The Big-AssView on Competence
Jurgen Appelo
jurgen@noop.nl
version 3
(and Communication)
Jurgen Appelo
writer, speaker,
entrepreneur...
www.jurgenappelo.com
Get my new book for FREE! m30.me/ss
Goal 1:
How can we grow a competent organization?
Goal 2:
Can we manipulate communication to grow competence?
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake...
Safest traffic in the world
1. Marshall Islands
2. San Marino
3. Malta
4. Iceland
5. Netherlands
6. Sweden
7. United Kingd...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/
We can learn how to
manage software teams
by studying management
of similar systems
(like traffic management)
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake...
A collection of competing stimulus-response rules
that respond to input, and generate output
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
It has a performance system with credit assignment
where rules with good results are triggered more often
Learning classif...
It achieves adaptability through rule discovery:
generation and recombination of building blocks
Learning classifier system
Learning classifier system
And thus we learn that…
Diversity of practices in a software team enhances adaptability
Subsidiarity principle
“The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central
authority should have a subsidiary ...
Subsidiarity principle
And thus…
Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem
(team members decide unless ther...
Precautionary principle
Assuming that things are risky, in
the absence of evidence.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautio...
Precautionary principle
And thus…
Decide who has the burden of proof for competency
(assume team members are competent, un...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/
Shared space
Increased risk perception
People are less mindful when they see no risks
Reduced false security / risk compen...
Shared space
And thus…
Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security
Memetics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memeplex
A memeplex is a collection of ideas grouped together because
copying them i...
Memetics
And thus…
Adopting a named collection of practices (Scrum, XP, Kanban)
can be more successful than copying indivi...
Broken windows
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixing_Broken_Windows
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewin's_Equation
When broke...
Broken windows
And thus…
Address the small problems, not just the big ones
Agile Manifesto
On the 2nd page…
“Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design
enhances agility”
Excellenc...
But how do we
develop competence?
Wake up call!
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake...
Maturity models (like the CMMI)?
Level 1: Initial Process is unpredictable
Level 2: Managed Process is often reactive
Leve...
“Many of these ‘Process Maturity’ models do not explicitly take into
account that organizations are complex social systems...
Three maturity levels (for skill)
Shu traditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice)
Ha detachment, breaking with ...
Six maturity levels (for discipline)
Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.”
Variable “We do whate...
Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
1. Self-development
People must learn...
urgence vs. importance
time management
boosting memory
finding motivation
2. Coaching
Hire external coaches
Develop competency leaders
Note: manager != coach
3. Certification
By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but...
it can catalyze all other competency measures
4. Social pressure
Let people identify with a small group
Give them shared responsibility for shared goals
5. Adaptable tools
Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable
Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports
6. Supervision
Have someone sample/check the products of teams
7. Management
One-on-ones to assess problem situations
360 degree meetings to assess collaboration
1. Self-Development
2. Coaching
3. Certification
4. Social Pressure
5. AdaptableTools
6. Supervision
7. Management
7 Appro...
Wake up call!
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake...
The workplace is a network
Individual competence
“We learned that individual expertise did not
distinguish people as high performers.What
distinguish...
Individual competence
“Engineers are roughly five times more likely to
turn to a person for information as to an
impersona...
“Archetypes” of communicators
Hubs draw information and broadcast it
Gatekeepers carefully managing information flows
Puls...
“Types” of communicators
Connectors exchange information with many people
Mavens invest more time in people
Salesmen maste...
Scale-invariant networks (fractals)
Best communication across all scales
http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion
“The idea of “chunking”: a group of items is perceived as a
single “chunk”.The chunk’s boundary is a little like a cell
me...
<- preferred
Segmentation of teams
Design Principle 1 (DP1)
(through a manager)
Design Principle 2 (DP2)
(not through a manager)
Communication across teams
(...
Style Structure DP
1 Functional 1 (through manager)
2 Functional 2 (through team)
3 Cross-functional 1 (through manager)
4...
Value units
System administrators
GUI designers
Project Mgt Office
Community of Practice
Center of Excellence
Human Resour...
Wake up call!
Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake...
Learn from systems
1. Time
2. People
3. Tools
4. Functionality
5. Quality
6. Process
7. Value
Develop competence in 7 dimensions
Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
1. Self-Development
2. Coaching
3. Certification
4. Social Pressure
5. AdaptableTools
6. Supervision
7. Management
Use 7 a...
Distinguish 4 styles for teams
Grow a value network (panarchy)
A
D
C
E
B
“Insofar as the business environment is becoming
more complex, firms will need to [...] shift away
from bureaucracies and ...
the end
@jurgenappelo
slideshare.net/jurgenappelo
noop.nl
linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo
jurgen@noop.nl
www.management30.com
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and
I cannot po...
The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)
The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)
The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)
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The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)

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This is an alternative version of "On the Road to Competence", with some stuff added about organizational structure.

http://www.noop.nl
http://www.jurgenappelo.com

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The Big-Ass View on Competence (and Communication)

  1. 1. The Big-AssView on Competence Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl version 3 (and Communication)
  2. 2. Jurgen Appelo writer, speaker, entrepreneur... www.jurgenappelo.com
  3. 3. Get my new book for FREE! m30.me/ss
  4. 4. Goal 1: How can we grow a competent organization?
  5. 5. Goal 2: Can we manipulate communication to grow competence?
  6. 6. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  7. 7. Safest traffic in the world 1. Marshall Islands 2. San Marino 3. Malta 4. Iceland 5. Netherlands 6. Sweden 7. United Kingdom 8. Switzerland 9. Japan 10. Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobjagendorf/4122137519/
  8. 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/
  9. 9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/
  10. 10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/
  11. 11. We can learn how to manage software teams by studying management of similar systems (like traffic management)
  12. 12. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  13. 13. A collection of competing stimulus-response rules that respond to input, and generate output http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_classifier_system Learning classifier system
  14. 14. It has a performance system with credit assignment where rules with good results are triggered more often Learning classifier system
  15. 15. It achieves adaptability through rule discovery: generation and recombination of building blocks Learning classifier system
  16. 16. Learning classifier system And thus we learn that… Diversity of practices in a software team enhances adaptability
  17. 17. Subsidiarity principle “The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidiarity
  18. 18. Subsidiarity principle And thus… Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem (team members decide unless there is some lack of competence)
  19. 19. Precautionary principle Assuming that things are risky, in the absence of evidence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle http://kwebble.com/blog/tag/haarlem
  20. 20. Precautionary principle And thus… Decide who has the burden of proof for competency (assume team members are competent, unless proven they’re not)
  21. 21. http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/
  22. 22. Shared space Increased risk perception People are less mindful when they see no risks Reduced false security / risk compensation People show riskier behavior when they think they are safe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space
  23. 23. Shared space And thus… Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security
  24. 24. Memetics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memeplex A memeplex is a collection of ideas grouped together because copying them is more successful when they are “teamed up”
  25. 25. Memetics And thus… Adopting a named collection of practices (Scrum, XP, Kanban) can be more successful than copying individual practices
  26. 26. Broken windows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixing_Broken_Windows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewin's_Equation When broken windows are not repaired people have the tendency to break more windows Lewin’s Equation B = f (P,E) Behavior is a function of personality and environment
  27. 27. Broken windows And thus… Address the small problems, not just the big ones
  28. 28. Agile Manifesto On the 2nd page… “Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility” Excellence… how? http://www.agilemanifesto.org/principles.html
  29. 29. But how do we develop competence?
  30. 30. Wake up call!
  31. 31. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  32. 32. Maturity models (like the CMMI)? Level 1: Initial Process is unpredictable Level 2: Managed Process is often reactive Level 3: Defined Process is proactive Level 4: Qualitatively Managed Process is measured/controlled Level 5: Optimizing Focus on process improvement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration
  33. 33. “Many of these ‘Process Maturity’ models do not explicitly take into account that organizations are complex social systems. If it is performance that really counts, then we need to go beyond maturity to look at how an organization develops business process competence.” Andrew Spanyi, “Beyond Process Maturity to Process Competence.” http://processownercoach.com/To%20Process%20Competence.pdf Maturity models (like the CMMI)?
  34. 34. Three maturity levels (for skill) Shu traditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice) Ha detachment, breaking with tradition (journeyman) Ri transcendence, everything is natural (master) (last column: three similar levels in medieval European guild system) Note: the Dreyfus Model lists five levels of skill acquisition: Beginner,Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuhari http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_craftsman http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreyfus_model_of_skill_acquisition
  35. 35. Six maturity levels (for discipline) Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.” Variable “We do whatever we feel like at the moment.” Routine “We follow our routines (except when we panic).” Steering “We choose among our routines by the results they produce.” Anticipating “We establish routines based on our past experiences.” Congruent “Everyone is involved in improving everything all the time.” Gerard Weinberg, Quality Software Management: SystemsThinking (Alternative: six similar levels in “Agile Made Us Better…” by Ross Petit) http://www.amazon.com/Quality-Software-Management-Systems-Thinking/dp/0932633226/ http://www.thoughtworks.com/agile-made-us-better
  36. 36. Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
  37. 37. 1. Self-development People must learn... urgence vs. importance time management boosting memory finding motivation
  38. 38. 2. Coaching Hire external coaches Develop competency leaders Note: manager != coach
  39. 39. 3. Certification By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but... it can catalyze all other competency measures
  40. 40. 4. Social pressure Let people identify with a small group Give them shared responsibility for shared goals
  41. 41. 5. Adaptable tools Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports
  42. 42. 6. Supervision Have someone sample/check the products of teams
  43. 43. 7. Management One-on-ones to assess problem situations 360 degree meetings to assess collaboration
  44. 44. 1. Self-Development 2. Coaching 3. Certification 4. Social Pressure 5. AdaptableTools 6. Supervision 7. Management 7 Approaches to competency development
  45. 45. Wake up call!
  46. 46. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  47. 47. The workplace is a network
  48. 48. Individual competence “We learned that individual expertise did not distinguish people as high performers.What distinguished high performers were larger and more diversified personal networks.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
  49. 49. Individual competence “Engineers are roughly five times more likely to turn to a person for information as to an impersonal source such as a database.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
  50. 50. “Archetypes” of communicators Hubs draw information and broadcast it Gatekeepers carefully managing information flows Pulsetakers great observers of people Karen Stephenson QuantumTheory ofTrust. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd, 2005
  51. 51. “Types” of communicators Connectors exchange information with many people Mavens invest more time in people Salesmen masters of interpersonal communication Malcolm Gladwell TheTipping Point. Boston: Back Bay Books, 2002
  52. 52. Scale-invariant networks (fractals) Best communication across all scales http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion
  53. 53. “The idea of “chunking”: a group of items is perceived as a single “chunk”.The chunk’s boundary is a little like a cell membrane or a national border. It establishes a separate identity for the cluster within. According to context, one may wish to ignore the chunk’s internal structure or take it into account.” Hofstadter, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach. NewYork: Basic Books, 1979 Forming teams
  54. 54. <- preferred Segmentation of teams
  55. 55. Design Principle 1 (DP1) (through a manager) Design Principle 2 (DP2) (not through a manager) Communication across teams (Fred Emery) <- preferred
  56. 56. Style Structure DP 1 Functional 1 (through manager) 2 Functional 2 (through team) 3 Cross-functional 1 (through manager) 4 Cross-functional 2 (through team)
  57. 57. Value units System administrators GUI designers Project Mgt Office Community of Practice Center of Excellence Human Resources ... Delivering value to teams
  58. 58. Wake up call!
  59. 59. Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies
  60. 60. Agenda Ideas for competence development 7 approaches to competence Communication and networks Introduction Conclusion Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!
  61. 61. Learn from systems
  62. 62. 1. Time 2. People 3. Tools 4. Functionality 5. Quality 6. Process 7. Value Develop competence in 7 dimensions
  63. 63. Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
  64. 64. 1. Self-Development 2. Coaching 3. Certification 4. Social Pressure 5. AdaptableTools 6. Supervision 7. Management Use 7 approaches to grow competency
  65. 65. Distinguish 4 styles for teams
  66. 66. Grow a value network (panarchy) A D C E B
  67. 67. “Insofar as the business environment is becoming more complex, firms will need to [...] shift away from bureaucracies and toward [...] internal competition (markets), the need for the large firm to behave as a small one (fiefs), and the importance of interpersonal networking (clans).” Max Boisot, “Complexity and the I-Space”, The Interaction of Complexity and Management.
  68. 68. the end
  69. 69. @jurgenappelo slideshare.net/jurgenappelo noop.nl linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo jurgen@noop.nl
  70. 70. www.management30.com
  71. 71. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/ This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.
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