Insights on Sustainability: Unica´s Vision


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Presentation of Marcos S. Buckeridge for the “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”
Apresentação de Alfred Szwarc realizada no “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”

Date / Data : May 14 - 15th 2009/
14 e 15 de maio de 2009
Place / Local: ABTLuS, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento:

Published in: Technology, Business
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Insights on Sustainability: Unica´s Vision

  1. 1. Insights on Sustainability: Unica’s Vision Alfred SzwarcWorkshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle Campinas – May 14th, 2009
  2. 2. ABOUT UNICA• UNICA is the leading sugarcane industry association, representing 127 mills in Brazil (most in the São Paulo State)• Responsible for over. 50% of all ethanol and sugar production in Brazil• Emerging as a leader in the generation of bioelectricity• International presence, now in Washington & Brussels, to engage in constructive dialogue
  4. 4. Best Agricultural and Environmental Practices  Low levels of soil losses due to semi- perennial nature of sugarcane  Increased soil conservation and retencia as result of mechanisation, part of the straw being left on the field as organic matters. Reduced use of pesticides  Low irrigation in Centre-South Almost no use of fungicides  Decrease in water use in Biological control of plague industrial processing Use of vignasse  Over 140,000 ha PPAs in São Paulo StatePaulo
  5. 5. Innovation & Productivity• New sugarcane varieties• Process improvements & New technologies• Cellulosic ethanol Sugarcane Juice +Conventional 1 hectare 7,000 liters of ethanol Molasses 12,500 liters of Sugarcane Juice ethanol... or moreConventional 1 hectare + Molasses + (7,000 L from juice ++ Cellulose Bagasse + Straw 5,500 L from bagasse and straw)
  6. 6. Sugar, Bioethanol and Bioelectricity Plant in Brazil Ethanol Distillery Sugar plant storage Cellulose ethanol Bagasse tanksSugar canefieldStraw (tops & leaves)
  7. 7. Ethanol makes 50% of transport fuels in Brazil Gasoline Ethanol Petrol and ethanol consumption in Brazil – Source ANP and UNICA
  8. 8. Environmental Merits Selected Fuel Characteristics Ethanol GasolineSulfur content & sulfur compounds   $$emissionCO2 , CO, VOC and fine particles  NOx  Volatility / Toxicity of fuel & combustion   $$productsLife-cycle Greenhouse impact   $$Renewability  Biodegradability in soil & water   $$
  9. 9. Energy Balance Feedstock Renewable Energy Output / Fossil Energy Input Wheat (EU) 1.2 Cassava (Asia) 1.2 Sugar Beet (EU) 1.9 Corn (USA) 1.3 - 1.8 Sugar Cane (Brazil) 9.3* (11.6 in 2020) Gasoline/Diesel 0.8** - 1.15***Source: F.O. Licht, Macedo, I et alii 2008*, Argonne National Laboratory 2002**, Personal Information from Petrobras***
  10. 10. Life Cycle Analysis (Well-to-Wheel) Well - to - Tank Tank - to - WheelE Land UseT Processing CultivationH StorageA HarvestingN Transportation Transportation FuelingOL Storage Distribution Combustion Feestock-related Fuel-related Use-related Stages Stages StagesG Storage DistributionA CombustionS Transportation Transportation FuelingO Oil extractionL StorageI Area Use RefiningN Oil FieldE development
  11. 11. Life Cycle GHG EmissionsFarming & Harvesting Estimated values refer to 1,000 liters of Emission: 2,961 kg ethanol and equivalent volume of gasoline (corrected for energy content).Sugarcane Processing Emission: 3,604 kg Sugarcane Growth Uptake: 7,650 kg Road Transport Emission: 50 kg Bioelectricity generation Gasoline Life-cycle Vehicle Operation Uptake: 225 kg Emission: 2,280 kg Emission: 1,520 kgTotal: 8,135 kg CO2 Total: 7,875 kg CO2Net emission: 260 kg CO2 (89% of gasoline emission) Source: Macedo, I., 2008
  12. 12. Life Cycle GHG by Feedstock Emissions avoided as the result of ethanol replacing gasoline Ethanol from grains Ethanol from sugar Ethanol from sugar (US / EU) beet (EU) cane (Brazil) 0% -20% -40% -60% -80%-100%Note: Reductions in well-to-wheel CO2-equivalent GHG emissions per km, from bioethanol comparared to gasoline,calculated on a life-cycle basis. Source: IEA – International Energy Agency (May, 2004), based on a review of recentarticles. Prepared by Icone and Unica.
  13. 13. Life Cycle GHG by Feedstock 0.25 Source :International Council on Clean Transportation, Kodjak, D., 2006 U.S. (g/Btu) 0.2 Canada (g/Btu) Brazil (g/Btu) 0.15g CO2 / Btu 0.1 0.05 0 e el s s s m as or n or n e en t n en t n i ty rt rt al al n lin es nd nd nd eu G an tio tio ri c po po oc oc tio so Di Sa Sa Sa trol al ll C ll C rc rm ica rm ica ct ex ex /L /L uc a r il il il tu r i i ga Fe if Fe if El e zil il nd nd od G l fu O O lO Pe M et M Su s as s as ra az La La Pr te d Su in e G se m Na Dr y W m as s G as s G /B Br g w sil ul a w ol RF ie fro m m ro om as om as nd nd / ist in e s rm Lo as rD f ro ro ro m lf Bi Bi La -N Fo fo -0.05 lG fu PG G lf lf no y io m nt io m g La Ex e w l L no ha d - n Lo Re na Su CN no oo B la tB in ew Ca al io ha ha Et dy lP an ist -N ne n er nt ow Et Et lW oo no Pl Ex e Ca g ar C or d nv e L no W ha ol - n r Su ol Fe ha ol Et an ne Ca ga Co Et an th Ca ar Su an h E g th Et ga r Su E Su
  14. 14. CALIFORNIA’S LOW CARBON FUELS STANDARD (LCFS) Grams of CO2 per megajouleSource: California Air Resources Board’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard, March 2009.
  15. 15. Grams of CO2 per megajoule LCFS WITH “INDIRECT LAND USE” PENALTY GTAP using ILUCSource: California Air Resources Board’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard, March 2009.
  16. 16. SUGARCANE “INDIRECT LAND USE” EFFECTSource: UNICA, California Air Resources Board’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard, March
  17. 17. EU Directive on Renewable Energy Sources
  18. 18. The Challenges of the EU Directive• Lack of clarity remains with regards to : • The definition of highly biodiverse grasslands; • The definition of a methodology to identify degraded lands; • Criterias on conservation practices data (re. soil, water, air) which will be provided • Guidance as per criteria implementation• These definitions will be adopted up to 2010• Despite the timeframe, various countries could initiate the incorporation of the Directive into national legislation this year, creating legal uncertainties over required criteria. This is clearly unacceptable for Brazil !• The lack of clear definitions prevents the sector to progress in the development of a certification scheme that responds to the European demands.
  19. 19. The “Babel’ of Ethanol Certification National Certifications Directive on Renewable Energy Sources Directive on Renewable Energy Sources European Union European Union Meó Consulting // ISCC Meó Consulting ISCC German Government German Government Numerous initiatives RTFO RTFO to verify and certify UK Government UK Government ethanol RFS // LCFS RFS LCFS US Government US Government PBCB PBCB How to deal with this Brazilian Government Brazilian Government situation? Institutional Certifications RSB RSB Proliferation of diverse Based in Switzerland Based in Switzerland certification schemes is counterproductive: Limits BSI BSI Based in the UK Based in the UK investments, especially in developing countries Private Certifications SEKAB, GREENERGY SEKAB, GREENERGY Sweden, UK Sweden, UKv. mar09
  20. 20. Sustainability initiatives for biofuels: A universe in constent expansion... No same attention for other agriculture products use. Are they sustainable per se? SUSTAINABLE  BIOFUELS INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL  NATIONAL BODIES  MULTISTAKEHOLDER INITIATIVES INITIATIVES EU Directives  IDB IFC OCDE IEA G8 +5 FAO UNEP ISO NL UK DE SE USA BR ScorecardCRAMER RTFO SEI LCFS PBCB Equator T ask 39 Prop. Meó/ISCC  Principles  GBEP RSB ABNT+DIN Cramer  Renewable Transport  Low Carbon  Brazilian Biofuels  Liquid Biofuels  Global Bioenergy  Commission  Fuel Obligation  Biofuel Quota Law‐ Biofuel Quota Law‐ Stockholm  Round Table  Fuel Standard  Certification Program from Biomass Partnership  on Sustainable  Ordinance  for sustainability  Environment  requirements  Institute PRIVATE  Biofuels Greenergy RFS INMETRO BANKS CEN VERIFIED SUSTAINABLE Renewable  Fuel Standard  ETHANOL European  RTRS Committee for  Low CVP Fuels BSI RSPOStandardization SEKAB BAFF Better Sugarcane  Roundtable on  Roundtable on  Initiative Sustainable Palm Oil  Responsible Soy IB Sistema de Verificação. da  Sistema de Verificaç SDGPrepared by UNICA Atividade Agropecuária Atividade Agropecuá Sugarcane  WWFv. mar09 Discussion Group
  21. 21. The Green Protocol in São Paulo State Signed between the São Paulo state government and UNICA in June 2007. Mills and sugarcane suppliers are involvedProtocol Guidelines Elimination of sugarcane straw burning by 2014. Approximately 50% of the harvest is already mechanized Protection of river side woods and recovering of those near water streams (APPs) Adoption of technical plans for soil conservation and water resources Measures to reduce air emissions New sugarcane areas must be harvested mechanically.
  22. 22. UNICA-FERAESP Protocol Signed in February 2006 with the objective to enhance the working conditions of the sugarcane sector workers, and to evaluate and recommend best practices for the following areas: 1. Gradual elimination by 2011 of the practice of outsourcing in the sugarcane manual cutting 2. Improvement in the transport system for rural workers 3. Transparency in the systems of labor evaluation and payment in the production of sugarcane.
  23. 23. Average Wage in Different CropsSources: HOFFMANN, R e OLIVEIRA, F. C. R. Evolução da remuneração das pessoas empregadas na cana-de-açúcar e em outras lavouras,no Brasil e em São Paulo. Piracicaba: ESALQ. 2008.
  24. 24. Social Responsibility World  Program of Social Responsibility and Sustainable Bank Competitiveness Institute  Sustainable Partnership Program Social Balance Program IBASE IBASE  Between 2003 and 2005 47 mills participated in the program  70 mills in 2007 GRI Report Social GRI  10 mills in 2007Responsibility Ethos Indicator of Business Social Responsibility Institute  First phase: 33 mills  Second phase: 30 mills Project Partneships: IDB/FUMIN / INST. ETHOS / UNICA Tear  Usina Santaelisa Vale
  25. 25. Social-Environmental Projects Developed by UNICA’s Members in 2007 Number of Total people benefitted by Investments projects the projects R$ million % Training 154 31.529 5,1 3% Health 89 83.340 79,7 50% Life quality 62 50.777 7,5 5% Environment 103 10.319 40,7 26% Sport 30 9.010 1,1 1% Education 114 15.866 19,9 13% Culture 66 279.418 3,9 2% Total 618 480.259 157,9 100Source: UNICA GRI report – preliminary results.
  26. 26. Sustainability Report Unica launched in 2008 the first Sustainability Report ever produced by an Association. The Report is based on the Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines (GRI) and the content was checked by GRI. The report is a proof of commitment to sustainability principles by a growing number of mills and shows governance transparency.
  27. 27. The Challenge of the Sustainability Uncertainties Despite of present sustainability issues, Unica believes that any fair evaluation of the Brazilian sugarcane industry will demonstrate that sugarcane and its energy by-products are a viable and sustainable alternative to complement existing energy sources.
  28. 28. Thank you !Obrigado !