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The Big-AssView on Competence
Jurgen Appelo
jurgen@noop.nl
version 3
(and Communication)
Jurgen Appelo
writer, speaker,
entrepreneur...
www.jurgenappelo.com
Goal 1:
How can we grow a competent organization?
Goal 2:
Can we manipulate communication to grow competence?
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake up!
Wake up!
Wake up!
Safest traffic in the world
Marshall Islands1.
San Marino2.
Malta3.
Iceland4.
Netherlands5.
Sweden6.
United Kingdom7.
Switzerland8.
Japan9.
Singapore10.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate
http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobjagendorf/4122137519/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/
We can learn how to
manage software teams
by studying management
of similar systems
(like traffic management)
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake up!
Wake up!
Wake up!
A collection of competing stimulus-response rules
that respond to input, and generate output
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_classifier_system
Learning classifier system
It has a performance system with credit assignment
where rules with good results are triggered more often
Learning classifier system
It achieves adaptability through rule discovery:
generation and recombination of building blocks
Learning classifier system
Learning classifier system
And thus we learn that…
Diversity of practices in a software team enhances adaptability
Subsidiarity principle
“The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central
authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those
tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate
or local level.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidiarity
Subsidiarity principle
And thus…
Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem
(team members decide unless there is some lack of competence)
Precautionary principle
Assuming that things are risky, in
the absence of evidence.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle
http://kwebble.com/blog/tag/haarlem
Precautionary principle
And thus…
Decide who has the burden of proof for competency
(assume team members are competent, unless proven they’re not)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/
Shared space
Increased risk perception
People are less mindful when they see no risks
Reduced false security / risk compensation
People show riskier behavior when they think they are safe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space
Shared space
And thus…
Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security
Memetics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memeplex
A memeplex is a collection of ideas grouped together because
copying them is more successful when they are “teamed up”
Memetics
And thus…
Adopting a named collection of practices (Scrum, XP, Kanban)
can be more successful than copying individual practices
Broken windows
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixing_Broken_Windows
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewin's_Equation
When broken windows are not repaired people have the tendency
to break more windows
Lewin’s Equation
B = f (P,E)
Behavior is a function of
personality and environment
Broken windows
And thus…
Address the small problems, not just the big ones
Agile Manifesto
On the 2nd page…
“Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design
enhances agility”
Excellence… how?
http://www.agilemanifesto.org/principles.html
But how do we
develop competence?
Wake up call!
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake up!
Wake up!
Wake up!
Maturity models (like the CMMI)?
Level 1: Initial Process is unpredictable
Level 2: Managed Process is often reactive
Level 3: Defined Process is proactive
Level 4: Qualitatively Managed Process is measured/controlled
Level 5: Optimizing Focus on process improvement
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration
“Many of these ‘Process Maturity’ models do not explicitly take into
account that organizations are complex social systems. If it is
performance that really counts, then we need to go beyond
maturity to look at how an organization develops business process
competence.”
Andrew Spanyi, “Beyond Process Maturity to Process Competence.”
http://processownercoach.com/To%20Process%20Competence.pdf
Maturity models (like the CMMI)?
Three maturity levels (for skill)
Shu traditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice)
Ha detachment, breaking with tradition (journeyman)
Ri transcendence, everything is natural (master)
(last column: three similar levels in medieval European guild system)
Note: the Dreyfus Model lists five levels of skill acquisition:
Beginner, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuhari
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_craftsman
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreyfus_model_of_skill_acquisition
Six maturity levels (for discipline)
Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.”
Variable “We do whatever we feel like at the moment.”
Routine “We follow our routines (except when we panic).”
Steering “We choose among our routines by the results they produce.”
Anticipating “We establish routines based on our past experiences.”
Congruent “Everyone is involved in improving everything all the time.”
Gerard Weinberg, Quality Software Management: SystemsThinking
(Alternative: six similar levels in “Agile Made Us Better…” by Ross Petit)
http://www.amazon.com/Quality-Software-Management-Systems-Thinking/dp/0932633226/
http://www.thoughtworks.com/agile-made-us-better
Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
1. Self-development
People must learn...
urgence vs. importance
time management
boosting memory
finding motivation
2. Coaching
Hire external coaches
Develop competency leaders
Note: manager != coach
3. Certification
By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but...
it can catalyze all other competency measures
4. Social pressure
Let people identify with a small group
Give them shared responsibility for shared goals
5. Adaptable tools
Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable
Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports
6. Supervision
Have someone sample/check the products of teams
7. Management
One-on-ones to assess problem situations
360 degree meetings to assess collaboration
1. Self-Development
2. Coaching
3. Certification
4. Social Pressure
5. Adaptable Tools
6. Supervision
7. Management
7 Approaches to competency development
Wake up call!
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake up!
Wake up!
Wake up!
The workplace is a network
Individual competence
“We learned that individual expertise did not
distinguish people as high performers.What
distinguished high performers were larger and
more diversified personal networks.”
Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
Individual competence
“Engineers are roughly five times more likely to
turn to a person for information as to an
impersonal source such as a database.”
Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004
“Archetypes” of communicators
Hubs draw information and broadcast it
Gatekeepers carefully managing information flows
Pulsetakers great observers of people
Karen Stephenson QuantumTheory ofTrust. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd, 2005
“Types” of communicators
Connectors exchange information with many people
Mavens invest more time in people
Salesmen masters of interpersonal communication
Malcolm Gladwell The Tipping Point. Boston: Back Bay Books, 2002
Scale-invariant networks (fractals)
Best communication across all scales
http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion
“The idea of “chunking”: a group of items is perceived as a
single “chunk”.The chunk’s boundary is a little like a cell
membrane or a national border. It establishes a separate
identity for the cluster within. According to context, one
may wish to ignore the chunk’s internal structure or take it
into account.”
Hofstadter, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach. New York: Basic Books, 1979
Forming teams
<- preferred
Segmentation of teams
Design Principle 1 (DP1)
(through a manager)
Design Principle 2 (DP2)
(not through a manager)
Communication across teams
(Fred Emery)
<- preferred
Style Structure DP
1 Functional 1 (through manager)
2 Functional 2 (through team)
3 Cross-functional 1 (through manager)
4 Cross-functional 2 (through team)
Value units
System administrators
GUI designers
Project Mgt Office
Community of Practice
Center of Excellence
Human Resources
...
Delivering value to teams
Wake up call!
Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies
Agenda
Ideas for competence development
7 approaches to competence
Communication and networks
Introduction
Conclusion
Wake up!
Wake up!
Wake up!
Learn from systems
1. Time
2. People
3. Tools
4. Functionality
5. Quality
6. Process
7. Value
Develop competence in 7 dimensions
Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
1. Self-Development
2. Coaching
3. Certification
4. Social Pressure
5. Adaptable Tools
6. Supervision
7. Management
Use 7 approaches to grow competency
Distinguish 4 styles for teams
Grow a value network (panarchy)
A
D
C
E
B
“Insofar as the business environment is becoming
more complex, firms will need to [...] shift away
from bureaucracies and toward [...] internal
competition (markets), the need for the large firm
to behave as a small one (fiefs), and the
importance of interpersonal networking (clans).”
Max Boisot, “Complexity and the I-Space”, The Interaction of Complexity and Management.
the end
m30.me/happiness
@jurgenappelo
slideshare.net/jurgenappelo
noop.nl
linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo
jurgen@noop.nl
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and
I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute
all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if
you think that anything in this presentation should be changed,
added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.

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