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The Zen of Scrum
Jurgen Appelo – jurgen@noop.nl
version 4
picture by ePi.Longo
Jurgen Appelo
writer, speaker,
entrepreneur...
www.jurgenappelo.com
Problems
Agile
Scrum Roles
Scrum Process
Hot Issues
Results
Agenda
Problems
with traditional software
development
photo by Jule_Berlin
Traditional
Phased development
Anticipated results
Up-front design
picture by jasonb42882
Requirements Not Clear
Fear to go to the next phase
Analysis paralysis
Requirements Change
Change gets more and more expensive
Customers don’t get what they want
Project Takes Too Long
32% of projects delivered successfully
Long duration defers revenue
(Source: Standish Report 2009)
No Time for Testing
Quality assurance gets crunched
Late integration means late failures
Time Wasted on Junk
52% of requirements implemented
64% of functionality rarely used
(Source: Standish Report 2003)
Poor Progress Visibility
% Task complete not sufficient
Average overrun 43%
(Source: Standish Report 2003)
Agile
software
development
Process Complexity (M)
Agile
projects
Chaotic
projects
Structured
projects
Agile Principles
1. Satisfy the Customer
2. Welcome Change
3. Deliver Frequently
4. Work as a Team
5. Motivate People
6. Communicate Face-to-Face
7. Measure Working Software
8. Maintain Constant Pace
9. Excel at Quality
10. Keep it Simple
11. Evolve Designs
12. Reflect Regularly
Agile Adoption
Agile Adoption
Scrum
picture by Kiwi Flickr
The Gurus
Ken Schwaber
Jeff Sutherland
Mike Beedle
Mike Cohn
Scrum Usage
Commercial software - In-house development
Contract development - Fixed-price projects
Financial applications - ISO 9001-certified applications
Embedded systems - 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime
Joint Strike Fighter - Video game development
FDA-approved, life-critical systems - Web sites
Satellite-control software - Handheld software
Mobile phones - Network switching applications
ISV applications - Some of the largest applications in use
http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com
The Goal
of Scrum
Manage Complexity, Unpredictability and Change
through Visibility, Inspection and Adaptation
picture by OnTask
Scrum
Roles
picture by exfordy
Product
Owner
Owner of project vision
Represents the customerpicture by Official Star Wars Blog
Product
Owner
Define features (according to vision)
Prioritize features (according to ROI)
Pick release dates
Give feedback
Manage stakeholders
Accept or reject results
The
Team
Small (5–9 people)
Colocated - Cross-functional
Self-organized - Full-timepicture by ewen and donabel
The Team
Define tasks
Estimate effort
Develop product
Ensure quality
Evolve processes
Scrum
Master
Servant leader
Team protector
Troubleshooter
Scrum guide
picture by Orange Beard
Scrum
Master
Remove impediments
Prevent interruptions
Facilitate the team
Support the process
Manage management
Pigs and Chickens
Product Owner
Scrum Master
Team Members
Users
Managers
Marketing
Scrum Process
Product Backlog
Express value
Defer decisions
picture by juhansonin
Product Backlog
sample from Eclipse.org
Product Backlog
Owned by Product Owner
High-level requirements
Expressed as business value
Not complete, nor perfect
Expected to change & evolve
Limited view into the future
Product Backlog
Includes rough
estimates
Prioritized by
value & risk
Publicly
visible
Better to describe
as user stories
User Stories
As a <user> I want <functionality>
( so that <benefit> )
As a librarian I want to be able to
search for books by publication year
Sprints
Timeboxed – Frozen features
Variable scope – Shippable result
Sprint Planning
Team capacity, Product backlog,
Current product, Business, Technologies
Goal =
+
picture by Darcy McCarty
Sprint Planning
Face-to-face communication
Small reversible steps
User’s perspective
Sprint Planning (Part 1)
Strategical level planning
Prioritize/select features
Discuss acceptance criteria
Verify understanding
½ - 1 hour
per sprint/week
Sprint Planning (Part 2)
Tactical level planning
Define sprint backlog items
Estimate sprint backlog items
Use velocity (Yesterday’s Weather)
Share commitment
½ - 1 hour
per sprint/week
Sprint Backlog
Breakdown of
business value into
assignable tasks
picture by oskay
Sprint Backlog
Sprint Backlog
Owned by the team
Team allocates work
No additions by others
Daily Scrum
The heartbeat of Scrum
picture by Hamed Saber
Daily Scrum
picture by Hamed Saber
Commitment and accountability
Say what you do, do what you say
Whole world is invited
Daily Scrum
What I did since last meeting
What I will do until next meeting
What things are in my way
Only the team talks
Not to Scrum Master
No problem solving
Max 15 minutes
Standing up
Task Board picture by Mountain Goat Software
Sprint
Definition of Done
Avoid the 90% syndrome
Coded, commented, checked in, integrated,
reviewed, unit tested, deployed to test
environment, passed user acceptance test
& documented...
= DONE DONE
Sprint Burn Down
picture by NibiruTech
Sprint Review
Satisfy Product Owner
Get feedback on productpicture by oskay
Sprint Review
picture by oskay
Informal, no slides
Whole team participates
The world is invited
Sprint Review
Preparation needed
Show complete features
Accept or reject results
1-2 hours
per sprint/week
Sprint
Retrospective
Evolve the process
picture by kevindooley
Sprint
Retrospective
Reflect on process and product
Whole team participates
Sprint Retrospective
What to start doing
What to stop doing
What to continue doing
(Product Owner not required)
Burn Down Chart
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
7-1-08
14-1-08
21-1-08
28-1-08
4-2-08
11-2-08
18-2-08
25-2-08
3-3-08
10-3-08
17-3-08
24-3-08
31-3-08
7-4-08
14-4-08
Features
Features Remaining Scope Target
Scope
change
Burn Up Chart
Scope keeps
expanding
Pipeline gets
fatter
Release Planning
Plan features in sprints and releases
Releases depend on accepted sprints
picture by Sviluppo Agile
Release Sprints
Usability testing
Documentation
Help files
Packaging
pictures by VistaICO
Sprint Termination
Only in extreme cases
Team terminates: cannot meet sprint goal
Product Owner terminates: priority change
Work reverted to end of prior sprint
Raises visibility of problems
picture by VistaICO
Sprints
Steady pull of business value
Inspect and Adaptpicture by kelsey e.
Sprints
picture by kelsey e.
Driven by Product Owner
Small reversible steps
Welcome change
Cross-functional team
Include design and testing
Maintain constant pace
Share commitment
High quality, DONE
Get feedback
“Fail fast”
Hot
Issues
Scrum vs. XP
picture by extremeprogramming.org
Scrum vs. RUP
picture by WittmannClan.com
Scrum vs. PRINCE2
picture by Mike Spain
Scrum vs. Kanban
picture by Lean Software Engineering
Scaled Scrum
(Scrum of Scrums)
picture by Mountain Goat Software
Distributed Scrum
Results
effects of
applying Scrum
Managed Uncertainty
Rolling wave planning
Simpler mini-projects lowers risk
Flexible Scope
Allow changes at fixed intervals
Releases enable learning
Faster Delivery
Shorter time to market
Value delivered in increments
Higher Quality
Testing happens continuously
Process improvement built-in
Eliminated Waste
Nothing is designed that is not built
Nothing is built that is not used
Increased Visibility
All problems are made visible
Progress is running tested software
More Fun, Happy Teams
picture by woodleywonderworks
Preconditions
Empowerment
Discipline
Courage
Stamina
Passion
Coaching
Stable Teams
Cross-Functional
Available Customer
picture by mpov
Disclaimer
No Engineering Practices
Looks Simple, Is Hard
No Silver Bullet
Not Complete
Takes Time
picture by a2gemma
Books
Sites
www.scrumalliance.org
www.scrum.org
www.mountaingoatsoftware.com
www.agilesoftwaredevelopment.com
www.noop.nl
picture by VistaICO
picture by -bast-
Q & A
m30.me/happiness
@jurgenappelo
slideshare.net/jurgenappelo
noop.nl
linkedin.com/in/jurgenappelo
jurgen@noop.nl
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and
I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute
all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if
you think that anything in this presentation should be changed,
added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl.

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