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Major philosopy propositions
 

Major philosopy propositions

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    Major philosopy propositions Major philosopy propositions Presentation Transcript

    • SYNTHESIS OF PHILOSOPHY(Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) From Donald J. Butler’s book: Four Philosophies and Their Practices in Education and Religion Compiled by JOHNY S. NATAD © 2009 http://johnysnatad.wordpress.com
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGY AXIOLOGY ISM IN RELIGION ISM IN EDUCATION STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES • Nature is all • There is no • To preserve • Reduces Religion to • Education must • Contributes a • Oversimplifies there is, and all higher tribunal natural goodness a phenomenon of satisfy the inborn simplifying life and existenceNATURALISM basic truths are for truth than and virtue human experience needs of the influence, and does not go truths of nature natural itself • God is that individual neutralizing deep enough in • Nature is good; • Science is the structure in the • Education is confusion of self its attempted society is evil best way to world which makes geared to the and society effect explanations and crafty explore the possible the individual growth measurable • Nature offers us processes of the realization of values • Education is not benefits freedom and universe and simply mental in necessity, if we that those nature live close to her; processes are society offers what modern tyranny and science is authority striving to • Nature has understand smooth-flowing rhythms which choose their own timeSynthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 2
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) Naturalism Proposition • Nature is all the reality there is. (Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius, and Spencer) • Reality is comprised of bodies moving in space. (Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius, and Hobbes) • Ultimate reality is force or energy. (Spencer) • The most acceptable life is possessed by keeping close to the simple and peaceful ways of natur (Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius, and Rousseau)Synthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 3
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism)PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGY AXIOLOGY ISM IN RELIGION ISM IN EDUCATION STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES • Reality is • Knowing is the • Values are • Religion provides • The curriculum is • Can live with • The abundance spiritual or rethinking of absolute and structure for based upon the idea science, value it, ofIDEALISM mental and latent ideas eternal intellectualizing or assumption of and join in its misconceptions unchanging • All knowledge is • Values are religious faith and the spiritual nature advancement, • The idea about • All of reality is independent of rooted either in a experience of man but at the same man is irrelevant reducible to one sense experience personal God or • A subject –matter time it can also in our present fundamental • The act of in an impersonal or curriculum must insist, as it doer, historic setting substance – spirit knowing takes spirit force of emphasize the great on the • It is subjective to • Matter is not place within the nature and enduring ideas superiority of the which nothing real, rather it is a mind of the culture human and exists except in notion, an illus- • The mind is • Subjects must be personal over the mind of the trations of the active and essential for the scientific individual mind contains innate realization of achievement • It is only the capacities for mental and moral mind that is real organizing and development synthesizing the data derived through sensationSynthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 4
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) Idealism Proposition • Ultimate reality is of the same substance as ideas. (Plato and Hegel) • Behind the phenomenal world is an infinite Spirit that is both substructure and creator of cosmos. (Leibniz and Berkeley) • One of the two attributes of God is thought. (Spinoza) • The existence of God is made necessary by certain factors in selfhood – The fact that I have an idea of perfect being necessitates that perfect being exist. (Descartes) The fact that I have perceived qualities in the objective world necessitates a God to create these qualities. (Berkeley) The fact that there is a category of imperatives in self necessitates God as the one who guarantees contentment as the accompaniment of moral obedience.(Kant) On selfhood • The self is the prime reality in the experience of a person. (Descartes, Berkeley, and Kant) • Human selves are like God that there are spirits, unlike Him in that they are finite. (Leibniz) • Man as a thinking being is a part of God. (Spinoza) • The human self has freedom of will. (Leibniz and Kant) On knowledge • By examining his own ideas and testing their consistency, man can achieve truth. (Plato, Leibniz, and Hegel) • The self reads meaning and unity into the objective. • Value and meaning are obtained by relating parts and an whole. (Spinoza)Synthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 5
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism)PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGY AXIOLOGY ISM IN RELIGION ISM IN EDUCATION STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES • Reality consists • Knowledge is • Values are simply • There is basis for • A pupil shall be • Whatever is • Reality isREALISM of many independent on indefinable worship of a God taught with strong real is capable of substances mind • A value is depend- who is real in states of personal independent interpretation (pluralism) • The instrument of ent upon the actual world discipline of every • Embrace • There is knowledge are ex- attitude of sentient • Pupil must be finite pluralism in privation of will perience (sensory – • Anything consistent provided with individual preference to a (free will) perceptual with nature is essential who may more or • The self consists experience); valuable knowledge re- know it essence side of body authoritarianism • Standards of value quired for survival • Realism • Conception of (material (church, school and are found in natural world demands and pupil is not principle) and state, and revela- (determine) by • Curriculum is best recognizes of adequate soul (rational- tion) means of act of organized relation to • Realism spiritual • At birth, the mind reason according to sub- that which is places too principle) in of man is blank • Value judgment is ject – matter beyond self much man • (tabula rasa) never considered to • Curriculum should confidence in • The world is • Man can be factual, it is a also emphasized transmission made of real, capitalized on this subjective judgment the effects of the of content substantial, and knowledge by based on feeling social environment • Too much material entities using reason to • Accepted values on the individual’s stress upon the discover objects & conforms with the life formation of relationships which prevailing opinion • Subjects are taught the pupil he does not or of society by a teacher who is cannot perceive • Prevailing opinion impersonal and • Common sense of society reflects objective and shows that it is the status quo of knows the subject reasonable to social reality fully assume that objects • Social reality • The teaching exist independent represents the truth method of one’s mind and that is out there, recommended are that man can beyond the mind authoritative discover these things by using sensesSynthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 6
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) REALISM Proposition On the Physical Word • Nature is a primary self evident reality, a starting point in philosophizing. (Aristotle) • The physical world is real, at least for the duration of the temporal order. (Saint Thomas and Descartes) • There is no thought without extension. (Spinoza) • The primary qualities of experience exist in the physical world. (Locke) • There is something which produces my sensations and perceptions, the thing-in-itself, which cannot be known to be mental character. (Kant) On the Character of Mind • Mind is like a mirror receiving images from the physical world. (Comenius) • The mind of a child at birth is similar to a blank sheet of paper upon which the world proceeds to write its impression. (Locke) • Mind is a manifold of ideas and concepts. (Herbart) • Consciousness is not a substance, it is an awareness of experiences, and experience is a medium in which objects and organisms are related. (James)Synthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 7
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGY AXIOLOGY ISM IN RELIGION ISM IN EDUCATION STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES • Reality is the • Knowing results • Values are • There is no • School must aim at • Offers wise • Being practical interaction of an from experiencing situational or supernatural base developing those counsel for day- would sometimesPRAGMATISM individual with use of scientific relative for religious experiences that to-day living loose our moral environment or method • Ultimate values experience will enable one to which may help values experience: it is • Reason is the chief cannot exist for • Good and evil are lead a good life maintain mental • Not satisfactorily always changing instrument of truth is always dramatically • Advocate the health representing the • Reality cannot be knowledge relative and opposed to one importance of • Keep us close essence and proven, even if it • (Rationalism) conditional another by a democracy to experience existence of were, it wouldn’t • Truth is something • Value judgment precariously • Education must and to shelter individual help us solve that happens to an are useful as decisive world help its students for us artificial • The application of problems idea means to an become excellent of the cloistered experimental • Reality is • Knowing to make intelligent life citizens in a and formally method is arbitrary dependent upon personal choices democratic society academic being done to experience which • Teachers must • Helps to discern every individual determine provide experience the ways of • Radically negative knowledge that will excite experience and in its ontological • Man is both in motivation offers some meaning the world of his • School Curriculum source in the • Redefining perception must be part of control of religion as wisdom social context experience pointing to certain • Instruction • Has a great attitudes in organized around contribution in religious devotion, problem solving education in which are needed according to the giving for effective lying scientific method sensitivity to • Experimental the cycle of method is applied learning a bit more universal and arbitrary in educational methodSynthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 8
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism) PRAGMATISM Proposition • All things flow, nothing remains the same. (Heraclitus and Dewey) • It is impossible to gain knowledge of ultimate reality. (The Sophists and Dewey) • Hypothesis tested by experience constitute the nearest approach to knowledge which we have. (The Sophists and Dewey) • Science should become a special pursuit by being applied cooperatively to the study of all the problems of a man. (Bacon, Comte and Dewey) • In order to determine the meaning of an idea, it must be put into practice; the consequences which follow constitute the meaning of the idea. (James and Dewey)Synthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 9
    • Synthesis of Philosophy (Naturalism, Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism)PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGY AXIOLOGY ISM IN RELIGION ISM IN EDUCATION STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES • Reality is • Knowing to • Values should • Believing in God • Teaching • Freedom with • Standard ofEXISTEN- subjective with make personal be freely chosen is a matter of strategies must convergence or goodness variesTIALISM existence choices choice (Theistic or stimulate an responsibility from another preceding Atheistic) awareness that • There are a lot • One’s choice essence each person of opportunities may not be of • “Facticity” and creates a self- to explore others “existence” concept through nature and • Respect for precedes significant choices enhance oneself others is seldom essence • Teacher should out of the given considered help the student to freedom become for • Respect for himself what it is individual’s he wants to background become • Value formation • School assists and integration student in knowing are enliven themselves and through leaning their place decision – in society making and experience Source: Four Philosophies and Their Practices in Education and Religion By: Donald J. Butler http://johnysnatad.wordpress.comSynthesis of Philosophy Compiled by Johny S. Natad © October 2009 10