Session 17 ic2011 venditti
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Session 17 ic2011 venditti Session 17 ic2011 venditti Presentation Transcript

  • Jesse Daystar, Richard Venditti, Hasan Jameel, Mike Jett North Carolina State University Forest Biomaterials DepartmentForest Products Society’s 65th International Convention on June 19-21, 2011 in Portland, Oregon.
  • CORRIM Biofuels Research• Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Oil • Gasification Ethanol • Bioconversion
  • Outline Introduction Research Objective and Goal LCA Approach  Goal and Scope  Boundaries  Data collection Results Conclusions
  • Thermochemical Conversion: Biomass to Biofuels Gasification: conversion of organic or fossil materials at high temperature without combustion to produce high energy synthetic gas The synthetic gas can be  burned for energy  reacted to produce liquid fuels Advantage: feedstock flexibility (SW, HW, agric resid, wastes)
  • Gasification Flow Sheet
  • Research Objective and Goal 6
  • EISA Renewable Fuel Volum Cellulosic Biom Year biofuel requirement req 2008 n/aFuel Mandates 2009 2010 n/a 0.1 Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007 2011 0.25 2012 0.5 Lifecycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA 2013 1.0 (percent reduction from 2005 baseline) 2014 1.75 2015 3.0 Renewable fuela 20% 2016 4.25 2017 5.5 Advanced biofuel 50% 2018 7.0 2019 8.5 Biomass-based diesel 50% 2020 10.5 2021 13.5 Cellulosic biofuel 60% 2022 16.0 2023+ b 7
  • Research Objectives Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) on forest residuals/thinnings to ethanol using a thermochemical conversion process (TC bioethanol) Determine the GHG savings versus gasoline Determine the energy produced per unit of fossil fuel energy input for the TC bioethanol process Logging slash: Fs.fed.us
  • LCA Goal: To estimate if a thermochemical conversion process of pine residuals to ethanol would meet the Renewable Fuel Standards (60% reduction) Requires GHG data and energy data Basis of Calculation required: Comparison of the production of 1 MJ of energy from gasoline and from ethanol
  • LCA Approach 10
  • LCA Boundary: Cradle to Grave System Boundary Process Chemicals Olivine MgO Molydbenum Feedstocks Conversion Process Distribution/Use Production Fuel transportation Biomass Gasification Transportation Combustion emissionsSequestered Carbon Landfill Waste Treatment Inorganic Ash Non-organic effluent
  • Key Assumptions: Forests/plantations sustainably managed Forest residue was a minor co-product and not assigned any burdens for growing timber Residue decomposition alternate scenario not considered Land use change not studied Equipment manufacture not considered Methane (25X) and N2O (298x) GHG potency wrt CO2 (IPCC, 2006)
  • Methods: Aspen Gasification Model(Mass and Energy Balances) Developed by NREL: S. Phillips, A. Aden, J. Jechura, and D. Dayton (2007) Published technical report  Thermochemical Ethanol Via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Facility size  772,000 dry tonnes of wood fed/year  About 60 gallons per Ton of OD wood  About 100 million gallons/year facility
  • Aspen Model Overview:
  • Material BalanceInput Stream lb/hr Ouput Stream lb/hrClear water chemicals 8.16E-01 Catalyst purge 1.07E+00Make up catalyst 1.07E+00 Vent to atmosphere 1.90E+00MgO 6.97E+00 Solid waste 7.94E+01Char combustor water 2.43E+02 Sulfur storage 1.13E+02Lo-Cat oxidizer air 2.72E+02 Air to atmosphere 2.80E+02Make up olivine 5.38E+02 Water to treatment plant 1.21E+03Steam make up water 3.25E+04 Sand fly ash 2.43E+03Cooling make up water 8.60E+04 Windage to atmosphere 8.16E+03Combustion air 2.63E+05 Higher alcohols 9.14E+03Feedstock 3.34E+05 Blow turbine blow down 1.70E+04Combustion air 4.30E+05 Ethanol product 5.07E+04Condensor water 4.08E+06 CO2 vent 5.47E+04 Flue gas stack 9.35E+05 Evaporated to atmosphere 4.23E+06Total in 5.22E+06 Total out 5.31E+06 % System closure 98.5%
  • Energy Balance  Boiler temperature adjusted such that the overall system purchased energy set to zero Boiler Temp Energy +/- GHG Data Environmental andFeedstock Data Process Simulation Alcohol Products Adjust Boiler Temp Economic Analysis Economic data Alcohol Products
  • Emissions Data Sources Aspen model  Material and energy balance US LCI database emission factors  Process chemicals  Waste water treatment  Waste transportation  Inorganic landfill GREET emission factors  Fuel combustion
  • Results 18
  • GHG Emission Sources 100% Fuel Combustion 80% 35.90% Percent of Total GHG Emissions Fuel Transport 60% Fuel Production 40% Raw Materials 62.23% Raw Materail Transport 20% Sequestured Carbon 0% -20% -40% -86.95% -60% -80% -100% MJ Ethanol from Loblolly Pine
  • Global Warming Potential Cradle-to-grave 0.15 1.29E-01 kg CO2 Equivalents per MJ Fuel 0.1 8.66E-02 7.45E-02 7.45E-02 0.05 2.71E-02 4.57E-03 7.24E-03 3.07E-04 1.58E-04 0 3.46E-03 1.58E-04 -0.05 Gasoline -0.1 Ethanol From Pine -0.15 -0.2 -1.80E-01 Total Sequestured Raw Materail Raw Materials Fuel Fuel Fuel Carbon Transport Production Transport Combustion Axis Title
  • Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass toEthanol: 69% reduction in GHG Lifecycle GHG Thresholds120% Specified in EISA 100% (percent reduction from100% 2005 baseline)80% Renewable 20%60% Gasoline fuela Advanced40% 31% Ethanol 50% biofuel20% Biomass- 50% based diesel 0% Global Warming Potential Cellulosic 60% biofuel
  • Sensitivity Analysis Evaluated raw material characteristics effects with ASPEN model simulations: Δ (kg CO2)/Δ(% Moisture Content )= 1.0  45% MC is 69% reduction  50% MC is 62% reduction  55% MC is 54% reduction Δ (kg CO2)/Δ(% Ash Content )= 0.8 MC and Ash (and not chemical composition) correlated with model results within the set of hybrid poplar, hardwoods, pine, eucalyptus, corn stover, switchgrass, miscanthus
  • Fossil Fuel Depletion:4 units of energy produced/1 unit of fossil fuel input 1.26 0.24
  • Biomass Gasification for Electricity:16 units of energy produced/1 unit of fossil fuel input Life Cycle Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Combined-Cycle System, Margaret K. Mann, Pamela L. Spath, NREL, 1997
  • Conclusions Biomass growth and emissions during thermochemical conversion dominate the GHG balance for biothenol production Production and use of TC bioethanol reduces GHG emissions by 69% relative to gasoline, qualifies as cellulosic biofuel The production of TC bioethanol produces 4 units of energy per 1 unit of fossil fuel consumed, lower yield than biomass gasification to electricity
  • Acknowledgements Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials Department of Energy Maureen Puettmann – SimaPro assistance
  • Introduction 27
  • CO2 and Temperature 6 320 4 300 2 280 CO2 (ppmv) 0Temperature 260 -2 240 -4 220 -6 -8 200 -10 180 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 Time (ybp) Rohling et al. 2009. Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the last five glacial cycles. Nature Geoscience 2:500.
  • EISA Renewable Fuel Volume Requirements (billion gallons) Cellulosic Biomass-based Advanced Total renewable Year biofuel diesel biofuel fuel requirement requirement requirement requirement 2008 n/a n/a n/a 9.0 2009 n/a 0.5 0.6 11.1 2010 0.1 0.65 0.95 12.95 2011 0.25 0.80 1.35 13.95 2012 0.5 1.0 2.0 15.2 2013 1.0 a 2.75 16.55 2014 1.75 a 3.75 18.15 2015 3.0 a 5.5 20.5 2016 4.25 a 7.25 22.25 2017 5.5 a 9.0 24.0 2018 7.0 a 11.0 26.0 2019 8.5 a 13.0 28.0 2020 10.5 a 15.0 30.0 2021 13.5 a 18.0 33.0 2022 16.0 a 21.0 36.0 2023+ b b b b
  • Predicted GHG Reductions • 138 million metric tons CO2e/year by 2022 • Equivalent to removing 27 million vehicles off the road. • 254.4 million registered passenger vehicles in the US, 2007 DOT 30
  • Biofuel GHG Studies GHG GHG Feedstock Displacement % S Feedstock Displacement % S Switchgrass -114 1 Corn -86 9 Switchgrass combustion compared with coal combustion -109 2 Corn-soy -38 10 Miscanthus (gasification) -98 3 Corn (starch) -25 11 Switchgrass -93 4 Corn (starch) -24 12 Switchgrass -73 5 Corn -3 13 Switchgrass -11 6 Corn (starch) 66 14 Switchgrass 43 7 Corn (starch) 93 15 Switchgrass 50 8Sources: 1(Adler, Grosso et al. 2007), 2(Ney and Schnoor 2002), 3(Lettens, Muys et al. 2003), 4(Schmer, Vogel et al. 2008), 5(Wu, Wu et al. 2006),6(Lemus and Lal 2005), 7(Delucchi 2006), 8(Searchinger, Heimlich et al. 2008), 9(Delucchi, 2006), 10(Adler, Grosso et al. 2007) 11(DiPardo 2004),12(Wu, Wu et al. 2006), 13(Niven 2005), 14(Delucchi, 2006), 15(Searchinger, Heimlich et al. 2008) (Table modified from Davis et al 2009)
  • Previous GHG Studies GHG GHG Feedstock Displacement % S Feedstock Displacement % S Switchgrass -114 1 Corn -86 9 Switchgrass combustion compared with coal combustion Average GHG 2reductions -109 Corn-soy -38 10 Miscanthus (gasification) -98 3 Corn (starch) -25 11 Switchgrass Cellulosic: 59% (starch) -93 4 Corn -24 12 Switchgrass -73 5 Corn -3 13 Corn: 2.2% Switchgrass -11 6 Corn (starch) 66 14 Switchgrass 43 7 Corn (starch) 93 15 Switchgrass 50 8Sources: 1(Adler, Grosso et al. 2007), 2(Ney and Schnoor 2002), 3(Lettens, Muys et al. 2003), 4(Schmer, Vogel et al. 2008), 5(Wu, Wu et al. 2006),6(Lemus and Lal 2005), 7(Delucchi 2006), 8(Searchinger, Heimlich et al. 2008), 9(Delucchi, 2006), 10(Adler, Grosso et al. 2007) 11(DiPardo 2004),12(Wu, Wu et al. 2006), 13(Niven 2005), 14(Delucchi, 2006), 15(Searchinger, Heimlich et al. 2008) (Table modified from Davis et al 2009)
  • LCA Boundary: Cradle to Grave: Residue Collection and Chipping Feedstock Transportation Thermochemical Conversion Process Ethanol Distribution Combustion Logging slash:ysc.nb.ca
  • Upstream and Waste Emissions 30 25 Kg CO2 eq / hour 20 15 10 5 0 MgO Olivine Molydbenum Waste Landfill Landfill treatment transportation
  • Global Warming Potential: 2005 Study Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) with CO2 removal. Matteo Carpentieri *, Andrea Corti, Lidia Lombardi, Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2005) 1790–1808
  • Global Warming Potential: 1997 Study Life Cycle Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Combined-Cycle System, Margaret K. Mann, Pamela L. Spath, NREL, 1997