NIST, US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap, Volume II,
Release 1.0 (Draft)—Useful Information for Cloud Adopters, Nov. .2011.
Web Services and SOA
REST Services and WOA
Commoditization of Cloud Services
Aggregation of Cloud Services
Customization of Cloud Services
Integration with Legacy and Packages
Professional CSB services vs. CSB as a Service
– Professional CSB provides consulting, PaaS-based app development,
customization and integration services, often based on the vendor’s own
integration platform (based on third-party PaaS) and SaaS suite, with the
revenue created through value-based one-time pricing and subscription fee.
– CSB as a Service is often built on the vendor’s own platform or third-party
PaaS and IaaS
IaaS vs. SaaS Brokerage
1 could service : N customers, N:1 vs. N:M Brokerage
Wholesaler (CSB-enabling service) vs. Retailer (CSB)
SaaS SaaS Value-Added and
BlinkHR, Okta (IAM as a service), psHealth,
Skyvva, StrikeIron, Xignite
Amalto Technologies, Dell/Boomi, Covisint,
Exostar, Gcommerce, GXS, IBM/Cast Iron,
Liaison Technologies, Synnex
Cordys, E2open, eBuilder, Genpact
API Management as a
Layer 7, Mashery
IaaS IaaS Value-Added and
Besol Soluciones, Gravitant, Oxygen Cloud
M2M Brokerage Axeda
Cloud Marketplace Ingram Micro, Verecloud
CSB-Enabler Gravitant, Jamcracker, OS33, Parallels,
“We have made good business in
professional services helping clients
with Cloud strategies. We select SaaS
solutions and build both public and
private Cloud infrastructure and more
recently to re-platform and build
using PaaS. ”
Global Cloud Lead
Replace Apps by
Redeployment of the application to a different hardware environment
(VM and OS) and changing the application's infrastructure configuration
(e.g., moving J2EE apps to EC2 Linux instances from AWS).
Can work with systems where code modifications are impossible (e.g.,
COTS, code that cannot be rebuilt).
Replace an existing application by SaaS and migrate data to the SaaS
environment (e.g., adopting Google Apps for communication and
collaboration, Salesforce SalesCloud for SFA, WorkDay for HR process,
Coupa for spending management).
Users access SaaS via a user-centric interface, such as a Web browser or a
Running your applications (usually Web applications) on the cloud
provider’s cloud-enabling frameworks and management tools (e.g.,
Accenture helping eBay move Java apps for iPad Marketplace to Azure
Necessary changes vary from none to widespread code changes to invoke
Rebuild your solution on a provider's application platform while discarding
code for an existing application (e.g., Hitachi Solutions helping Japan Post
rebuild customer-facing apps on Force.com platform).
Developer productivity is improved with tools that allow application
templates and data models to be customized, metadata-driven engines,
and communities that supply prebuilt components.
Modifying the existing codebase to support legacy modernization
requirements, then use rehost or refactor options to deploy to the cloud
(e.g., COSCO in China redesigning mission-critical apps into service-
oriented architecture and then deploying on its private cloud).
Scan cloud technologies and services that may have value
propositions and use cases for your company.
Narrow down to focus areas of cloud service that seem
to have clear benefits to your business.
Form a cross-functional team for in-depth study of
Have the EA team set strategic visions, goals, policies and
principles for cloud adoption.
Assess the current state and maturity level of each focus
area and evaluate the readiness for transition to clouds.
Form a team for each area, consisting of EA, IT
specialists, business unit reps and financial analysts.
Select workloads (business processes, apps, platforms,
infrastructure) that are relatively ready for early
migration to public or private clouds.
Develop a multi-stage roadmap plan to acquire cloud
capabilities for each focus area.
Define the scope of each cloud projects so that a high
ROI can be obtained within 3-12 months.
Determine the vendor, service contract and SLA.
Estimate the total cost of ownership (TCO) to include
both capital and operational expenditures.
Estimate the benefit and compute ROI.
Write up the business case for each cloud project
specifying the benefits, goals and metrics.
Select and redesign business processes to use the chosen
Analyze the gaps between the to-be processes and the
cloud services and determine requirements for
Design the integration architecture to link between cloud
services and internal systems and between different cloud
services using SOA for backend and WOA for frontend
Add cloud-specific components to the EA such as
virtualization, B/OSS and iPaaS
Identify uses cases for both business end users and service
administrators, and non-functional requirements as well
Develop test plans to ensure functional and non-functional
quality of cloud services
Customize, if necessary, and implement the cloud services,
integrate them with internal systems, conduct system tests
and acceptance tests, and release the services for a pilot
Roll out to the full-scale adoption after stabilizing the
services through the pilot
Harvard Business Publishing (HBP) recently reinvented its business
incorporating new technologies such as digital media, e-learning and
In this adaptation to the era of digital media, HBP had to fundamentally
redesign business processes and convert contents for online search.
With the explosive use of digital contents HBP needed to scale servers
from 15 to 250 in a mere month.
HBP decided to move to a hybrid cloud with Amazon Web Services and
VMWare virtualization software.
To adopt public cloud, HBP first assessed its application portfolio. To make
the transition to cloud some apps needed code changes. HBP put legacy
apps or “technical debt” on a path to extinction.
HBP had to train and transition its staff to develop new skills fast. People,
not the technology, was its biggest problem.
In two years, HBP plans to fully transfer everything to the cloud and no
services will be deployed in the traditional environment.
Adidas Latin America decided to
implement cloud-based procurement
software to improve internal compliance
and consolidate spending management.
It decided on Coupa for its multinational
support, total cost of ownership,
integration with the ERP system, and
capacity for customization.
It adopted an 80-20 attitude: “You will
never cover all the cases you need to
handle in one system; Address the most
common processes and keep it simple.”
It opted to add on Coupa's business
intelligence tool, the Spend Optimizer, so
employees can see on their own how
much they're spending and on what.
It shifted the ownership and workload
from finance to the people actually doing
It will soon centralize its spending
management and consolidate its business
with its vendors, leading to lower costs.
Its complex account structure made
integration between Coupa and SAP
difficult, but managed to solve it.
Change management was the biggest
challenge: “Our experience, especially in
Latin America, is that you have to get the
buy-in of the full organization, from the
warehouses to marketing to HR to IT.”
Coupa is currently used by Toyota, Coca
Cola, McDonald, Salesforce.com, Pandora,
Catholic Health Services, Cable & Wireless,