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Vida y Obra

Vida y Obra

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  • «Mi pelo es audaz comoresina de castaño;y mis ojos, como eljerez en la copaque el huésped deja» Carta
  • EMILY DICKINSON(1830—1886)
  • EmilyDickinson 4 View slide
  • Nombres líricos que le han sido dados:“La reclusa de Amherst”“La Vestal de Amherst”“La monja de Amherst”“La bella de Amherst” 5 View slide
  •  Es la autora norteamericana más conocida. Una de los mejores poetas, si no la mejor de dicha literatura. Es una escritora de lo más destacado de toda la poesía estadounidense. Una escritora de gran poder y belleza. Fue una mujer que no se caso y pudo dedicarse a la literatura. Solo contamos con los 1775 poemas recuperados por su hermana y publicados por primera vez por su sobrina. Durante su vida, se resistió a darlos a conocer y sólo siete de ellos fueron publicados, algunos sin su nombre 6
  •  Fue una mujer inteligente, intensamente sensible y apasionada profundamente. Escribió poemas que eran sorprendentemente originales tanto en contenido como en técnica. También se le reconoce por su uso creativo de la metáfora y el estilo innovador global. 7
  •  Se cuestionó a fondo sobre su familia puritana calvinista y exploró en el trabajo poético su propia espiritualidad, a menudo conmovedora, siempre profundamente personal. La creación de sus poemas era concisa y con imágenes ; a veces, eran ingeniosos e irónicos, a menudo valientes y francos, pero cada uno de ellos ilumina la aguda percepción que tenía de la condición humana. 8
  •  La obra de Dickinson ha tenido una influencia considerable en la poesía moderna. Su uso frecuente de guiones, la capitalización esporádica de los sustantivos, el rompimiento del metro, fuera de rimas, metáforas poco convencionales han contribuido a su reputación como una escritora de lo más innovadora del siglo 19 en la literatura norteamericana. Ella ha influenciado desde entonces a muchos otros autores y poetas incluidos los del siglo 21 9
  •  Nacio en Amherst, en una de las familias más prominentes de Massachusetts, el 10 de diciembre de 1830. Fue la segunda hija de Emily Norcross y Edward Dickinson, un graduado de Yale, abogado de éxito, Tesorero de Amherst College y miembro del Congreso de Estados Unidos. 10
  •  Her older brother was named William Austin Dickinson (known as Austin) who would marry her most intimate friend Susan Gilbert in 1856. The Dickinsons were strong advocates for education and Emily too benefited from an early education in classic literature, studying the writings of Virgil and Latin, mathematics, history, and botany. 11
  •  Durante dos años estudió en la Academia de Amherst y de pasar una más en el Seminario Femenino de Mount Holyoke. Rara vez deja Amherst. Más tarde, ella hizo un viaje hasta Washington, y dos o tres viajes a Boston. Dickinson estaba "afligido" dos veces cuando ella perdió a sus "tutores": Benjamín Newton en 1853 y Charles Wadsworth en 1862. 12
  •  Newton, un estudiante de derecho en la oficina de su padre, pudo haber sido el responsable de presentarla a Emerson y otras influencias literarias. Wadsworth, el ministro casado, a quien Emily Dickinson puede tener afecto 13
  •  Dickinson lee vorazmente poesía y poetas llamado "el más querido de los tiempos, los más fuertes amigos de alma." Ella admiraba la poesía de Robert y Elizabeth Barrett Browning, así como John Keats. Ella se retiró de contacto social y se dedicó a escribir su trabajo sin esperar verlo publicado. Murió el 15 de mayo de 1886, a la edad de cincuenta y seis años.  Su tumba esta en el Cementerio Oeste de Amherst, Condado de Hampshire, en Massachusetts 14
  •  "Porque no puedo detenerme a morir "Oigo el zumbido de las moscas cuando yo muera Mi vida se cerró dos veces antes de cerrarse "Me gustaría ver que lo lleva a miles de kilómetros 15
  •  collections: Poems, Series 1 in 1890, Poems, Series 2 in 1891, and Poems, Series 3 in 1896. Her three-volume poetry, Poems of Emily Dickinson, is brief and condensed, characterized by unusual rhyming and swift flashes of insight. The collection Letter of Emily Dickinson was published in 1958. 16
  •  Dickinson’s poetry had no abstract theory of poetry. It is not certain if she was familiar with the poetic theories. When editor Thomas Higginson asked her to define poetry, she answered: "If I read a book and it makes my whole body so cold no fire can ever warm me, I know that is poetry. If I feel physically as if the top of my head were taken off, I know that is poetry. These are the only ways I know it. Is there any other way?" 17
  •  “Like Ezra Pound, William Carlos and e.e. cummings, Emily Dickinson sought to speak the uniqueness of her experience in a personal tongue by reconstituting and revitalizing– at the risk of eccentricity– the basic verbal unit.” (The Emily Dickinson Handbook, 275) 1. Highly compressed, compact, shy of being exposed (“Tell all the Truth but tell it slant”). 2. Her style is elliptical. She will say no more than she must, suggesting either a quality of uncertainty or one of finality. 3. Her lyrics are highly subjective. One-fifth of them begin with "I" –she knows no other consciousness. 18
  •  4. Ambiguity of meaning and syntax. “She almost always grasped whatever she sought, but with some fracture of grammar and dictionary.” (Higginson) 5. Concreteness Even when she is talking of the most abstract of subjects, Emily specifies it by elaborating it in the concreteness of simile or metaphor. 6. Use of poetic forms such as alliteration( 头韵 ), assonance( 谐音 ), and consonance( 和音 ); also onomatopoetic effects( 拟声 ) 幻灯片 18 19
  •  -- We slowly drove, he knew no haste, And I had put away My labor, and my leisure too, For his civility. • -- ’T was later when the summer went Than when the cricket came, And yet we knew that gentle clock Meant nought but going home. ’T was sooner when the cricket went Than when the winter came, Yet that pathetic pendulum Keeps esoteric time. 20
  •  7. Obscurity. " ... she was obscure, and sometimes inscrutable.” (Higginson ) 8. Caesura A pause within a line of poetry, usually indicated by a mark of punctuation (some poets can achieve this without punctuation) The Sunrise—Sire—compelleth Me— Because He’s Sunrise—and I see— Therefore—Then— I love Thee— 21
  •  9.Irregular Capitalization -- To personify the word -- To create emphasis -- To establish a parallel between words/ideas Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped for me; The Carriage held but just Ourselves And Immortality. 22
  •  A few themes occupied the poet: love, nature, doubt and faith, suffering, death, immortality – these John Donne has called the great granite obsessions (Compulsive preoccupations; anxieties) of humankind. 23
  •  Amor A pesar de que se sentía sola y aislada, Emily parece haber amado profundamente, tal vez sólo los que han "amado y perdido" el amor puede, con una intensidad y deseo que nunca se pueden cumplir en la realidad del contacto de los amantes. 24
  •  “Why do I love” You, Sir? Because— The Wind does not require the Grass To answer—Wherefore when He pass She cannot keep Her place. Because He knows—and Do not You— And We know not— Enough for Us The Wisdom it be so— 25
  •  The Lightning—never asked an Eye Wherefore it shut—when He was by— Because He knows it cannot speak— And reasons not contained— —Of Talk— There be—preferred by Daintier Folk— The Sunrise—Sire—compelleth Me— Because Hes Sunrise—and I see— Therefore—Then— I love Thee— 26
  • Temas en la poesía de Dickinson Two candidates have been presented: Reverend Charles Wadsworth, with whom she corresponded, and Samuel Bowles, editor of the Springfield Republican, to whom she addressed many poems. In 1861-62 she had a crisis; it is not known if she ever fully recovered. Wadsworth had moved to San Francisco and Bowles disappointed her by traveling in 1861 to Europe. He returned in Autumn 1862. At that time Dickinson did not want to meet him or write to him any more 27
  •  Naturaleza A fascination with nature consumed Emily. (“I taste a liquor never brewed”) She summed all her lyrics as "the simple news that nature told." She loved "natures creatures" no matter how insignificant it is. (“A Bird cam down the Walk”; “Nobody knows this little Rose”) Only the serpent gave her a chill. 28
  •  Nobody knows this little Rose— It might a pilgrim be Did I not take it from the ways And lift it up to thee. Only a Bee will miss it— Only a Butterfly, Hastening from far journey— On its breast to lie— Only a Bird will wonder— Only a Breeze will sigh— Ah Little Rose— how easy For such as thee to die! 29
  •  Faith and Doubt (“Faith is doubt”) Emily was Puritan, but she reacted strenuously against two of them: infant damnation and Gods sovereign election of His own. This explains a kind of paradoxical or ambivalent attitude toward matters religious. She loved to speak of a compassionate Savior and the grandeur of the Scriptures (经 文) , but she disliked the hypocrisy and arbitrariness of institutional church. 30
  •  "Faith" is a fine invention For Gentlemen who see! But Microscopes are prudent In an Emergency! 31
  •  The going from a world we know To one a wonder still Is like the childs adversity Whose vista is a hill, Behind the hill is sorcery And everything unknown, But will the secret compensate For climbing it alone? 32
  •  Pain and Suffering She is eager to examine pain, to measure it, to calculate it, to intellectualize it as fully as possible. Her last stanzas become a catalog of grief and its causes: death, want, cold, despair, exile. “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” 33
  •  Death She is able to probe the fact of human death. She often adopts the pose of having already died before she writes her lyric. She can look straight at approaching death. her father Edward died suddenly in 1874 In 1878 her friend Samuel Bowles died and another of her esteemed friends Charles Wadsworth died in 1882, the same year her mother succumbed to her lengthy illness. A year later her brother Austin’s son Gilbert died. 34
  •  “Because I could not stop for Death”; “I died for beauty-- but was scarce”; “I heard a Fly buzz– when I died--”; “Because I could not stop for Death” 35
  •  Major pattern is that of a sermon. Her poem is usually structured as statement or introduction of topic, elaboration, and conclusion There are three variations of this major pattern: 1. The poet makes her initial announcement of topic in an unfigured line. 2. She uses a figure for that purpose. 3. She repeats her statement and its elaboration a number of times before drawing a conclusion. 36
  •  She writes about death and immortality, nature, religion, success and failure. The largest portion of Dickinson’s poetry concerns death and immortality. For Dickinson, death leads to immortality. Dickinson sees nature as both gaily benevolent and cruel. On the ethical level, Dickinson holds that beauty, truth and goodness are ultimately one. 37
  •  Dickinson was greatly influenced by Emerson’s transcendentalism. She had a profound love for nature and was often intoxicated with the beauty of nature. This poem is a fine example. The poet compares nature to liquor that has never been brewed and herself to a debauchee ( 浪 荡 子 )who loves wine more than her life. The image the poet uses to suggest drunkenness indicates her deep love for nature. 38
  •  This poem employs all of Dickinsons formal patterns: trimeter and tetrameter iambic lines (four stresses in the first and third lines of each stanza, three in the second and fourth, a pattern Dickinson follows at her most formal); rhythmic insertion of the long dash to interrupt the meter; and an ABCB rhyme scheme. 39
  • "I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--..." Interestingly, all the rhymes before the final stanza are half-rhymes (Room/Storm, firm/Room, be/Fly), while only the rhyme in the final stanza is a full rhyme (me/see). Dickinson uses this technique to build tension; a sense of true completion comes only with the speakers death. 40
  •  One of Dickinsons most famous poems, "I heard a Fly buzz" strikingly describes the mental distraction posed by irrelevant details at even the most crucial moments--even at the moment of death. The poem then becomes even weirder and more macabre by transforming the tiny, normally disregarded fly into the figure of death itself, as the flys wing cuts the speaker off from the light until she cannot "see to see." But the fly does not grow in power or stature; its final severing act is performed "With Blue-- uncertain stumbling Buzz--." 41
  • "I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--..." This poem is also remarkable for its detailed evocation of a deathbed scene-- the dying persons loved ones steeling themselves for the end, the dying woman signing away in her will "What portion of me be / Assignable" (a turn of phrase that seems more Shakespearean than it does Dickinsonian). 42
  •  En este poema, Dickinson utiliza imágenes recordadas del pasado para aclarar conceptos infinitos mediante el establecimiento de una relación dialéctica entre la realidad y la imaginación, lo conocido y lo desconocido. Al ver esta relación de manera integral y ordenando jerárquicamente las etapas de la vida que incluyen la muerte y la eternidad, Dickinson sugiere la naturaleza interconectada y mutuamente determinada de lo finito y lo infinito. 43
  •  Tanto los poemas de Emily Dickinson como los Walt Whitman, fueron considerados como parte del «Renacimiento Americano ". Ellos eran considerados como pioneros del imaginismo. Ambos rechazaron la costumbre y sabiduría recibida y experimentaron con el estilo poético. 44
  •  Whitman parece mantener el ojo puesto en la sociedad en general. Dickinson explora la vida interior de la persona. Whitman es "nacional" en su perspectiva. Dickinson es "regional" en su perspectiva 45