Fallacy of Particular Premises

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Fallacy of Particular Premises

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Fallacy of Particular Premises

  1. 1. Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic PHILO-1 Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Assignment Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy in Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic (Fallacy of particular premises) Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Prepared by: Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy Laarnie Grace Diwa & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic II-BEED Mary Grace V. Mancao Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & III-BSHM Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy Submitted to: Rusty Francis Genton & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic October 8,2012 Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic Philosophy & Logic
  2. 2. Syllogisms that violate this rule are said to commit the fallacy of the particular premises: Rule: No syllogism with a particular conclusion can have two universal premises. Example: All people who write about flowers are inhabited by fairies. All poets are people that write about flowers Therefore, some poets are inhabited by fairies. (Note: Neither UNIVERSAL premise of this AAI-1 syllogism establishes the existence of a single, individual poet, the MINOR term. Yet the conclusion asserts that "There exists at least one poet, such that, this poet is inhabited by ferries". Hence, this syllogism commits the EXISTENTIAL FALLACY.) Although it is possible to identify additional features shared by all valid categorical syllogisms (none of them, for example, have two particular premises), these six rules are individually NECESSARY and jointly SUFFICIENT to distinguish between all valid and invalid syllogisms in the complete set of 256 permutations and combinations of MOOD and FIGURE for standard form categorical syllogisms. From two particular premises, nothing follows. Example: Some men are old; Some old people are women Some women are men.
  3. 3. Some cows are animals; Some dogs are not cows Some dogs are not animals. Some delegates are not foreigners Some Americans are delegates Some Americans are not foreigners. Fallacy of Particular Premises The conclusion follows the weaker premise. All roses are flowers Some roses are fragrant All fragrant things are flowers All rebels are deviants Some students are not deviants Some students are rebels Fallacy of Universal Conclusion drawn from a Particular Premise Fallacy of Affirmative Conclusion drawn from a Negative Premise. Rule: If both premises are universal, the conclusion cannot be particular. Fallacy: Existential fallacy Example: All mammals are animals All tigers are mammals Some tigers are animals
  4. 4. Justification: On the Boolean model, Universal statements make no claims about existence while particular ones do. Thus, if the syllogism has universal premises, they necessarily say nothing about existence. Yet if the conclusion is particular, then it does say something about existence. In which case, the conclusion contains more information than the premises do, thereby making it invalid. The quantity of propositions Rule: at least one premise must be universal. Example: Every animal is mortal; But every dog is an animal; Therefore every dog is mortal. Rule: If the premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular.

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