EVOLUTION OF WEB BROWSERS By Jyothi N 4th sem MLISc Dept of LIS Bangalore university
Introduction: The tool we use to browse our favourite website has a long and rich history with battles for market share and dominance. In order to surf the web, you need a web browser, and today there are several different ones. No matter which browser you choose to surf the web with, the features you take for granted today are the result of nearly two decades of browser design.
Definition: “A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and passing over information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content”. Or It is a software application to accesses information provided by Web servers. Brings information resources to the user. Retrieve, present, and traverse information resources on the World Wide Web.
Current Web browsers: Internet Explorer for Mac Internet Explorer for windows Lynx Mosaic Mozilla Mozilla Firefox Netscape Omni Web Safari Opera Google chrome
WorldWideWeb (1990) World‟s first web browser, coded by Tim Berners-Lee, who is the inventor of web. The groundwork for WorldWideWeb began in the late 1980s. In 1990, it was the only way to see the web. It was officially introduced in 1991. It was the first graphical web browser and WYSIWYG HTML editor. WorldWideWeb could display basic style sheets and navigation menu contained "back," "next," and "previous" buttons, but the browser also served as an editor. It was renamed to Nexus avoid the confusion between the www system. The source code was released into the public domain
Mosaic (1992) Mosaic was a major improvement in web clients that made web browsing more friendly with features like icons, bookmarks and more attractive interface.• By 1994, Mosaic had a user base of several million usersworldwide. It was also a client forearlier protocols suchas FTP, Usenet, and Gopher.
Erwise (1992) worlds first graphical point-and-click browser was Erwise. Developed by four Finnish students at the Helsinki University of Technology, Erwise was designed for UNIX computers running the X Windows System. Advanced for its time, Erwise had the ability to search for words on web pages. If it didnt find the word it was looking for, it would scour the internet, up to 12 pages at a time, to try to find it. Erwise could also load multiple pages at the same time, but despite all the innovation and promise, it was never commercialized, the result of a "horrible recession" in Finland at the time.
ViolaWWW (1992) One of the earliest browsers, ViolaWWW was launched in May 1992. It was written by Pei-Yuan Wei, a University of California student, and like Erwise, was built for UNIX and the X Windowing System. This gave the browser a limited audience. Notable features include the ability to use multi font text, functioning within a single windows operation and the ability to clone a copy of a document in other windows, inclusion of a History window, "Home", "Back", and "Forward" buttons, online help buttons, and even bookmarks.
MidasWWW (1992) Another X browser, MidasWWW was released in November of 1992. It was developed by Tony Johnson at SLAC, who named it Midas for Motif Interactive Data Analysis Shell.„ One of the few innovations of MidasWWW was that hyperlinks changed color after you clicked on them. It was also the first browser to
Lynx (1992) Although Erwise had already broken ground with a graphical interface, Lynx, also released in 1992, was a text-only browser originally developed by the University of Kansas to distribute campus information. It would later find an audience with the visually impaired because of its text-to-speech interface. In 1993, a student named Lou Montulli added an Internet interface to the application and released it as Lynx 2.0. This became popular for character mode terminals that didnt rely on graphics, although Lynx does possess the ability to launch external
Netscape (1994) Marc Andeerssen, the leader of Mosaic team at NCSA, soon started his own company named Netscape. Netscape released Netscape Navigator in 1994. First commercial web browser. Became the most used web browser of its time and reached 90% of all web use at its peak. By 2002 its usage had almost disappeared. This was partly due to the increased usage of Microsofts Internet Explorer web browser software and other web browsers
Internet Explorer (1995) Microsoft initiated the web browsers by launching Internet Explorer in 1995 (influenced by Mosaic). Internet Explorer was included with Windows that created tough competition for Mosaic. It effectively started off the first browser war for the market dominance. It has been the most widely used web browser since 1999, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share during 2002 and 2003 with IE5 and IE6. Latest official release - Internet Explorer 8 (IE8) in March of 2009. Next major release - Internet Explorer 9, is currently in development.
Opera (1996) After working with Telenor, Opera released its own web browser in 1996. It was Opera version 2.0. Opera never achieved widespread use as a desktop web browser.
Apple Safari (2003) Apple publically launched web browser for their operating system, Mac OS X, on June 2003 named Safari. A version of Safari for the Microsoft Windows operating system, first released on June 11, 2007, supports windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. The latest stable release of the browser is 5.0, which is available as a free download for both Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. As of 2010, Safari is the fourth most widely used browser, following Google
Mozilla Firefox (2004) Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross started an experimental project (Firefox) as a branch of Mozilla project. Firefox1.0 was released in the end of 2004. Firefox project has undergone several name changes. Initially it was named Phoenix but later it was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies.
Google Chrome (2008) Google Chrome‟s first Beta version was released on 2 September 2008 for Microsoft Windows. Google Chrome got famous because of its light and simple looks. It made significant gains in market share. It overtook Firefox for 2nd place in 2011.