Lesson 7 - Ethical Scholarship

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Lesson 7 - Ethical Scholarship

  1. 1. Lesson 7 RESEARCH WRITING 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Students will … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>utilise the Author-Date referencing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quote, paraphrase, cite and reference correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate samples of research writing </li></ul></ul>L e arning Out c om e s Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  3. 3. Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  4. 4. KEY TERM Plagiarism is … ‘ Plagiarism is presenting another person’s work, idea or creation as one’s own. If a student refers to the work of another person, it must be acknowledged’ ( Raffles Design Institute Student Handbook 2008, p.14). Plagiarism Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding of research </li></ul></ul>Why is plagiarism common? Plagiarism Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  6. 6. Plagiarism KEY QUOTE ‘ To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use another person's work. This means that whenever you use information obtained from another source including ideas, examples, theories or opinions, you must give a full reference to that source’ (Acknowledging Sources, 2004) <ul><ul><li>Provide full and correct citations and references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the report/presentation, you must give CITATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the report/presentation, you must give REFERENCES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both of these parts must be given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, it is PLAGIARISM </li></ul></ul>Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  7. 7. The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan, 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact. How do you give credit? Fig. 1: Citations and References References Colegrave, S. & Sullivan, C. (2001). Punk: The Definitive Record of a Revolution , London: Cassel & Co. Hebdige, D. (2003). Subculture: The Meaning of St yle, London: Routledge. Sabin, R. (ed.). (1999). Punk Rock: The Cultural Legacy of Punk , London: Routledge. Subculture (n.d.).  The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, 3rd edn. Retrieved: November 1, 2010, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/subculture
  8. 8. Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  9. 9. Discuss with your partner(s). Should you provide references and/or citations if you … <ul><li>… copy the author’s words exactly? </li></ul><ul><li>… change the author’s words but keep the meaning? </li></ul><ul><li>… copy a photo from the Internet to be included in an academic paper? </li></ul><ul><li>… take a graph from a published report? </li></ul><ul><li>… mention that the Earth travels around the sun once every 365.25 days? </li></ul><ul><li>… Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to America was in 1492? </li></ul><ul><li>… Columbus was not the first European to discover the Americas? </li></ul>TASK When do you give credit? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  10. 10. <ul><li>Record referencing details during research </li></ul><ul><li>Put all sources cited in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Author-Date Referencing System </li></ul><ul><li>List in alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Book, website and periodical titles italicised </li></ul><ul><li>Full details, plus the URL & retrieval date (today’s date) for Websites </li></ul>References Hose, C. (1912). The Pagan Tribes of Borneo . London: MacMillan. Sukandar, R. (2007). Negotiating Post-Conflict Communication, PhD Thesis, Ohio University . Retrieved: November 19, 2010, from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi/Sukandar%20Rudi.pdf?acc_num=ohiou1178895788 Transition to Crisis in the Indonesian Countryside. (2004). UCLA International Institute . Retrieved: November 19, 2010, from http:// www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid =6780 How do you Reference? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  11. 11. Text 1 – Book 1. List author in the order they are given on the title page, with family names first, followed by the initial of their first names 2. Provide the year of publication. Use the most recent copyright date for books 3. Give the full title of the book and put it in italics . 5. Give the name of the publisher 4. Give the city/country of publication Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996). Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996). Core Personnel and Development. Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996). Core Personnel and Development. London Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996). Core Personnel and Development. London: Institute of Personnel and Development. Lesson Six Research Writing 1 Title page Copyright Page 1 2 3 4 5
  12. 12. How would you reference this? Lesson Six Research Writing 1 Bell, J. (1999). Doing Your Research Project (3 rd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.
  13. 13. TASK Write a list of References <ul><ul><li>Use the sources provided (texts 1-3) & the Referencing Handout to make a list of references </li></ul></ul>How do you Reference? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  14. 14. Text 2 – Journal Article Lesson Six Research Writing 1 Authors’ names : Family name followed by initial(s) of first name(s) Year of publication Article title Journal title (in italics ) Volume, number : the number of years the journal has been publishing, followed by the number of parts this year Pages of Article
  15. 15. Text 3 – Magazine Article Lesson Six Research Writing 1 No author given, begin reference with title of article Date published Title of magazine (in italics ) Title of article Page Year published
  16. 16. Text 4 – Article hosted on Website Lesson Six Research Writing 1 Website address Date article published (if available) Website publisher (in italics ) Author’s name (if available) Date you accessed the website
  17. 17. References Bell, J. (1999). Doing Your Research Project (3rd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. Buruma, I. (2001). Nothing surprises the Chinese. The Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved: May 4, 2011, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,7369,579120,00.html Kenny, C. & Williams, D. (2001). What do we know about economic growth? Or, why don’t we know very much? World Development , 29(1), 1-22. Marchington, M. & Wilkinson, A. (1996). Core Personnel and Development. London: Institute of Personnel and Development. The Case for Brands. (2001, September 8). The Economist , p. 9. Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  18. 18. Research Paragraph Structure Lesson Six Research Writing 1 The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact. References Colegrave, S. & Sullivan, C. (2001). Punk: The Definitive Record of a Revolution , London: Cassel & Co. Hebdige, D. (2003). Subculture: The Meaning of St yle, London: Routledge. Sabin, R (ed.). (1999). Punk Rock: The Cultural Legacy of Punk , London: Routledge. Subculture (n.d.).  The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, 3rd edn. Retrieved: November 1, 2010, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/subculture Introduction The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact. Research The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact. Conclusion The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact.
  19. 19. Citations: Quotations: Paraphrases: Lesson Six Research Writing 1 References Colegrave, S. & Sullivan, C. (2001). Punk: The Definitive Record of a Revolution , London: Cassel & Co. Hebdige, D. (2003). Subculture: The Meaning of St yle, London: Routledge. Sabin, R (ed.). (1999). Punk Rock: The Cultural Legacy of Punk , London: Routledge. Subculture (n.d.).  The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, 3rd edn. Retrieved: November 1, 2010, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/subculture The punk subculture swept Britain thirty years ago and turned mainstream culture on its head. Subcultures are often associated with antisocial behaviour, indeed the American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that ‘the term is often used to describe deviant groups’ (Subculture, n.d.). Hebdige calls this revolutionary feature of social subcultures the ‘symbolic violation of the social order’ (2003, p.19) and while the origins of the punk rebellion are complex, they can be traced back to the anti-establishment movements of the 1960s and the social unrest felt by much of Britain’s lower classes in the early 1970s (Colgrave & Sullivan 2001, p.48). According to Sabin however, punk was not isolated to symbolic areas such as style and music, but also impacted politics and the wider culture (1999, p. 2). However, it was in the world of fashion that punk had its most visible and long-lasting impact.
  20. 20. Figure 6. Write a research paragraph <ul><li>From page 125 of Teri Gamble’s 2005 book Communication Works published by McGraw Hill in New York: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexist language perpetuates negative stereotypes and negatively affects our communication … The use of male generics, including mankind, chairman, spokesman, manpower … may cause men to be perceived as more important or significant than women. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From page 485 of International English Usage by Loreto Hodd and Ian Hancock, published 1990 by Routledge, London: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many names which reduce women in age, humanity or status, such as chick, babe, bird or doll. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Write an introductory sentence explaining the paragraph topic </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discuss the sources using paraphrase and/or quotation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Write a concluding sentence (‘So what?’ sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Give full citations and references in author/date style </li></ul>Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  21. 21. The English language is unfair to women. According to Gamble, words like mankind and manpower create the unfair impression that men are more important than women (2005, p.125) while Hodd & Hancock point out that words like ‘ chick, babe, bird or doll’ make women appear to be less mature or even less human than men (1990, p.485). It is obvious that such unfair male and female words reveal traditional gender imbalances. References Gamble, T. (2005). Communication Works . New York: McGraw Hill. Hodd, L. & Hancock, I. (1990). International English Usage . London: Routledge. Figure 6. Write a research paragraph Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  22. 22. TASK <ul><li>Students were asked to write a paragraph on the topic ‘The Origins of Australia’s Aborigine People’ using whichever of the 5 sources (Handout p. 9) they thought were suitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Grade the students’ paragraphs (Handout p.10): </li></ul><ul><li>A = exceptional performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B = above average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B- = average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = below average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C- = above essential minimum requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D = fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG = no grade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give reasons for your answers. </li></ul>Is this research writing worthy of an A grade or an F grade? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  23. 23. <ul><li>They came from South-East Asia because: </li></ul><ul><li>Australia is closest to South-East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Their physical appearance is much like people in Indian subcontinent </li></ul><ul><li>Their population is mostly found in Northern Australia at the present time </li></ul><ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians </li></ul>1 <ul><li>No clear evidence of research – no quotations, paraphrases or citations; No analysis of research – links not discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly presented and incorrectly formatted </li></ul><ul><li>Source of ideas and information unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a poor source: Wikipedia </li></ul>How do I write research? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  24. 24. 2 After the Europeans came, Australia underwent many changes (Clark p. 9). ‘Aboriginal being and history until now, the last period, has been dominated by Anglo-Celts’ (Narogin 1990). ‘It has been long accepted that Aborigines arrived in Australia some 40,000 years ago’ (1988, p. 80). While Wikipedia states that the lower end of this range (50,000 BC) has wider acceptance. List of References Manning Clark, A Short History of Australia . Elder 1988 , Great Events in Australia’s History: From Discovery to Present Indigenous Australians 2008, Wikipedia . Retrieved: March 5, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians <ul><li>Over-quoting </li></ul><ul><li>Research not clearly introduced, linked together or explained </li></ul><ul><li>Citations and List of References incomplete and incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>Poor source </li></ul>How do I write research? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  25. 25. 3 So far scientists are still arguing about the origins of the aborigines. One thesis stated by Elder is that they possibly came from South-East Asia, by raft or canoes. He showed where Aborigines came from quite specifically. However, in regards to the way they immigrated, Elder just mentioned sea-travel, and did not give any idea about other ways such as by land bridge between Asia and Australia continent before they were separated. Thus, this issue might require more research (1988, p. 80). List of References Elder, B (Ed.). (1988). Great Events in Australia’s History: From Discovery to Present . Sydney: Child and Associates. <ul><li>Citation positioned wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Based on just one source – poor research </li></ul>How do I write research? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  26. 26. 4 The origins of Australia’s Aborigines are still a mystery. According to Elder’s Great Events in Australia’s History , ‘No one knows where they come from’ (1988, p. 80). Experts are not sure when they arrived either, Clark claims they came 30,000 years ago (1986, p. 9), Elder is less sure and estimates between 40,000 and 55,000 years ago (1988, p. 80). It is clear that even the most fundamental questions regarding the origins of the first Australians remain and will only be answered by future research in Australia and the Asian region. List of References Clark, M. (1986). A Short History of Australia (6th ed.). Melbourne: Penguin. Elder, B (Ed.). (1988). Great Events in Australia’s History: From Discovery to Present . Sydney: Child and Associates. <ul><li>Links between sources discussed – highlights different information in the two books </li></ul><ul><li>Good use of quotation and paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Clear explanation and comment on research </li></ul>How do I write research? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  27. 27. 5 There are a number of quite different versions about the origins of Australia’s Aborigines and each version reflects the particular perspectives or world-views of their authors. For example, Aboriginal writers such as Noonuccal and Noonuccal (1988, p. 20-23) describe how all people originate from the Rainbow Serpent during the ‘Time of the Dreaming’ - a period before the coming of Europeans which is viewed as prehistorical and somehow outside 'Western' concepts of history (Narogin 1990, p. 5). Some historians, however, refer to archaeological findings to support claims that Aborigines arrived there between 30,000 (Clark 1986, p. 9) and 55,000 years ago from either the Indian subcontinent, Asia or the Philippines (Elder 1988, p. 80). Historians such as these seem to negate the Aboriginal oral culture as a source of accurate information and, as Narogin points out, in order to address this topic comprehensively, research into the oral records of different Aboriginal communities needs to be undertaken (Narogin 1990, p. 5). References Clark, M. (1986). A Short History of Australia (6th ed.) Melbourne: Penguin. Elder, B. (ed.) (1988). Great Events in Australia’s History: From Discovery to Present . Sydney: Child and Associates. Narogin, M. (1990). Writing from the Fringe: A Study of Modern Aboriginal Literature . Victoria: Hyland House. Noonuccal, O. & Noonuccal, K. (1988). The Rainbow Serpent. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. <ul><li>Extensive analysis of multiple sources; clear topic sentence and explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Good use of quotation and paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Complete and correct citations and references </li></ul><ul><li>Explores ideas as well as information </li></ul>How do I write research?
  28. 28. 6 Aborigines are the native people of Australia and the surrounding islands. There are a number of theories regarding their origins, though most agree that they came to Australia around 50,000 BC. There is still much uncertainty about where they came from however, though it seems likely that they arrived via Indonesia and peninsular South-East Asia. Aborigines have their own traditions which tell of their origins but these are dismissed by historians as more fantastic than the myths they seek to replace. <ul><li>No evidence of research given </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased without citations or references </li></ul><ul><li>Writer pretends the ideas and information are his/her own </li></ul><ul><li>The final sentence copied but quotation marks are not used </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism! </li></ul>How do I write research? Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  29. 29. REFERENCES Acknowledging Sources. (2004). Language and Learning Skills Unit – The University of Melbourne . Retrieved: 31 July 2010 from http://www.services.unimelb.edu.au/llsu/resources/ref009.html Harvard (Author/Date) Style. (2005). The University of Melbourne Library. Retrieved: 31 July 2010 from http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cite/harvard_dis/ Harvard Referencing. (2005). Curtin University. Retrieved: 12 March, 2010 from http://library.curtin.edu.au/referencing/harvard.pdf Raffles Design Institute Student Handbook 2008, Student and Administrative Services Department, Singapore. Summers, J. & Smith, B. (2004). Communication Skills Handbook , Australia: John Wiley and Sons. Lesson Six Research Writing 1
  30. 30. Lesson Six Research Writing 1 <ul><li>Project Step 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation 3: Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a 5-6 minute presentation explaining your primary research methods . </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how you will collect information/data on the topic. Explain whether you decided to do quantitative or qualitative research and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Which method(s) will you use? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will you sample ? How? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions will you ask? Give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you foresee? </li></ul><ul><li>Detail your sources . </li></ul><ul><li>Design PowerPoint slides . </li></ul>homework
  31. 31. <ul><li>Prepare for Examination </li></ul><ul><li>15%, 60 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be tested on the content of lessons through a series of MCQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Revise (Lessons 2 – 7): </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methods 1, 2 and 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary research, Secondary research, Quantitative, Qualitative, Methods, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing & Research Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing, Quoting, Plagiarism, author-date referencing, etc. </li></ul>homework

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