Sdrhcon2011 reinhold

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Sdrhcon2011 reinhold

  1. 1. Rebuilding after Disasters: A Loss Mitigation Perspective Forest Products Society’sSustainable Disaster Relief Housing Conference October 28, 2011 Timothy Reinhold, Ph.D., P.E. IBHS Senior Vice President of Research & Chief Engineer
  2. 2. “Where building safety research leads to real-world solutions.”
  3. 3. IBHS MissionTo reduce the social and economic effectsof natural disasters and other propertylosses by conducting research andadvocating improved construction,maintenance and preparation practices.
  4. 4. Exponential Increase in $ Losses 70 (1990 dollars - Billions) 60 Insured Losses from 50 Hurricanes 40 30 20 10 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 DecadeSource:NOAA Data 1900 – 1990IBHS Data 2000 -
  5. 5. Building Performance ChainWhere You How You Build How Well You Build Maintain Retrofitting Loads & Construction & Design Maintenance Effects Installation Building Codes and Enforcement
  6. 6. Building Codes• are an important base for assuring a common measure of safety and performance• must address the risks inherent at the location• are minimum standards• based on sound engineering provide good structural performance
  7. 7. Hurricane Charley Experience 2004• Data from 5,200 policies written by one company in Punta Gorda and Port Charlotte• Permit data obtained from the Charlotte County• Wind speed estimates obtained from Applied Research Associates (Company that developed hurricane wind risk modeling used in ASCE 7)
  8. 8. Claim Frequency by Age of Home Frequency of Claims - Fraction of policies with Claims 0.7 Average = 36.4% 0.6Fraction of Policies 0.5 Average = 18.3% 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Year of Construction 1995 High Wind Standards
  9. 9. Strong Codes Reduce Claim Severity and Frequency Severity Frequency Pre 1996: $24/sf Pre 1996: 41 claims/100 policies - 42% - 60%1996 - 2004: 1996 - 2004:$14/sf 17 claims/100 policies 9
  10. 10. Amount of Roof Damage* Includes claimswith known damagetypes only, except 5% 100%for partial 25%covering/partial 90% 33%decking. 80% 70% % of 60% 51% Total Claim s 50% 48% 40% 30% 20% 20% 14% 10% 4% 0% Pre 1996 1996 - 2004 Building Code Category No Roof Damage Partial Covering Whole Covering Whole Covering with Decking 10
  11. 11. Interior Damage and ALE by Year of Construction Interior Damage, 0% 100% 11% 9% ALE ≥ 1 Month 90% 9% 80% 70% 47% Interior Damage,% Total 60% 51% ALE < 1 MonthClaims 50% 40% 30% 44% Interior Damage, 20% 29% No ALE 10% 0% Pre 1996 1996 - 2004 Building Code Category No Interior Damage 11
  12. 12. Garage Door Failures • Failed primarily due to lack of reinforcement and track bracing for design pressures • Some were also damaged by windborne debris
  13. 13. Newer HUD Building Codes
  14. 14. IBHS Voluntary Construction Standards Code Plus Bringing up to code
  15. 15. Code Plus Aspects for New Construction• Increases design loads for pertinent hazards• Performance based criteria with some prescriptive options• Paying attention to water penetration• Wind and/or hail impact resistant roofing• Formal design review• Connections, connections, connections• Verification through targeted inspections• Some insurance discounts are available in some markets (company by company)
  16. 16. Performance of FORTIFIED . . . For safer living ® Homes in Ike• Roof covering and sealed roof deck• Structural capacity• Water intrusion and water management
  17. 17. Fortified Designated Homes on Bolivar Peninsula
  18. 18. Fortified Designated Homes on Bolivar Peninsula
  19. 19. Fortified Designated Homes on Bolivar Peninsula
  20. 20. One Approach to a Sealed Roof Deck
  21. 21. A Different Type of Shingles
  22. 22. Gable End Failure
  23. 23. Inside Home with Gable End Failure
  24. 24. Signs of Water Intrusion
  25. 25. Signs of Water Intrusion
  26. 26. Objective science can – and does – significantly reduce property losses, injuries and deaths.
  27. 27. IBHS Research Center  Wind  Hail  Wildfire  Water
  28. 28. Large Test Chamber 145 ft W x 145 ft L x 70 ft H test chamber 60 ft W x 30 ft H wind inlet 105 fans, each with 350 hp motors  Enough power for 9,000 homes  Flow volume = 20 X Niagara Falls High-speed cameras & TV lighting
  29. 29. Recreating Mother Nature in the LabWind Data Gathered in Field During Disasters Engineers Use Data to Recreate Actual Wind Scenarios in Lab 105 Fans Bring Scenarios to Life
  30. 30. Wind Simulation Capabilities Extra-tropical winds - frontal system or Nor’easter Hurricane-force winds - Category 1, 2, 3 Tornadoes - vortex edge conditions Thunderstorms - frontal winds
  31. 31. Initial Major Research Focus• Roofs = 1st line of defense against many natural hazards – Wind – Wind driven rain – Wind driven ember (firebrand) attacks – Hail• Wind Loads and Wind Effects• Current Test Standards and Ratings
  32. 32. Roof Covering Failures95% of Homes w/ Claims52% of $ in Claims
  33. 33. 3-Tab Shingle Permit Survey Post Charley Replacement
  34. 34. Wind-Driven Rain ~ 8 in. per hour Spray nozzle
  35. 35. Drainage system in the attic to collect water thatentered though vents and, after roof shingles wereblown off / removed, through the roof deck.
  36. 36. Water collection system in living space; 50 – 2’ x 10’collection zones in the duplex
  37. 37. Water Intrusion through Soffits Covered Open
  38. 38. Water Intrusion: Gable End Vent At a wind speed of 30 mph+Water Entry Rate for Open Vent = Wind-driven Water Deposition Rate
  39. 39. Water Entry Through Openings: Roof On Opening Open Soffit Vinyl Vented Gable EndDirection & Wind Head On 45 Head On 45 Head On Speed Accumulation Inch / hr miles/hour Inch / hr Relative to Open Soffit (% wall (% wall deposition) deposition) 50 1.3 (15) 1.6 (20) 6% 3% ~8 (100%) 70 2.9 (33) ----- 25% ----- -----
  40. 40. Water Intrusion: Exposed Roof Sheathing Water entry through sealed roof deck ~ 1/3 that through unsealedroof deck. Water entry through un-taped roof deck >> water entry throughopenings at eave and gable end.
  41. 41. Examples of water entry into living space
  42. 42. Consequences of Water Entry
  43. 43. Loss Estimates Unsealed Roof Deck = 3 X GreaterFurniture Cleaning versus Replacement ($16,935 vs. $5,408)
  44. 44. Thank you! Questions?www.DisasterSafety.org
  45. 45. DISCLAIMERIBHS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY, IN NEGLIGENCE, TORT OROTHERWISE WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY OF THEINFORMATION AND/OR PRACTICES DESCRIBED IN THISSLIDESHOW. ALTERATIONS OR MODIFCATIONS TO ANY OFTHE CONTENT OF THIS SLIDESHOW ARE THE SOLERESPONSIBILITY OF THE PERSON AND/OR BUSINESSMAKING SUCH ALTERATIONS OR MODIFICATIONS. NOTHINGCONTAINED IN THIS SLIDESHOW IS INTENDED OR WRITTENTO BE USED, NOR MAY IT BE RELIED UPON OR USED, BY ANYPERSON AND/OR BUSINESS AS LEGAL ADVICE.

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