-ridden days and hours; thehunger-ridden days and hours; the restless moving, the futile seeking, therestless moving, the futile seeking, the uncertainty, the fear, the dread.uncertainty, the fear, the dread. (Wright 29)(Wright 29)
  • 18. Quote Explanations Your explanation for the quote must be much longer than the quote itself. The longer your quote, the longer your explanation needs to be. Explain the quote in your own words and state the significance. Why is this quote important? How does it show what you’re trying to prove in your thesis? Example: IQE Booker uses direct quotes from Mrs. Mobley as she reacts to her son’s battered body: “and cried out, ‘Darling you have not died in vain. Your life has been sacrificed for something’”(1). This quote from the Mrs. Mobley demonstrates her pain and suffering from the loss of her son and shows readers that Mrs. Mobley intended to take action. Booker uses these words from Till’s mother to prove to his audience that Emmet Till’s lynching caused change in society, the change for which his mother says he was sacrificed.
  • 19. IQE Rules  Always connect back to your thesis. If the quote doesn’t help prove your thesis—don’t use it.  Introduce (who’s talking, what’s happening, why is it important)  Quote (only use the necessary words, someone’s argument/opinion, evidence for thesis, use correct punctuation)  Explain (explain the argument in the quote, why is it important, connect to your thesis)
  • 20. Handling Quotes in Your TextHandling Quotes in Your Text Author’s last name and pageAuthor’s last name and page number(s) of quote mustnumber(s) of quote must appear in the textappear in the text Romantic poetry is characterizedRomantic poetry is characterized by theby the “spontaneous overflow of“spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”powerful feelings” (Wordsworth(Wordsworth 263).263). Wordsworth stated that RomanticWordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by apoetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful“spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”feelings” (263).(263).

Editor's Notes

  1. Examples: The two examples in this slide illustrate methods for including parenthetical citations in the text. If the author’s name is listed in the preceding sentence, only the page number of the quotation should appear in the parenthetical citation following the sentence. If the author’s name does not appear within the sentence, the parenthetical citation should include the author’s last name and the page number. In either case, a reader should be able to cross-reference back to the Works Cited page and locate all of the publication information needed to find Wordsworth’s work, in this case an excerpt in an anthology: Wordsworth, William. Preface to Lyrical Ballads. 1802. Romanticism: An Anthology. Ed. Duncan Wu. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1995. 250-69. The facilitator may also note that the parenthetical reference is located before the period.